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Acute symptomatic seizures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090155/unilateral-cerebral-atrophy-severe-neuroimaging-feature-of-incontinentia-pigmenti-without-acute-encephalopathic-state
#1
Debopam Samanta
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare X-linked multisystem disease caused because of mutation in the IKBKG (inhibitor of kappa-B kinase gamma, previously NEMO ) gene. Involvement of central nervous system is seen in approximately one-third of these patients. Ischemic strokes, symptomatic seizures, and encephalopathy can be seen during neonatal or early infancy age group. Typically, early bilateral brain involvement is seen with periventricular white matter injury, hemorrhagic infarction, and multifocal cortical injury...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073844/toxicity-of-muscimol-and-ibotenic-acid-containing-mushrooms-reported-to-a-regional-poison-control-center-from-2002-2016
#2
Michael J Moss, Robert G Hendrickson
BACKGROUND: Amanita muscaria (AM) and A. pantherina (AP) contain ibotenic acid and muscimol and may cause both excitatory and sedating symptoms. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are not classically described but have been reported. There are relatively few reported cases of poisoning with these mushrooms in North America. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of ingestions of ibotenic acid and muscimol containing mushrooms reported to a United States regional poison center from 2002-2016...
August 3, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030025/breakdown-of-blood-brain-barrier-as-a-mechanism-of-post-traumatic-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Aaron Dadas, Damir Janigro
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for approximately 16% of acute symptomatic seizures which usually occur in the first week after trauma. Children are at higher risk for post-traumatic seizures than adults. Post-traumatic seizures are a risk factor for delayed development of epilepsy. Delayed, chronic post-traumatic epilepsy is preceded by a silent period during which therapeutic interventions may arrest, revert or prevent epileptogenesis. A number of recent review articles summarize the most important features of post-traumatic seizures and epilepsy; this review will instead focus on the link between cerebrovascular permeability, epileptogenesis and ictal events after TBI...
July 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995989/clobazam-monotherapy-for-focal-or-generalized-seizures
#4
REVIEW
Ravindra Arya, Nisha Giridharan, Vidhu Anand, Sushil K Garg
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 10, 2014. There is a need to expand monotherapy options available to a clinician for the treatment of new focal or generalized seizures. A Cochrane systematic review for clobazam monotherapy is expected to define its place in the treatment of new-onset or untreated seizures and highlight gaps in evidence. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy, effectiveness, tolerability and safety of clobazam as monotherapy in people with new-onset focal or generalized seizures...
July 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948242/brain-imaging-in-pregnant-women-with-acute-headache
#5
Bianca Raffaelli, Lars Neeb, Heike Israel-Willner, Jeannette Körner, Thomas Liman, Uwe Reuter, Eberhard Siebert
BACKGROUND: Brain imaging is one of the most important diagnostic methods for evaluating headache during pregnancy. In this study, we aimed to identify anamnestic and clinical predictors for pathological brain imaging findings in pregnant women suffering from acute headache. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 151 pregnant women with acute headache between 2010 and 2016. We screened the medical records of these patients and analyzed radiological variables, including brain imaging frequency and modality, delay to imaging and imaging findings...
August 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886041/outcomes-after-acute-symptomatic-seizures-in-children-admitted-to-a-neonatal-neurocritical-care-service
#6
Hannah C Glass, Adam L Numis, Dawn Gano, Varun Bali, Elizabeth E Rogers
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures due to acute brain injury are associated with high rates of death, disability, and epilepsy. Our objective was to examine incidence of and risk factors for epilepsy among survivors of acute symptomatic neonatal seizures who were cared for by a neonatal neurocritical care service. METHODS: Neonates with acute symptomatic seizures who were admitted to UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Neuro-Intensive Care Nursery from July 2008 to June 2014 were considered for inclusion...
July 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881799/early-eeg-predicts-poststroke-epilepsy
#7
Carla Bentes, Hugo Martins, Ana Rita Peralta, Carlos Morgado, Carlos Casimiro, Ana Catarina Franco, Ana Catarina Fonseca, Ruth Geraldes, Patrícia Canhão, Teresa Pinho E Melo, Teresa Paiva, José M Ferro
Objective: Electroencephalography (EEG) can identify biomarkers of epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. However, few studies have used EEG in the prediction of poststroke seizures. Our primary aim was to evaluate whether early EEG abnormalities can predict poststroke epilepsy. Methods: A prospective study of consecutive acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients, without previous epileptic seizures, who were admitted to a stroke unit over 24 months and followed for 1 year...
June 2018: Epilepsia open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851670/de-novo-myoclonic-status-epilepticus-after-benzodiazepine-withdrawal
#8
Pedro Vicente Ferreira Naves, Marcelo Calderaro, Luis Otavio Caboclo
Myoclonic status epilepticus (MSE) in patients without epilepsy, or de novo MSE, is a rare condition associated with several acute symptomatic etiologies, including drugs and toxins. We describe a 94-year-old woman with Alzheimer dementia and long use of mirtazapine 30 mg/d and alprazolam 1 mg/d who developed MSE approximately 24 hours after abrupt discontinuation of alprazolam. The patient was taking sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim for urinary tract infection, diagnosed 2 weeks before admission. She had no history of seizures...
July 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808096/hypoparathyroidism-causing-seizures-when-epilepsy-does-not-fit
#9
Faheem Seedat, Reyna Daya, Sindeep A Bhana
A 24-year-old man presented to the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital emergency department with recurrent seizures having previously been diagnosed with epilepsy from age 14. The biochemical investigations and brain imaging were suggestive of seizures secondary to hypocalcemia, and a diagnosis of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism was confirmed. After calcium and vitamin D replacement, the patient recovered well and is seizure free, and off antiepileptic therapy. This case highlights the occurrence of brain calcinosis in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism; the occurrence of acute symptomatic seizures due to provoking factors other than epilepsy; and the importance, in the correct clinical setting, of considering alternative, and sometimes treatable, causes of seizures other than epilepsy...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784616/seizures-antiepileptic-drugs-and-ckd
#10
REVIEW
Victoria Títoff, Heather N Moury, Igor B Títoff, Kevin M Kelly
There are 2 major categories of patients with seizures and chronic kidney disease (CKD): patients who develop acute symptomatic seizures in the setting of CKD and patients with epilepsy who at some point develop CKD. The incidence of uremic seizures with kidney failure is ∼10%. These seizures are often nonconvulsive and may mimic uremic encephalopathy. Recognition and management of such situations may be challenging for treating physicians who are non-neurologists. Furthermore, practitioners caring for patients with seizures with or without an established diagnosis of epilepsy in the setting of CKD frequently encounter challenges in the selection, loading, titration, and maintenance of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) due to potentially altered pharmacokinetics of the AEDs...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764460/benign-and-severe-early-life-seizures-a-round-in-the-first-year-of-life
#11
REVIEW
Piero Pavone, Giovanni Corsello, Martino Ruggieri, Silvia Marino, Simona Marino, Raffaele Falsaperla
At the onset, differentiation between abnormal non-epileptic movements, and epileptic seizures presenting in early life is difficult as is clinical diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of the various seizure disorders presenting at this age. Seizures starting in the first year of life including the neonatal period might have a favorable course, such as in infants presenting with benign familial neonatal epilepsy, febrile seizures simplex or acute symptomatic seizures. However, in some cases, the onset of seizures at birth or in the first months of life have a dramatic evolution with severe cerebral impairment...
May 15, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663900/congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-tunisia-prenatal-and-neonatal-diagnosis-and-postnatal-follow-up-of-35-cases
#12
Yosr Boudaouara, Karim Aoun, Rania Maatoug, Olfa Souissi, Aïda Bouratbine, Rym Ben Abdallah
Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) results from transplacental passage of Toxoplasma gondii to the fetus during acute maternal infection. Our study aims to report clinical and biological patterns of 35 cases of CT diagnosed at the department of the Parasitology of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis and to access the performance of prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis techniques. Serological screening of maternal infection was performed by Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG detection and IgG avidity determination. Prenatal diagnosis was based on both Toxoplasma DNA detection in the amniotic fluid and monthly ultrasound examinations...
June 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588974/seizures-electroencephalographic-abnormalities-and-outcome-of-ischemic-stroke-patients
#13
Carla Bentes, Ana Rita Peralta, Hugo Martins, Carlos Casimiro, Carlos Morgado, Ana Catarina Franco, Pedro Viana, Ana Catarina Fonseca, Ruth Geraldes, Patrícia Canhão, Teresa Pinho E Melo, Teresa Paiva, José M Ferro
Objective: Seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities have been associated with unfavorable stroke functional outcome. However, this association may depend on clinical and imaging stroke severity. We set out to analyze whether epileptic seizures and early EEG abnormalities are predictors of stroke outcome after adjustment for age and clinical/imaging infarct severity. Methods: A prospective study was made on consecutive and previously independent acute stroke patients with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 4 on admission and an acute anterior circulation ischemic lesion on brain imaging...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588970/prevalence-risk-factors-and-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-of-epilepsy-in-kenyan-children
#14
Charles J Kind, Charles R J C Newton, Symon M Kariuki
Objective: To investigate the prevalence, risk factors, clinical features, and neurobehavioral comorbidities of epilepsy and acute symptomatic seizures in school-aged children in Kilifi, Kenya. Methods: Randomly selected children (N = 11,223) were screened for epilepsy and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Those who screened positive were invited for further clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG), and neuropsychological evaluations. Prevalence was measured by dividing cases by screened population, providing Agresti-Coull confidence intervals (CIs)...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588965/eucalyptus-oil-inhalation-induced-seizure-a-novel-underrecognized-preventable-cause-of-acute-symptomatic-seizure
#15
Thomas Mathew, Vikram Kamath, R Shiva Kumar, Meghana Srinivas, Prarthana Hareesh, Rakesh Jadav, Sreekanta Swamy
Eucalyptus oil (EO) is an essential oil that is widely used across the globe as an over-the-counter remedy for common ailments. EO-induced seizure (EOIS) has not been recognized as an entity, and physicians rarely ask the history of exposure to eucalyptus oil when seeing a patient with first episode of seizure. Here we report 10 cases of EO inhalation-induced seizures seen over the past 2 years in three tertiary care hospitals. Eight patients had GTCS and two had CPS. We aim to raise awareness of seizures induced by exposure to eucalyptus oil...
September 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547060/interventional-radiology-operated-cholecystoscopy-for-the-management-of-symptomatic-cholelithiasis-approach-technical-success-safety-and-clinical-outcomes
#16
Nishant Patel, Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick, Joseph J Gemmete, Jordan C Castle, Narasimham Dasika, Wael E Saad, Ravi N Srinivasa
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to report the technique, complications, and clinical outcomes of interventional radiology-operated cholecystoscopy with stone removal for the management of symptomatic cholelithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten (77%) men and three (23%) women (mean age, 65 years) with symptomatic cholelithiasis underwent cholecystostomy followed by interventional radiology-operated cholecystoscopy with stone removal. Major comorbidities precluding cholecystectomy included prior cardiac, pulmonary, or abdominal surgery; cirrhosis; sepsis with hyponatremia; seizure disorder; developmental delay; and cholecystoduodenal fistula...
May 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510713/prevalence-risk-factors-and-behavioural-and-emotional-comorbidity-of-acute-seizures-in-young-kenyan-children-a-population-based-study
#17
Symon M Kariuki, Amina Abubakar, Martha Kombe, Michael Kazungu, Rachael Odhiambo, Alan Stein, Charles R J C Newton
BACKGROUND: Acute symptomatic seizures and febrile seizures are common in children admitted to hospitals in Africa and may be markers of brain dysfunction. They may be associated with behavioural and emotional problems, but there are no published community-based studies in Africa. METHODS: We screened 7047 children aged 1-6 years (randomly sampled from 50,000 in the community) for seizures (using seven questions) and invited those who screened positive and a proportion of negatives for a clinical assessment...
March 7, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467304/association-between-implementation-of-a-code-stroke-system-and-poststroke-epilepsy
#18
Ziyi Chen, Leonid Churilov, Ziyuan Chen, Jillian Naylor, Miriam Koome, Bernard Yan, Patrick Kwan
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of a code stroke system on the development of poststroke epilepsy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients treated with IV thrombolysis under or outside the code stroke system between 2003 and 2012. Patients were followed up for at least 2 years or until death. Factors with p < 0.1 in univariate comparisons were selected for multivariable logistic and Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 409 patients met the eligibility criteria...
March 27, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467102/acute-symptomatic-neonatal-seizures-in-preterm-neonates-etiologies-and-treatments
#19
REVIEW
Francesco Pisani, Carlotta Spagnoli
Acute symptomatic neonatal seizures in preterm newborns are a relevant clinical challenge due to the presence of many knowledge gaps. Etiology-wise, acute symptomatic seizures have an age-specific epidemiology, with intraventricular hemorrhage and its complications representing the first cause in extremely and very preterm neonates, whereas other etiologies have similar occurrence rates as in full-term infants. Specific treatment strategies for the premature neonates are not yet available. Studies suggest a similarly low response rate with even more unfavorable prognosis than in full-term infants...
June 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454756/outcomes-after-acute-symptomatic-seizures-in-neonates
#20
REVIEW
Hannah C Glass, Zachary M Grinspan, Renée A Shellhaas
Acute symptomatic seizures are a common sign of neurological dysfunction and brain injury in neonates and occur in approximately one to three per 1000 live births. Seizures in neonates are usually a sign of underlying brain injury and, as such, are commonly associated with adverse outcomes. Neurological morbidities in survivors often co-occur; epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disability often occur together in the most severely affected children. Risk factors for adverse outcome include prematurity, low Apgar scores, low pH on the first day of life, seizure onset <24 or >72 h after birth, abnormal neonatal neurological examination, abnormal neonatal electroencephalographic background, status epilepticus, and presence and pattern of brain injury (particularly deep gray or brainstem injury)...
June 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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