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Acute symptomatic seizures

Ruzica Kravljanac, Nebojsa Jovic, Biljana Vucetic Tadic, Djordje Kravljanac, Tatjana Pekmezovic
PURPOSE: Evaluation of the etiology, clinical characteristics and outcome of the first status epilepticus (fSE) event in children. METHOD: The patients with fSE hospitalized in our Institute from 1995 to 2011 were included. The etiology was characterized as either known (symptomatic) or unknown (cryptogenic). Outcome was assessed at the end of hospitalization. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess predictors of the outcome, with odds ratio adjusted by age as a measure effect...
May 21, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Prannoy George Mathen, T P Sreekrishnan, K P Gireesh Kumar, Naveen Mohan
Camphor is a toxic compound easily available over the counter, which can cause fatal seizures in children when ingested. It is available in several forms and is commonly used in Indian households, especially for religious rituals and for its cough-suppressive and nasal-decongestant effect. The toxic effect remains unknown in most homes. Seizures are usually well controlled with intravenous benzodiazepines, and recurrences of seizures are rarely reported.
July 2018: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Frances Alexandria Kavanagh, Paul Anthony Heaton, Anna Cannon, Siba Prosad Paul
Febrile convulsions (FCs) are characterised by convulsions associated with fever in children aged between 6 months and 6 years. FCs are relatively common and affect 3-4% of children in western countries. This is the most common seizure disorder seen in children. The cause of febrile illness in FC is usually benign and most frequently due to acute viral infection. Convulsions secondary to an intracranial infection (e.g. meningitis, encephalitis) or from acute electrolyte imbalance should not be labelled as FCs...
November 8, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Masaya Togo, Takefumi Hitomi, Tomohiko Murai, Hajime Yoshimura, Masao Matsuhashi, Riki Matsumoto, Michi Kawamoto, Nobuo Kohara, Ryosuke Takahashi, Akio Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: Slow wave with frequency <0.5 Hz are recorded in various situations such as normal sleep, epileptic seizures. However, its clinical significance has not been fully clarified. Although infra-slow activity was recently defined as activity between 0.01 and 0.1 Hz, we focus on the activity recorded with time constant of 2 seconds for practical usage. We defined short "infraslow" activity (SISA) less than 0.5 Hz recorded with time constant of 2 seconds and investigated the occurrence and clinical significance of SISA in acute anoxic encephalopathy...
November 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Shavonne L Massey, Haochang Shou, Robert Clancy, Marissa DiGiovine, Mark P Fitzgerald, France W Fung, John Farrar, Nicholas S Abend
PURPOSE: Many neonates undergo electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring to identify and manage acute symptomatic seizures. Information about brain function contained in the EEG background data may also help predict neurobehavioral outcomes. For EEG background features to be useful as prognostic indicators, the interpretation of these features must be standardized across electroencephalographers. We aimed at determining the interrater and intrarater agreement among electroencephalographers interpreting neonatal EEG background patterns...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Carlotta Spagnoli, Raffaele Falsaperla, Michela Deolmi, Giovanni Corsello, Francesco Pisani
Neonatal seizures are the most common neurological event in newborns, showing higher prevalence in preterm than in full-term infants. In the majority of cases they represent acute symptomatic phenomena, the main etiologies being intraventricular haemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, central nervous system infections and transient metabolic derangements.Current definition of neonatal seizures requires detection of paroxysmal EEG-changes, and in preterm newborns the incidence of electrographic-only seizures seems to be particularly high, further stressing the crucial role of electroencephalogram monitoring in this population...
November 1, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Rodney Ogwang, Ronald Anguzu, Pamela Akun, Albert Ningwa, Edward Kayongo, Kevin Marsh, Charles R J C Newton, Richard Idro
OBJECTIVE: Plasmodium falciparum is epileptogenic and in malaria endemic areas, is a leading cause of acute seizures. In these areas, asymptomatic infections are common but considered benign and so, are not treated. The effects of such infections on seizures in patients with epilepsy is unknown. This study examined the relationship between P. falciparum infection and seizure control in children with a unique epilepsy type, the nodding syndrome. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was nested in an ongoing trial 'Doxycycline for the treatment of nodding syndrome (NCT02850913)'...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Angelos M Katramados, Lotfi Hacein-Bey, Panayiotis N Varelas
The most feared complication after acute ischemic stroke is symptomatic or asymptomatic hemorrhagic conversion. Neuroimaging and clinical criteria are used to predict development of hemorrhage. Seizures after acute ischemic stroke or stroke-like symptoms from seizures are not common but may lead to confusion in the peristroke period, especially if seizures are repetitive or evolve into status epilepticus, which could affect neuroimaging findings. Malignant infarction develops when cytotoxic edema is large enough to lead to herniation and death...
November 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Kevin Gurcharran, Zachary M Grinspan
PURPOSE: To summarize the epidemiology, morbidity, mortality, and costs of status epilepticus (SE) in the pediatric population. METHOD: Review of the medical literature. RESULTS: The overall incidence of pediatric SE is roughly 20 per 100,000 children per year, with overall mortality of 3%. Underlying etiology is the biggest risk factor for SE, with symptomatic (acute > remote) etiologies associated with worse outcomes. The most common cause of SE in children is febrile SE, though this entity occurs primarily in early childhood...
August 29, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Bernd J Vorderwülbecke, Gregor Lichtner, Falk von Dincklage, Martin Holtkamp
BACKGROUND: In intensive care units (ICUs), antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used for manifold indications. This is the first study to assess the prevalence of acute AED use in ICUs and to identify associated clinical variables. METHODS: All patients in seven adult ICUs of a German university hospital in 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Data were extracted from the computerized critical care information system and manually reviewed. Acute AED treatments were defined as initiated during ICU treatment or ≤ 6 h before ICU admission, excluding benzodiazepines and sedatives...
December 2018: Journal of Neurology
Mauricio López-Espejo, Marta Hernández-Chávez, Isidro Huete
BACKGROUND: There are few studies evaluating risk factors for poststroke epilepsy (PSE) after an arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in childhood. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and radiological predictors for PSE in a cohort of children with a first-ever AIS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a single-center prospective consecutive cohort of children beyond neonatal age with a first-ever AIS admitted at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile's Clinical Hospital between 2003 and 2013...
November 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jafar Mehvari Habibabadi, Mohammad Saadatnia, Nasim Tabrizi
Many conflicting issues exist about seizure in the setting of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST). In this article we aimed to address the existing data regarding incidence, characteristics, predictors, treatment, and prognosis of acute and late seizures in patients with CVST and to prepare more practical information for clinicians. PubMed, Embase, Web of science and Cochrane databases were searched within 1966-2016 using relevant keywords. A total of 63 papers met the inclusion criteria. Seizures are classified as acute symptomatic seizures (ASS; first 14 days) and post-CVST epilepsy (PCE; after 14 days)...
September 2018: Epilepsia Open
Chinmay Nagesh, Savith Kumar, Ramshekhar Menon, Bejoy Thomas, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
Accurate identification of the epileptogenic zone is an important prerequisite in presurgical evaluation of refractory epilepsy since it affects seizure-free outcomes. Apart from structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), delineation has been traditionally done with electroencephalography and nuclear imaging modalities. Arterial spin labelling (ASL) sequence is a non-contrast magnetic resonance perfusion technique capable of providing similar information. Similar to single-photon emission computed tomography, its utility in epilepsy is based on alterations in perfusion linked to seizure activity by neurovascular coupling...
September 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Suresh S Pujar, Marina M Martinos, Mario Cortina-Borja, W K Kling Chong, Michelle De Haan, Christopher Gillberg, Brian G Neville, Rod C Scott, Richard F Chin
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE), a common childhood medical neurological emergency, is not well characterised. We aimed to investigate the long-term outcomes in a cohort of participants who previously had CSE. METHODS: In this prospective study, we followed up a population-based childhood CSE cohort from north London, UK (the north London convulsive status epilepticus surveillance study cohort; NLSTEPSS). We collected data from structured clinical neurological assessment, neurocognitive assessment (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence), brain MRI, medical records, and structured interviews with participants and their parents to determine neurological outcomes, with adverse outcome defined as presence of one or more of epilepsy (active or in remission), motor disability, intellectual disability, or statement of special educational needs...
February 2018: The lancet child & adolescent health
Ilo E Leppik
Children and the elderly (≥60 years of age) have the highest incidence of status epilepticus (SE). Because of their general health, elderly individuals are much more likely than younger (<60 years of age) persons to have more severe consequences from seizures. The incidence of SE is 15.5/100 000 in the 60-69 age group, 21.5/100 000 in the 70-79 age group and 25.9/100 000 in persons 80 and older. The most common cause in the elderly is acute symptomatic, with stroke and hypoxia the most frequent. The overall mortality of SE is quite high and occurs early, often within the first few days, and is related to the cause, with mortality of more than 80% in persons with anoxia...
October 2018: Epilepsia
Nisali Gunawardane, Madeline Fields
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute symptomatic and provoked seizures by definition occur in close proximity to an event and are considered to be situational. The treatment implications and likelihood of recurrence of acute symptomatic and provoked seizures differ from unprovoked seizures. In this article, the authors review the literature on acute symptomatic and provoked seizures with regard to therapeutic approach and risk of recurrence. RECENT FINDINGS: In the acute period, patients who suffer from acute symptomatic and provoked seizures have higher rates of morbidity and mortality...
August 23, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Rakitha Higgoda, Kasun Lokuketagoda, Thuvarakan Poobalasingham, Venura Wedagedara, Dilshan Perera, Kanapathipillai Thirumavalavan
BACKGROUND: Primary hypoparathyroidism is associated with diverse variety of symptomatology of hypocalcemia including seizures and tetany. We report a case of previously undiagnosed asymptomatic primary hypoparathyroidism with extensive basal ganglia calcifications presenting for the first time with hypocalcemic tetany during acute dengue infection. Although hypocalcemia is known to occur in dengue infection symptomatic hypocalcemia is very infrequent. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32 year old male with short stature who has undergone bilateral cataract surgery 2 years ago but who was otherwise healthy, presented with fever and generalized body aches of 3 days duration and carpal spasms/tetany occurring on the third day of the illness...
August 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Olesya I Borovik, Taras O Studeniak
OBJECTIVE: Introduсtion: Acute symptomatic seizure (ASS) is a most frequently complication after a stroke. Seizures could be associated with the worse outcome. Nowadays the prophylactic antiepileptic treatment after the stroke is not advisable. However this question have to be discussed in a particular groups of patients. The aim: To study the prevalence of ASS in the particular groups of patients after intracerebral hemorrhage as well as to determine the predictors of the sizure occurrence in these groups of patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Debopam Samanta
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare X-linked multisystem disease caused because of mutation in the IKBKG (inhibitor of kappa-B kinase gamma, previously NEMO ) gene. Involvement of central nervous system is seen in approximately one-third of these patients. Ischemic strokes, symptomatic seizures, and encephalopathy can be seen during neonatal or early infancy age group. Typically, early bilateral brain involvement is seen with periventricular white matter injury, hemorrhagic infarction, and multifocal cortical injury...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Michael J Moss, Robert G Hendrickson
BACKGROUND: Amanita muscaria (AM) and A. pantherina (AP) contain ibotenic acid and muscimol and may cause both excitatory and sedating symptoms. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are not classically described but have been reported. There are relatively few reported cases of poisoning with these mushrooms in North America. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of ingestions of ibotenic acid and muscimol containing mushrooms reported to a United States regional poison center from 2002-2016...
August 3, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
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