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Fat deposition

Isaac B James, Debra A Bourne, Gabriella DiBernardo, Sheri S Wang, Jeffrey A Gusenoff, Kacey Marra, J Peter Rubin
BACKGROUND: Fat grafting has emerged as the treatment of choice for soft-tissue augmentation and reconstruction. Variability of volume retention remains the greatest challenge for this technique, often requiring multiple operations to achieve the desired volume. Graft that is placed greater than 2 mm from the recipient bed will undergo necrosis. Improved understanding of the architecture of fat within the recipient bed is paramount to improving outcomes. The impact of cannula diameter on graft architecture is unknown...
November 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
William A Curtis, Tyler J Fraum, Hongyu An, Yasheng Chen, Anup S Shetty, Kathryn J Fowler
As radiologic technology advances, quantitative imaging is becoming more prevalent in clinical practice. This article reviews quantitative hepatic MRI, specifically involving fat and iron deposition, by demonstrating how they were iteratively improved. These iterative improvements involved incorporating more knowledge about the physiology of liver disease and MRI physics to reduce the adverse effects caused by confounding factors. The relevant foundations of MRI physics and liver pathophysiology are briefly reviewed, followed by the various improvements made by expanding on this foundational knowledge...
December 4, 2018: Radiology
Min Cai, Qing Liu, Qin Jiang, Ruifan Wu, Xinxia Wang, Yizhen Wang
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) mRNA modification plays an important role in adipogenesis, but its role on single gene remains unexplored. Family with Sequence Similarity 134, Member B (FAM134B) is a cis-Golgi transmembrane protein that known to be necessary for the long-term survival of nociceptive and autonomic ganglion neurons. Recent work has shown that FAM134B plays a pivotal role in lipid homeostasis and was identified as its significant m6 A level difference between Chinese local Jinhua pigs and Landrace through RNA-sequence...
December 2, 2018: IUBMB Life
Pragyanshu Khare, Priyanka Mangal, Ritesh K Baboota, Sneha Jagtap, Vijay Kumar, Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Ravneet K Boparai, Shyam S Sharma, Romesh Khardori, Sanjay K Bhadada, Kanthi K Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
Glucagon mediated mechanisms have been shown to play clinically significant role in energy expenditure. The present study was designed to understand whether pharmacological mimicking of cold using menthol (TRPM8 modulator) can induce glucagon-mediated energy expenditure to prevent weight gain and related complications. Acute oral and topical administration of TRPM8 agonists (menthol and icilin) increased serum glucagon concentration which was prevented by pre-treatment with AMTB, a TRPM8 blocker. Chronic administration of menthol (50 and 100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks) to HFD fed animals prevented weight gain, insulin resistance, adipose tissue hypertrophy and triacylglycerol deposition in liver...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Monika Stachowiak, Izabela Szczerbal, Krzysztof Flisikowski
BACKGROUND: The expression of genes involved in regulating adipogenesis and lipid metabolism may affect economically important fatness traits in pigs. Allele-specific expression (ASE) reflects imbalance between allelic transcript levels and can be used to identify underlying cis-regulatory elements. ASE has not yet been intensively studied in pigs. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the differential allelic expression of four genes, PPARA, PPARG, SREBF1, and PPARGC1A, which are involved in the regulation of fat deposition in porcine subcutaneous and visceral fat and longissimus dorsi muscle...
November 29, 2018: BMC Genetics
Xiaofeng Liu, Hongbo Liu, Min Wang, Ruiqiang Li, Jianhua Zeng, Delin Mo, Peiqing Cong, Xiaohong Liu, Yaosheng Chen, Zuyong He
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) plays an important role in the development of the foetus and in post-natal growth and development. A SNP within intron 3 of porcine IGF2 disrupts a binding site for the repressor, zinc finger BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6), leading to up-regulation of IGF2 in skeletal muscle and major effects on muscle growth, heart size, and fat deposition. This favourable mutation is common in Western commercial pig populations, but is not present in most indigenous Chinese pig breeds. Here, we described the efficient disruption of the ZBED6 binding site motif in intron 3 of IGF2 by CRISPR/Cas9 in porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs) from the indigenous Chinese pig breed, Liang Guang Small Spotted pig...
November 28, 2018: Transgenic Research
Yanli Liu, Jing Shen, Xin Yang, Qingzhu Sun, Xiaojun Yang
Abdominal fat or fatty liver cause huge economic loss in poultry industry and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is also a global health issue in human. More than 90% of de novo lipogenesis in human and chickens is undertaken by the liver which is proved to be full of lipid in new-born chickens. Folic acid was thought to have correlation with lipid metabolism. Primary hepatocytes from new-born chickens were employed as a natural fatty liver model in vitro and further to explore whether folic acid could relieve fatty liver in the current study...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kiri P H Sharp, Michael Schultz, Kirsten J Coppell
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common and potentially serious condition, which has emerged with the obesity epidemic. This disease can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. Associated comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, are common. Obesity is the key risk factor and diet appears to be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We reviewed studies undertaken on human subjects investigating which dietary components initiate excess hepatic triglyceride deposition...
April 2018: JGH open: an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
Adantchede L Zannou, Niranjan Khadka, Dennis Q Truong, Tianhe Zhang, Rosana Esteller, Brad Hershey, Marom Bikson
INTRODUCTION: Kilohertz frequency spinal cord stimulation (kHz-SCS) deposits significantly more power in tissue compared to SCS at conventional frequencies, reflecting increased duty cycle (pulse compression). We hypothesize kHz-SCS increases local tissue temperature by joule heat, which may influence the clinical outcomes. METHODS: To establish the role of tissue heating in KHZ-SCS, a decisive first step is to characterize the range of temperature changes expected during conventional and KHZ-SCS protocols...
October 17, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Fred J DiMenna, Avigdor D Arad
Type 2 diabetes and obesity epidemics are in effect in the United States and the two pathologies are linked. In accordance with the growing appreciation that 'exercise is medicine,' it is intuitive to suggest that exercise can play an important role in the prevention and/or treatment of these conditions. However, if exercise is to truly be considered as a viable alternative to conventional healthcare prevention/treatment strategies involving pharmaceuticals, it must be prescribed with similar scrutiny. Indeed, it seems reasonable to posit that the recent initiative calling for 'precision medicine' in the US standard healthcare system should also be applied in the exercise setting...
2018: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Liping Guo, Huanxian Cui, Guiping Zhao, Ranran Liu, Qinghe Li, Maiqing Zheng, Yuming Guo, Jie Wen
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle satellite cells (MSC) are crucial for postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle. An interaction exists between MSC and intramuscular preadipocytes (IMPA). This study is the first to investigate the effects of IMPA on MSC in chickens and unveil the molecular mechanisms by transcriptome analysis. RESULTS: Primary MSC and IMPA were isolated from the pectoralis major muscle of 7-day-old chickens. After both cell types reached confluence, MSC were cultured alone or co-cultured with IMPA for 2 or 4 d...
November 26, 2018: BMC Genomics
Mehrab Faraji, Saeid Karimi Dehkordi, Abdol Karim Zamiani Moghadam, Behnam Ahmadipour, Fariborz Khajali
High levels of guanidinoacetate acid (GAA) deteriorate growth response in broiler chickens. We propose using coenzyme Q10 , an antioxidant, and taurine (TAU), a methyl donor, to cope with the situation when high level of GAA included in diet. GAA was supplemented at 0 (control), 0.75, 1.5 and 2.25 g/kg in isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets and fed to broilers (Cobb 500) from 1 to 40 days post-hatch. Three additional diets were prepared by adding CoQ10 (40 mg/kg), TAU (40 mg/kg) or their combination (both CoQ10 and TAU at 40 mg/kg) to the 2...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Yumeng Zhang, Lei Xu, Meng Ding, Guangyue Su, Yuqing Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shenque is an acupoint located in the umbilicus and connected with the meridians. Thus, acupoint herbs applied at Shenque plays a pivotal role in the Chinese traditional medicine due to its sensitivity, permeability, and absorption. Many studies reported the use of Shenque point as a successful therapeutic approach. However, the effect of garlic oil (GO) applied at Shenque point to combat obesity is unmet. Consequently, we investigated the potential benefit of GO applied at Shenque point against obesity...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hau Wei Khoo, Cristine S L Ding, Ankit Anil Tandon
BACKGROUND Amyloid arthropathy and myopathy are complications of amyloidosis that can be associated with non-specific imaging findings, which may be challenging to interpret. The report is of a case of polyarticular amyloid arthropathy and myopathy in a 56-year-old man with multiple myeloma and includes a description of the radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. CASE REPORT A 56-year-old man with multiple myeloma presented with chronic polyarticular pain and swelling...
November 24, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Z-Y Zhang, C-F Hu, M-X Wang, J Lin, J-M Li, R-Z Wang
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the effects of p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) of damaging vascular endothelial cells and promoting the formation of atherosclerosis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice were fed normally and with a high-fat diet; the ApoE-/- mice fed with high-fat diet were divided into two groups and treated with blank control and PCS, respectively. The aortic arch in each group was taken and underwent the oil red O staining, and the serum PCS content in each group was detected...
November 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Ruo-Mi Guo, Ru-Zhen Zhao, Jie Zhang, Fei Yang, Hui-Quan Wen, Jin Wang, Yong Zhang, Qing-Ling Li
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess fat deposition in the testis and epididymis by measuring the fat/water signal ratios with mDIXON Quant and to investigate its correlation with age and ejaculation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Routine pelvic magnetic resonance imaging and mDIXON Quant were performed on 120 subjects. The fat/water signal ratios of the testis and epididymis were measured based on the fat/water signal intensity on mDIXON Quant...
November 22, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Mana Yanagiba, Kazuo Masaki, Hideyuki Shinmori, Takafumi Naganuma
The yeast Lipomyces accumulates triacylglycerols (TAGs) as intracellular fat globules, and these TAGs can be used as source materials for biodiesel production. In this study, we aimed to use this yeast to produce lipids from renewable resources. Using plate culture and micrograph methods, strains with a high lipid-accumulation ability were screened from 15,408 types of systems combining renewable resources, strains, and culture temperatures. The lipid-accumulation ability of the strains was estimated from the fat globule volume, which was calculated using a micrograph...
November 21, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Shao-Chen Wan, Man-Hsu Huang, Cherng-Kang Perng, Wen-Chieh Liao
BACKGROUND: The main feature of Madelung disease (MD), a rare condition, is the growth of adipose tissue without a capsule. Usually, this disease is known for its prominent features with fat deposition around the neck, shoulder, back, or chest wall. Clinically, the patient is likely to exhibit alcohol, neuropathy, and metabolic disorders; however, no clear cause has been confirmed. AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological, pathophysiological, and various treatment methods of MD...
November 17, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Huiling Jiang, Qiaowei Guan, Yewei Xiao, Zhiqiang Feng, Guang Yu, Qiangwen Pan
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of strontium on fatty liver, and to clarify the possible mechanisms by which strontium improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We also evaluated how strontium affected the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathways. We established an in vitro model of NAFLD using a human hepatocyte cell line (L02) treated with 0.2 mM palmitic acid. The Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish NAFLD model in vivo. After strontium treatment, the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and lipid deposition in L02 cells and liver tissues were determined...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Matthew D Bucknor, Harsh Goel, Courtney Pasco, Andrew E Horvai, Galateia J Kazakia
Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a novel non-invasive ablation technique that uses focused sound energy to destroy focal tumors, primarily via heat deposition. It is widely used for palliation of pain from bone metastases and has also recently gained popularity as a technique for ablation of benign bone tumors and facet degenerative joint disease (rhizotomy). Clinically, in a subset of patients who have undergone MRgFUS of bone, a variety of treatment responses have been noted on follow-up imaging, including focal sclerosis within the target lesion or more exuberant proliferative changes associated with the periosteum...
November 16, 2018: Bone
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