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Lindsay M Monte
Multiple-partner fertility (MPF) occurs when a person has biological children with more than one partner. The 2014 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), a nationally representative panel study of individuals and households in the United States, is the first such survey to include a direct question about whether respondents are MPF parents. Understanding the prevalence of such families is important given the known socioeconomic correlates of MPF and the ramifications of entering MPF for both individuals and families...
December 13, 2018: Demography
Thomas Reiberger, Theresa Bucsics, Rafael Paternostro, Nikolaus Pfisterer, Florian Riedl, Mattias Mandorfer
Purpose of Review: The natural history and classification systems of small varices (≤ 5 mm in diameter) in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension are summarized. Studies that assessed the course of and therapeutic intervention for small varices are discussed. Recent Findings: Current non-invasive methods show suboptimal sensitivity to detect small varices in patients with cirrhosis. Next to etiological therapy, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG)-guided non-selective betablocker or carvedilol treatment has shown to impact on natural history of small varices...
2018: Current Hepatology Reports
Yasmin Kamal, Chao Cheng, H Robert Frost, Christopher I Amos
Renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer and has a high propensity for metastasis. While treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1, have shown modest improvements in survival for RCC, it is difficult to identify responders from non-responders. Attempts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with differential response to checkpoint inhibitors have been limited by small sample size making it difficult to detect meaningful associations. We utilized existing large datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to first find predictors of disease aggressiveness in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and hypothesized that these same predictors may influence response to immunotherapy...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Hugo Saiz, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Nicolas Gross, Fernando T Maestre
1. Biotic interactions are key determinants of plant community structure. Indirect interactions such as intransitivity ( i.e. in the absence of competitive hierarchies among species) have been hypothesized to benefit diversity within plant communities. However, their effect on functional diversity remains scarcely explored in real communities. Here we develop a novel approach to infer intransitivity from plant spatial patterns and functional traits (height and specific leaf area), and quantify its effect on different components of plant diversity along environmental gradients in 100 drylands from all continents except Antarctica...
January 2019: Journal of Ecology
Arjan van der Tol, Norbert Lameire, Rachael L Morton, Wim Van Biesen, Raymond Vanholder
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of patients with ESKD who receive extracorporeal kidney replacement therapy is rising worldwide. We compared government reimbursement for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis worldwide, assessed the effect on the government health care budget, and discussed strategies to reduce the cost of kidney replacement therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Cross-sectional global survey of nephrologists in 90 countries to assess reimbursement for dialysis, number of patients receiving hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, and measures to prevent development or progression of CKD, conducted online July to December of 2016...
December 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Mark van de Ruit, Michael J Grey
BACKGROUND: A trend in the non-invasive brain stimulation literature is to assess the outcome of an intervention using a responder analysis whereby participants are di- or trichotomised in order that they may be classified as either responders or non-responders. OBJECTIVE: Examine the extent of the Type I error in motor evoked potential (MEP) data subjected to responder analyses. METHODS: Seven sets of 30 MEPs were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle in 52 healthy volunteers...
December 3, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Ying Liu, Qiuping Liu, Yuanman Tang, Wei Ding
Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) are associated with the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against further infection enforced by fungi, bacteria and viruses. PR1a is the first PR-1 member that could be purified and characterized. Previous studies have reported its role in plants' resistance system against oomycete pathogens. However, the role of PR1a in Solanaceae plants against the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum remains unclear. To assess roles of NtPR1a in tobacco responding to R...
December 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nicholas J Short, Hagop M Kantarjian, Sanam Loghavi, Xuelin Huang, Wei Qiao, Gautam Borthakur, Tapan M Kadia, Naval Daver, Maro Ohanian, Courtney D Dinardo, Zeev Estrov, Rashmi Kanagal-Shamanna, Abhishek Maiti, Christopher B Benton, Prithviraj Bose, Yesid Alvarado, Elias Jabbour, Steven M Kornblau, Naveen Pemmaraju, Nitin Jain, Yvonne Gasior, Mary Ann Richie, Sherry Pierce, Jorge Cortes, Marina Konopleva, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Farhad Ravandi
BACKGROUND: Hypomethylating agents, such as decitabine, are the standard of care for older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia. Single-arm studies have suggested that a 10-day schedule of decitabine cycles leads to better outcomes than the usual 5-day schedule. We compared the efficacy and safety of these two schedules. METHODS: Eligible patients were aged 60 years or older with acute myeloid leukaemia but unsuitable for intensive chemotherapy (or <60 years if unsuitable for intensive chemotherapy with an anthracycline plus cytarabine)...
December 10, 2018: Lancet Haematology
Zahraa Jalal, Anthony Cox, Neera Goel, Nikita Vaitha, Kathryn King, Jon Ward
Objectives: To determine UK pharmacists' experiences of their current communication skills and undergraduate training and to identify communication skills training and teaching at UK schools of pharmacy. Methods: Two surveys were developed. The first survey was sent to UK practicing pharmacists examining their current communication skills and interest in behavioural counselling techniques such as Motivational Interviewing (MI). A second survey was sent to all UK Schools of Pharmacy investigating communication skills training and teaching...
December 12, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Xiaoli Liu, Huaimin Liu, Suxia Luo
RATIONALE: For metastatic non-small cell lung cancer with no epidermal growth factor receptor mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangements, programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade is preferentially recommended post first-line chemotherapy. However, still many patients do not respond to these agents. After development of resistance to PD-1 blockade, further evaluation of chemotherapy regimen will be necessary. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year old man had cough with minimal whitish expectoration...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dan Yang, Wei-Ping Zhang, Jian-Min Yang, Miao-Xia He, Chao Cheng, Jie Chen
RATIONALE: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a neoplasm of large B lymphoid cells that exhibits diffuse growth patterns. Patients may present with nodal and/or extranodal disease. The most common extranodal site is the gastrointestinal tract, while skin is less common. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of secondary skin involvement of an original gastric DLBCL, which has achieved a complete response after treatment with chidamide. DIAGNOSES: Initially, the diagnosis of gastric DLBCL is clear, and this patient responded well to systemic chemotherapy (rituximab + cyclophosphamide + epirubicin + vincristine + prednisone) after 8 cycles...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEThe objective of this study was to assess long-term outcomes of facial pain and numbness after radiosurgery for multiple sclerosis (MS)-related trigeminal neuralgia (MS-TN).METHODSThe authors conducted a retrospective review of their Gamma Knife radiosurgeries (GKRSs) to identify all patients treated for MS-TN (1998-2014) with at least 3 years of follow-up. Treatment and clinical data were obtained via chart review and mailed or telephone surveys. Pain control was defined as a facial pain score of I-IIIb on the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) Facial Pain Intensity Scale...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
D M Lamot, D Sapkota, P J A Wijtten, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
The current study aimed to investigate whether diet density affects growth performance and nutrient digestion during the first wk after hatch and digestive organ weight at 7 d of age. Effects were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5%). The dietary fat level was increased through soybean oil inclusion. Amino acids, minerals, and the premix were increased at the same ratio as dietary fat. Consequently, diets were kept neither isocaloric nor isonitrogenous...
December 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Sakineh Pirahmadi, Sedigheh Zakeri, Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Leila Karimi, Navid Dinparast Djadid
Currently, there is no subunit malaria vaccine capable of providing long-lasting protection, and a vaccine based on a single-antigen has shown moderate to unsatisfactory efficacies in clinical trials. As in malaria elimination and eradication strategies, the primary objective is reduction in disease and death due to P. falciparum, in the present investigation, for the first time, we attempted to determine and compare the naturally acquired immune responses to two well-recognized sporozoite antigens, cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS) and thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP), in P...
December 10, 2018: Acta Tropica
Stefanie Hoehl, Gabriela Markova
Infants' cognitive development and learning rely profoundly on their interactions with other people. In the first year, infants become increasingly sensitive to others' gaze and use it to focus their own attention on relevant visual input. However, infants are not passive observers in early social interactions, and these exchanges are characterized by high levels of contingency and reciprocity. Wass and colleagues offer first insights into the neurobehavioral dynamics of caregiver-infant interactions, demonstrating that caregivers' scalp-recorded theta band activity responds to their infant's changes in attention, and parental brain activation is associated with infants' sustenance of attention...
December 2018: PLoS Biology
Candace Borders, Frank Hsu, Alexander J Sweidan, Emily S Matei, Robert G Bota
Studies suggest deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a treatment modality for the refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It is unclear where to place the DBS. Various sites are proposed for placement with the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) among the most studied. Herein, we aim to summarize both quantitative Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) data and qualitative descriptions of the participants' symptoms when given. A literature search conducted via PubMed yielded 32 articles. We sought to apply a standard based on the utilization of YBOCS...
November 6, 2018: Mental Illness
Antonio V Aubry, Hameda Khandaker, Rebecca Ravenelle, Itamar S Grunfeld, Valentina Bonnefil, Kenny L Chan, Flurin Cathomas, Jia Liu, Glenn E Schafe, Nesha S Burghardt
Chronic exposure to stress is a well-known risk factor for the development of mood and anxiety disorders. Promoting resilience to stress may prevent the development of these disorders, but resilience-enhancing compounds are not yet clinically available. One compound that has shown promise in the clinical setting is curcumin, a polyphenol compound found in the rhizome of the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa) with known anti-inflammatory and antidepressant properties. Here, we tested the efficacy of 1.5% dietary curcumin at promoting resilience to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) in 129/SvEv mice, a strain that we show is highly susceptible to this type of stress...
December 12, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kazuichi Okazaki, Kazushige Uchida
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder recognized as a novel clinical entity with either synchronous or metachronous multi-organ involvement. Patients with IgG4-RD show diffuse or focal organ enlargement and mass-forming or nodular/thickened lesions with abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacytes and fibrosis, and such patients respond well to steroid treatment. It should be differentiated from mimics by a combination of serum IgG4 level, imaging features, and histopathological findings...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Liang Li, Fang Fu, Shanshan Guo, Hongfeng Wang, Xijun He, Mei Xue, Lingdan Yin, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the group of alphacoronaviruses, is the pathogen of a highly contagious gastrointestinal swine disease. The elucidation of the events associated with the intestinal epithelial response to PEDV infection has been limited by the absence of good in vitro porcine intestinal models that recapitulate the multicellular complexity of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we generated swine enteroids from the intestinal crypt stem cells of the duodenum, jejunum, or ileum, and found that the generated enteroids are able to satisfactorily recapitulate the complicated intestinal epithelium in vivo and are susceptible to infection by PEDV...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
P M López Vázquez, S Cinza Sanjurjo, M Portela Romero
Studies of research with human beings, their biological specimens, or their personal data in the field of biomedicine have been subject to regulation since the middle of the last century. Initially a regulation based on recommendations such as the Nuremberg Code, the Belmont Report or the first versions of the Declaration of Helsinki. All of them documents in which the principles (autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice) were conceptualized, and that all researchers had to follow in the development of their research...
December 9, 2018: Semergen
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