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Fat deposition

Dandan Wang, Lingling Lao, Xiaohong Pang, Qian Qiao, Lijun Pang, Zhongwen Feng, Facheng Bai, Xuemei Sun, Xing Lin, Jinbin Wei
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is induced by accumulation of misfolded proteins, playing a pivotal role during the processes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study was to investigate the effect of Asiatic acid from Potentilla chinensis (AAPC) on liver cell lipid metabolism, exploring the underlying mechanism of AAPC against NAFLD. In vivo, the animal NAFLD model was induced by feeding rats with high fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks, and meanwhile the rats were treated with AAPC from weeks 8 to 18; In vitro experiment, the effect of AAPC on dyslipidemia induced by oleic acid (OA) in hepatic cells (HepG2) was evaluated...
October 16, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Kelly Robinson, Ailsa Jane Hall, Cathy Debier, Gauthier Eppe, Jean-Pierre Thomé, Kimberley Bennett
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic, ubiquitous, resist breakdown, bioaccumulate in living tissue and biomagnify in food webs. POPs can also alter energy balance in humans and wildlife. Marine mammals experience high POP concentrations, but consequences for their tissue metabolic characteristics are unknown. We used blubber explants from wild, grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups to examine impacts of intrinsic tissue POP burden and acute experimental POP exposure on adipose metabolic characteristics...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Julian Merz, Philipp Albrecht, Sunaina von Garlen, Ibrahim Ahmed, Daniel Dimanski, Dennis Wolf, Ingo Hilgendorf, Carmen Härdtner, Katja Grotius, Florian Willecke, Timo Heidt, Heiko Bugger, Natalie Hoppe, Ulrich Kintscher, Constantin von Zur Mühlen, Marco Idzko, Christoph Bode, Andreas Zirlik, Peter Stachon
Sterile inflammation of visceral fat, provoked by dying adipocytes, links the metabolic syndrome to cardiovascular disease. Danger-associated molecular patterns, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are released by activated or dying cells and orchestrate leukocyte infiltration and inflammation via the purinergic receptor P2Y2 . The gene expression of ATP receptor P2Y2 did not change in several tissues in the course of obesity, but was increased within epididymal fat. Adipose tissue from P2Y 2 -/- mice consuming high-fat diet (HFD) contained less crown-like structures with a reduced frequency of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs)...
October 18, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
Xueyao Ma, Dawei Wei, Gong Cheng, Shijun Li, Li Wang, Yaning Wang, Xiaoyu Wang, Song Zhang, Hongbao Wang, Linsen Zan
Deposition of intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the most important traits for the evaluation of beef carcass quality grade. MicroRNA (miRNA) is an endogenous non-coding RNA that can play a role in the post-transcriptional regulation of mammalian preadipocyte differentiation. Previously, we identified that bta-miR-130a regulates milk fat biosynthesis by targeting PPARG mRNA. However, the role of miR-130 in the regulation of bovine adipocyte differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we found that overexpression of bta-miR-130a/b led to significantly decreased cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) levels during adipogenesis process as well as reduced lipid droplet formation...
October 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Lung-Chi Lee, Tsu-Heng Weng, Ke-Hao Huang, Hsin-Ting Lin, Chang-Min Liang, Ming-Cheng Tai, Jiann-Torng Chen, Ke-Hung Chien
RATIONALE: Madelung's disease is a specific type of benign symmetric lipomatosis, which is characterized by overgrowing fat distributed at the neck and shoulder. This excessive fat accumulation may occur in different regions, including vital organs, such as the larynx, trachea, or the orbits. Surgery is usually performed to correct the esthetic or functional concern of the affected area. There are only few case reports mentioned about the orbital involvement of this disease. This study aimed to describe a case of Madelung's disease with ocular complications and the successful treatment using tarsoconjunctival flap...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mia Demant, Jonatan I Bagger, Malte P Suppli, Asger Lund, Mette Gyldenløve, Katrine B Hansen, Kristine J Hare, Mikkel Christensen, David P Sonne, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
BACKGROUND: Fasting hyperglucagonemia can be detrimental to glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and may contribute to metabolic disturbances in obese and/or prediabetic subjects. However, the mechanisms underlying fasting hyperglucagonemia remain elusive. METHODS: We evaluated the interrelationship between fasting hyperglucagonemia and demographic and biochemical parameters in 106 patients with T2D (31% female, age: 57 ± 9 years [mean ± standard deviation; body mass index (BMI): 30...
October 16, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Mattias Hoffner, Karin Ohlin, Barbro Svensson, Jonas Manjer, Emma Hansson, Thomas Troëng, Håkan Brorson
Background: Arm lymphedema is a well-recognized complication after breast cancer surgery that negatively impacts patients' quality of life, both physiologically and psychologically. Lymph stasis and inflammation result in excess formation of adipose tissue, which makes removal of the deposited subcutaneous fat necessary to eliminate the excess volume. Liposuction, combined with postoperative controlled compression therapy (CCT), is the only treatment that gives complete reduction of the excess volume...
August 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Rafał Filip, Radosław P Radzki, Marek Bieńko
Excess fat deposition and insulin resistance are considered the main risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and therefore, not surprisingly, the global prevalence of NAFLD increases in parallel with both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although deterioration of bone homeostasis in patients with NAFLD is commonly observed, its etiology has not been fully elucidated yet. It was shown in several studies that bone tissue seems to be independently associated with NAFLD. A mechanistic perspective puts the liver at the center of mutual interdependencies obviously involving adipose tissue and muscles and also the bone matrix and bone cells, which are relatively novel...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Mikel Izquierdo, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, María Correa-Rodríguez, Jacqueline Schmidt Rio-Valle, Emilio González-Jiménez, Katherine González-Ruíz
Paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common early driver of chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to examine whether grip strength moderates the association between anthropometric and body composition parameters and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), an indicator of fat deposits in the liver, in children and adolescents with excess of adiposity. A total of 127 adolescents (67% girls) aged between 11 and 17, attending two public schools in Bogotá (Colombia), who had an axiological evaluation of obesity were included in this study...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Manisha Gandhi, Rajshi Gandhi, Lauren M Mack, Roman Shypailo, Anne L Adolph, Maurice R Puyau, William W Wong, Russell L Deter, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Wesley Lee, Nancy F Butte
Background: Estimated energy requirement (EER) has not been defined for twin pregnancy. This study was designed to determine the EER of healthy women with dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancies. Objectives: We aimed to estimate energy deposition from changes in maternal body protein and fat; to measure resting energy expenditure (REE), physical activity level (PAL), and total energy expenditure (TEE) throughout pregnancy and postpartum; and to define the EER based on the sum of TEE and energy deposition for twin gestation...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Noriko Sugasawa, Ayako Katagi, Hirotsugu Kurobe, Taisuke Nakayama, Chika Nishio, Hiroko Takumi, Fumiharu Higashiguchi, Ken-Ichi Aihara, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata, Tetsuya Kitagawa
OBJECTIVE: Hesperidin, an abundant flavonoid in citrus fruit, and its aglycone, hesperetin, have been reported to possess various physiological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and antihypertensive activities. In this study, we investigated whether α-glucosyl hesperidin and water-dispersible hesperetin have protective effects on atherosclerotic progression in apolipoprotein E knockout (Apo-E KO) mice. METHODS: Ten-week-old male Apo-E KO mice were randomly assigned a regular high-fat diet, a high-fat diet with 0...
October 15, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Alisa J Prager, Larissa A Habib, Talita Gambogi, Klaus J Busam, Brian P Marr
Conjunctival amyloidosis is a rare cause of ocular inflammation, mass, and hemorrhage that can be difficult to diagnose and treat. In this case series, we describe 4 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of conjunctival amyloidosis treated at a single institution. All patients underwent surgical excision and biopsy. On histopathological examination, 3 patients had local deposition of either kappa or lambda monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains, favoring localized amyloid light-chain amyloidosis. Systemic workup to exclude rheumatologic disorders (e...
September 2018: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
Samir A El-Shazly, Mohamed M Ahmed, Mohammad S Al-Harbi, Mohamed E Alkafafy, Hanan B El-Sawy, Sayed A M Amer
The present study was performed to assess anti-obesity effects of raw pineapple juice in high fat diet (HFD)-induced fatness. Based on food type, rats were divided into normal diet and HFD groups. When animals of HFD group become obese, they were given pineapple juice along with either HFD or normal diet. Blood biochemistry, liver and muscle gene expressions were analyzed. HFD induced significant elevations in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat accumulation, liver fat deposition and blood lipids while juice restored these parameters near to their normal values...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Mara Weinstein Velez, Omer Ibrahim, Kathleen Petrell, Jeffrey S Dover
Objective: Noninvasive fat reduction has become increasingly popular. This study evaluated the outcomes of multiple treatments with a nonthermal focused ultrasound device for the noninvasive removal of excess abdominal fat. Design: Participants underwent a total of three pulsed, focused ultrasound treatments spaced two weeks apart. Setting: This study took place in an outpatient dermatology office in a suburb of a major city. Participants: Ten healthy female subjects between 18 and 60 years of age with an abdominal thickness of at least 0...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Mustafa R Bashir, Tanya Wolfson, Anthony C Gamst, Kathryn J Fowler, Michael Ohliger, Shetal N Shah, Adina Alazraki, Andrew T Trout, Cynthia Behling, Daniela S Allende, Rohit Loomba, Arun Sanyal, Jeffrey Schwimmer, Joel E Lavine, Wei Shen, James Tonascia, Mark L Van Natta, Adrija Mamidipalli, Jonathan Hooker, Kris V Kowdley, Michael S Middleton, Claude B Sirlin
BACKGROUND: The liver R2* value is widely used as a measure of liver iron but may be confounded by the presence of hepatic steatosis and other covariates. PURPOSE: To identify the most influential covariates for liver R2* values in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data. POPULATION: Baseline data from 204 subjects enrolled in NAFLD/NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) treatment trials...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi
The metabolic sources of energy for myocardial contractility include mainly free fatty acids (FFA) for 95%, and in lesser amounts for 5% from glucose and minimal contributions from other substrates such lactate, ketones, and amino acids. However, myocardial efficiency is influenced by metabolic condition, overload, and ischemia. During cardiac stress, cardiomyocytes increase glucose oxidation and reduce FFA oxidation. In patients with ischemic coronary disease and heart failure, the low oxygen availability limits myocardial reliance on FFA and glucose utilization must increase...
September 11, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
Roohi Vinaik, Mile Stanojcic, Marc G Jeschke
Burns result in generalized catabolism, lipolysis, and hyperinflammation. NLRP3 inflammasome, a mediator of hyperinflammation, is upregulated in burn patients' adipose tissue within 7 days post-burn. However, its role during the acute phase is unknown. Here, wild-type (WT) and NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3-/- ) mice were exposed to 25% TBSA scald burn. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated greater liver macrophage infiltration in NLRP3-/- yet decreased protein expression of NLRP3 components, ER stress, and apoptosis...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Suárez-Vega, J J Arranz, V Pérez, L F de la Fuente, J Mateo, B Gutiérrez-Gil
Adipose deposits influence the quality of ruminant carcasses, and in suckling lambs, internal types of adipose deposits represent a notable proportion of total fat. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the perirenal fat transcriptomes of suckling lambs from two breeds with different growth and carcass characteristics. The perirenal fat tissue from 14 suckling lambs (Assaf, n = 8; Churra, n = 6) was used for the RNA-seq analysis. The functional enrichment analysis of the 670 highly expressed genes (>150 fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped) in the perirenal fat transcriptome of both breeds revealed that the majority of these genes were involved in energy processes...
October 12, 2018: Animal Genetics
Huimei Zheng, Yafei Zhang, Yuchen Chen, Pengfei Guo, Xuexiang Wang, Xin Yuan, Wanzhong Ge, Ru Yang, Qingfeng Yan, Xiaohang Yang, Yongmei Xi
CD133 (AC133/prominin-1) has been identified as a stem cell marker and a putative cancer stem cell marker in many solid tumors. Its biologic function and molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we show that a fly mutant for prominin-like, a homolog of mammalian CD133, shows a larger body size and excess weight accompanied with higher fat deposits as compared with the wild type. The expression levels of prominin-like are mediated by ecdysone signaling where its protein levels increase dramatically in the fat body during metamorphosis...
October 11, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Durgesh Kumar, Sanket Kumar Pandya, Salil Varshney, Kripa Shankar, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Gupta, Sanchita Gupta, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Amit Misra, Anil N Gaikwad
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chronic low-grade inflammation/meta-inflammation in adipose tissue leads to obesity-associated metabolic complications. Despite growing understanding, the roles of immune cell subsets, their interrelationship, and chronological events leading to progression of obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) remains unclear. METHODS: We carried out temporal immunometabolic profiling of adipose tissue from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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