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Chose wisely

John Pierce Wise, Jason Cannon
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects ∼5 million people around the world. PD etiopathogenesis is poorly understood and curative or disease modifying treatments are not available. Mechanistic studies have identified numerous pathogenic pathways that overlap with many other neurodegenerative diseases. Mutations in the protein optineurin (OPTN) have recently been identified as causative factors for glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. OPTN has multiple recognized roles in neurons, notably in mediating autophagic flux, which has been found to be disrupted in most neurodegenerative diseases...
October 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Elizabeth Smythe, Marion Hunter, Jackie Gunn, Susan Crowther, Judith McAra Couper, Sally Wilson, Deborah Payne
OBJECTIVE: to ponder afresh what makes a good birth experience in a listening manner. DESIGN: a hermeneutic approach that first explores the nature of how to listen to a story that is already familiar to us and then draws on Heidegger's notion of the fourfold to seek to capture how the components of a'good birth' come together within experience. SETTING: primary birthing centre, New Zealand PARTICIPANTS: the focus of this paper is the story of one participant...
June 2016: Midwifery
Anirban Majumder, Debmalya Sanyal
CONTEXT: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD) and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. AIM: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM) transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Paul B Ardin, Michael Mangan, Barbara Webb
Ants are known to be capable of homing to their nest after displacement to a novel location. This is widely assumed to involve some form of retinotopic matching between their current view and previously experienced views. One simple algorithm proposed to explain this behavior is continuous retinotopic alignment, in which the ant constantly adjusts its heading by rotating to minimize the pixel-wise difference of its current view from all views stored while facing the nest. However, ants with large prey items will often drag them home while facing backwards...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Daniel Brandt Vegas, Wendy Levinson, Geoff Norman, Sandra Monteiro, John J You
BACKGROUND: Choosing Wisely Canada is a campaign that fosters conversations between physicians and patients about high-value health care. However, little is known about physicians' readiness to have these conversations. Our objective was to determine how ready practising internists were to embrace and openly address high-value care during conversations with patients or their families. METHODS: Practising internists in hospitals affiliated with McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, were invited to complete an electronic survey with 3 clinical scenarios: each had 3 low-value interventions that had been requested by the patient or family member...
October 2015: CMAJ Open
Paul M Wise, Laura Nattress, Linda J Flammer, Gary K Beauchamp
BACKGROUND: Individuals who adhere to reduced-sodium diets come to prefer less salt over time, but it is unclear whether sweet taste perception is modulated by reduced sugar intake. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine how a substantial reduction in dietary intake of simple sugars affects sweetness intensity and pleasantness of sweet foods and beverages. DESIGN: Healthy men and women aged 21-54 y participated for 5 mo. After the baseline month, 2 subject groups were matched for demographic characteristics, body mass index, and intake of simple sugars...
January 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
David E Kanouse, Mark Schlesinger, Dale Shaller, Steven C Martino, Lise Rybowski
BACKGROUND: Patients' comments about doctors are increasingly available on the internet. The effects of these anecdotal accounts on consumers' engagement with reports on doctor quality, use of more statistically reliable performance measures, and ability to choose doctors wisely are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of providing patient comments along with standardized performance information in a web-based public report. DESIGN: Participants were randomly assigned to view 1 of 6 versions of a website presenting comparative performance information on fictitious primary care doctors...
January 2016: Medical Care
Scott A Berkowitz, Lisa Ishii, John Schulz, Matt Poffenroth
Academic medical centers (AMCs)--which include teaching hospital(s) and additional care delivery entities--that form accountable care organizations (ACOs) must decide whether to partner with other provider entities, such as community practices. Indeed, 67% (33/49) of AMC ACOs through the Medicare Shared Savings Program through 2014 are believed to include an outside community practice. There are opportunities for both the AMC and the community partners in pursuing such relationships, including possible alignment around shared goals and adding ACO beneficiaries...
March 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
R Farah, S Shea, E Tryggestad, R Teboh Forbang, J Wong, R Hales, J Lee
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm that accurately reconstructs a representative 4D-MRI from a multi-slice dynamic 2D-MRI scan. METHODS: Multi-slice dynamic 2D-MR images at sagittal view are acquired using a cyclic and interleaved protocol to avoid crosstalk between adjacent slices and capture temporal anatomical variations. We chose sagittal view as it captures both superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions where the most dominant respiration-induced anatomical motion happens...
June 2015: Medical Physics
Sam Phiri, Caryl Feldacker, Thomas Chaweza, Linly Mlundira, Hannock Tweya, Colin Speight, Bernadette Samala, Fannie Kachale, Denise Umpierrez, Lisa Haddad
BACKGROUND: Lighthouse Trust operates two public HIV testing, treatment and care clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi, caring for over 26 000 people living with HIV, 23 000 of whom are on antiretroviral treatment (ART). In August 2010, Lighthouse Trust piloted a step-wise integration of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services into routine HIV care at its Lighthouse clinic site. The objectives were to increase uptake of family planning (FP), promote long-term reversible contraceptive methods, and increase access, screening and treatment for cervical cancer using visual inspection with acetic acid...
January 2016: Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
Jing He, Charles G Starr, William C Wimley
The rapid rise in morbidity and mortality from drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria has generated elevated interest in combination therapy using antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a candidate drug class to advance the development of combination therapies. Although the literature is ambiguous, the generic membrane disrupting activity of AMPs could enable them to synergize with conventional small molecule antibiotics by increasing access to the cell and by triggering membrane damage mediators...
January 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jinzhong Yang, Beth M Beadle, Adam S Garden, Brandon Gunn, David Rosenthal, Kian Ang, Steven Frank, Ryan Williamson, Peter Balter, Laurence Court, Lei Dong
PURPOSE: To investigate atlas-based auto-segmentation methods to improve the quality of the delineation of low-risk clinical target volumes (CTVs) of unilateral tonsil cancers. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Sixteen patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy for left tonsil tumors. These patients were treated by a total of 8 oncologists, who delineated all contours manually on the planning CT image. We chose 6 of the patients as atlas cases and used atlas-based auto-segmentation to map each the atlas CTV to the other 10 patients (test patients)...
January 2014: Practical Radiation Oncology
Weiguo Li, Lina Chen, Wan Li, Xiaoli Qu, Weiming He, Yuehan He, Chenchen Feng, Xu Jia, Yanyan Zhou, Junjie Lv, Binhua Liang, Binbin Chen, Jing Jiang
BACKGROUND: Structure and function of the human brain are subjected to dramatic changes during its development and aging. Studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of brain development and have a significant impact on brain aging and neurodegeneration. However, the underlining molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In general, development and aging are conventionally studied separately, which may not completely address the physiological mechanism over the entire lifespan...
2013: BMC Medical Genomics
Zhi-Qiang Wang, Si-Yan Zhan, Marlene Fransen, Jian-Hao Lin
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common post-operative complication. Incidence of pain directly affects patients' quality of life in terms of patient physiology, psychology, and social characteristics. This study was to understand clinical attitudes with regards to Beijing surgeons, and patients' attitude towards pain treatment after orthopedic surgery. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional and cluster sample survey of 40 hospitals in Beijing was conducted, including 20 level III (tier three) and 20 level II (tier two) general hospitals...
July 2012: Chinese Medical Journal
Ana Diukova, Jennifer Ware, Jessica E Smith, C John Evans, Kevin Murphy, Peter J Rogers, Richard G Wise
The effects of caffeine are mediated through its non-selective antagonistic effects on adenosine A(1) and A(2A) adenosine receptors resulting in increased neuronal activity but also vasoconstriction in the brain. Caffeine, therefore, can modify BOLD FMRI signal responses through both its neural and its vascular effects depending on receptor distributions in different brain regions. In this study we aim to distinguish neural and vascular influences of a single dose of caffeine in measurements of task-related brain activity using simultaneous EEG-FMRI...
August 1, 2012: NeuroImage
Ibrahim A Arif, Mohammad A Bakir, Haseeb A Khan
Molecular techniques that assess biodiversity through the analysis of a small segment of mitochondrial genome have been getting wide attention for inferring the mammalian diversity. Due to their highly conserved nature, specific mitochondrial genes offer a promising tool for phylogenetic analysis. However, there is no established criteria for selecting the typical mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments to achieve a greater resolving power. We therefore chose the family Bovidae as a model and compared the tree-topologies resulting from the commonly used and phylogenetically-informative genes including 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, COI, Cyt b and D-loop with respect to complete mitochondrial genome...
2012: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
Svetlana Umansky, Anne E Holland, Kerryn L Woolley, Frances M Wise, Peter C Hunter
UNLABELLED: OBJECTIVE; Although mounting evidence suggests that early supporting discharge has benefits for both patients and the health service, such programs pose unique challenges for rigorous assessment of treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe assessment of clinical outcomes in the Graduated Discharge Program (GDP) across hospital and community settings. METHODS: The GDP involved substitution of community-based rehabilitation for the last week of inpatient care...
November 2011: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Alice R Pressman, Andrew L Avins, Alan Hubbard, William A Satariano
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of literature comparing Bayesian analytic techniques with traditional approaches for analyzing clinical trials using real trial data. METHODS: We compared Bayesian and frequentist group sequential methods using data from two published clinical trials. We chose two widely accepted frequentist rules, O'Brien-Fleming and Lan-DeMets, and conjugate Bayesian priors. Using the nonparametric bootstrap, we estimated a sampling distribution of stopping times for each method...
July 2011: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Marusha Dekleva, Valérie Dufour, Han de Vries, Berry M Spruijt, Elisabeth H M Sterck
Recollecting the what-where-when of an episode, or episodic-like memory, has been established in corvids and rodents. In humans, a linkage between remembering the past and imagining the future has been recognised. While chimpanzees can plan for the future, their episodic-like memory has hardly been investigated. We tested chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with an adapted food-catching paradigm. They observed the baiting of two locations amongst four and chose one after a given delay (15 min, 1 h or 5 h). We used two combinations of food types, a preferred and a less preferred food that disappeared at different rates...
2011: PloS One
Dapeng Wang, Fei Liu, Lei Wang, Shi Huang, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND: Mammalian genome sequence data are being acquired in large quantities and at enormous speeds. We now have a tremendous opportunity to better understand which genes are the most variable or conserved, and what their particular functions and evolutionary dynamics are, through comparative genomics. RESULTS: We chose human and eleven other high-coverage mammalian genome data-as well as an avian genome as an outgroup-to analyze orthologous protein-coding genes using nonsynonymous (Ka) and synonymous (Ks) substitution rates...
2011: Biology Direct
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