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Atypical agents

S Valade, L Biard, V Lemiale, L Argaud, F Pène, L Papazian, F Bruneel, A Seguin, A Kouatchet, J Oziel, S Rouleau, N Bele, K Razazi, O Lesieur, F Boissier, B Megarbane, N Bigé, N Brulé, A S Moreau, A Lautrette, O Peyrony, P Perez, J Mayaux, E Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CP) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) patients could require intensive care unit (ICU) admission for acute respiratory failure. METHODS: Adults admitted between 2000 and 2015 to 20 French ICUs with proven atypical pneumonia were retrospectively described. Patients with MP were compared to Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) pneumonia patients admitted to ICUs. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients were included, 71 men and 33 women, with a median age of 56 [44-67] years...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Margo D M Faay, Pál Czobor, Iris E C Sommer
As violence against self and others is an important outcome in the treatment of patients with psychosis-spectrum disorders and hostility is an important indicator for violence, we set out to evaluate the effects of different types of antipsychotic agents in reducing hostility. We performed a systematic literature search, which provided 18 suitable randomized studies comparing typical to atypical antipsychotics for at least 4 weeks in patients with psychotic disorders. Results showed a small (0.26) but significant effect for atypical as compared to typical antipsychotics, with high heterogeneity, even though the mean dose of typical antipsychotics was higher...
July 23, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Olivier Gaudin, Feyrouz Toukal, Camille Hua, Nicolas Ortonne, Haudrey Assier, Arnaud Jannic, Elena Giménez-Arnau, Pierre Wolkenstein, Olivier Chosidow, Saskia Ingen-Housz-Oro
Importance: Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is widely used for cosmetic and culinary purposes. Cases of severe acute contact dermatitis due to NSO are poorly described, with no histologic description. Objectives: To describe the clinical and histologic features of severe acute contact dermatitis due to NSO and investigate the components responsible for such eruptions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A case series study of 3 patients with contact dermatitis admitted to the dermatology department between August 21, 2009, and February 19, 2017, was conducted...
August 1, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Antoni Domagala, Klaudyna Fidyt, Malgorzata Bobrowicz, Joanna Stachura, Kacper Szczygiel, Malgorzata Firczuk
Lysosomes are conservative organelles with an indispensable role in cellular degradation and the recycling of macromolecules. However, in light of recent findings, it has emerged that the role of lysosomes in cancer cells extends far beyond cellular catabolism and includes a variety of cellular pathways, such as proliferation, metastatic potential, and drug resistance. It has been well described that malignant transformation leads to alterations in lysosomal structure and function, which, paradoxically, renders cancer cells more sensitive to lysosomal destabilization...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Joshua Osowicki, Andrew C Steer
AIM: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) complicated by pleural empyema is an important paediatric problem. Antibiotic management decisions are made on the basis of little available data and without strong specific recommendations in guidelines. METHODS: This was an online survey of paediatric infectious diseases (PID) physicians disseminated by major international professional organisations, examining empiric and targeted antibiotic choice, switch to oral antibiotics and duration of treatment for two hypothetical cases of contrasting severity...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Francisco López-Muñoz, Winston W Shen, Pilar D'Ocon, Alejandro Romero, Cecilio Álamo
In this paper, the authors review the history of the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder, from the first nonspecific sedative agents introduced in the 19th and early 20th century, such as solanaceae alkaloids, bromides and barbiturates, to John Cade's experiments with lithium and the beginning of the so-called "Psychopharmacological Revolution" in the 1950s. We also describe the clinical studies and development processes, enabling the therapeutic introduction of pharmacological agents currently available for the treatment of bipolar disorder in its different phases and manifestations...
July 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anna Evdokimova, Stanislas Laurent, Laurent Dorthu
We present an atypical case of a 69-year-old woman with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis and a background history of mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma. It is emphasized that in the framework of biliary malignant obstruction, modern non-invasive techniques like Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with hepatospecific contrast agent and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) may help establish the specific cause of the obstruction before any biliary decompression procedure is carried out. This strategy has the potential to prevent from more important tumour spread and provide a greater chance for curative surgery when applicable...
January 31, 2018: Journal of the Belgian Society of Radiology
Yanmei Xu, Hui Sun, Xiangning Bai, Shanshan Fu, Ruyue Fan, Yanwen Xiong
Background: Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) is regarded as a globally emerging enteropathogen. aEPECs exhibit various level of resistance to a range of antibiotics, which is increasing alarmingly. The present study investigated the antimicrobial resistance of aEPEC isolates recovered from diarrheal patients, healthy carriers, animals, and raw meats. Results: Among 267 aEPEC isolates, 146 (54.7%) were resistant to tetracycline, followed by ampicillin (49...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Susan Hatters Friedman, Ryan C W Hall, Renée M Sorrentino
When a patient with acute psychosis refuses antipsychotic medication despite a clear need for treatment, involuntary medication is often considered. When the patient is both pregnant and acutely unwell, an additional layer of analysis enters the picture. This analysis then also includes the health of the mother and fetus, rights of the mother and fetus, and whose rights take precedence when choosing treatment options in event of a conflict. Antipsychotic agents are frequently the medications prescribed as involuntary treatment...
June 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Daisuke Ibi, Justin M Saunders, Travis Cuddy, Maryum K Ijaz, Rudy Toneatti, Mitsumasa Kurita, Terrell Holloway, Li Shen, Jeremy Seto, Mikhail G Dozmorov, Javier González-Maeso
Antipsychotic drugs, including both typical such as haloperidol and atypical such as clozapine, remain the current standard for schizophrenia treatment. These agents are relatively effective in treating hallucinations and delusions. However, cognitive deficits are at present essentially either persistent or exacerbated following chronic antipsychotic drug exposure. This underlines the need of new therapeutic approaches to improve cognition in treated schizophrenia patients. Our previous findings suggested that upregulation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression upon chronic antipsychotic treatment may lead to negative effects on cognition and cortical synaptic structure...
July 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Maverick Clissold, Simon F Crowe
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the two most commonly prescribed classes of atypical antipsychotic medications (i.e., -pines and -dones) with regard to their effects on cognition in patients with schizophrenia. DATA SOURCES: Ovid Technologies web-based software was used to search the Medline and PsycINFO computerized databases to identify articles that met the inclusion criteria. REVIEW METHODS: The search was limited to papers published after 1990, written in English, employing human subjects, using atypical antipsychotics, using a within-subjects design or control group of patients with schizophrenia for comparisons, using participants aged from 18-65, and employing standardized neuropsychological measures...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
M A Lantinga, R G L de Sévaux, T J G Gevers, W J G Oyen, J W de Fijter, D Soonawala, R Zietse, M Salih, N F Casteleijn, E M Spithoven, E Meijer, R T Gansevoort, J P H Drenth On Behalf Of The Dipak Consortium
BACKGROUND: Cyst infection may occur in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD). Antimicrobial agents often fail to control infection, leading to invasive action. We aimed to identify factors predicting escalation of care. METHODS: ADPKD and ADPLD patients were identified from local/national databases (2001-2013). Records were screened for patients meeting criteria for cyst infection (positive cyst aspirate and/or clinical findings)...
July 2018: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Frederick Pfister, Kerstin Amann, Christoph Daniel, Monika Klewer, Anke Büttner, Maike Büttner-Herold
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a microvascular pathology caused by several drugs used in cancer therapy. Agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have increasingly been used in therapy of advanced malignancies and have been found to induce renal TMA and proteinuria. However, histomorphological changes in human biopsies in this setting and the underlying mechanism are not yet fully understood. METHODS: Renal biopsies of 15 patients with anti-VEGF therapy (aVEGF) evaluated between 2013 and 2017 at a single centre were morphologically characterized using light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IgA, IgG, IgM, C1q, C3) and compared to cases with acute TMA caused by atypical haemolytic uramic syndrome or hypertension...
July 17, 2018: Histopathology
Mailan Natarajan, Deepika Kumar, Jharna Mandal, Niranjan Biswal, Selvaraj Stephen
BACKGROUND: Emergence of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and hybrid E. coli (harboring genes of more than one DEC pathotypes) strains have complicated the issue of growing antibiotic resistance in diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). This ongoing evolution occurs in nature predominantly via horizontal gene transfers involving the mobile genetic elements like integrons notably class 1 integron. This study was undertaken to determine the virulence pattern and antibiotic resistance among the circulating DEC strains in a tertiary care center in south of India...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Kamal Patel, Emma Spowart, Dana Sochorova, Nadia Diego, Georgios Mamarelis, Mohammad Zain Sohail
Subscapular abscess is an uncommon condition which requires early recognition followed by prompt surgical intervention. We present a case of spontaneous subscapular abscess following blunt trauma to the shoulder in a patient with a history of recurrent superficial soft tissue infections, in which Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing S. aureus was identified as the infectious agent. This strain due to its virulence can lead to fatal infections in otherwise healthy individuals; therefore, a high index of suspicion is needed to investigate with an MRI to rule out abscess formation in a patient with acute shoulder girdle pain and negative joint aspirate...
2018: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Wenjing Wei, Shuai Zhang, Joy Fleming, Ying Chen, Zihui Li, Shanghua Fan, Yi Liu, Wei Wang, Ting Wang, Ying Liu, Baiguang Ren, Ming Wang, Jianjian Jiao, Yuanyuan Chen, Ying Zhou, Yafeng Zhou, Shoujin Gu, Xiaoli Zhang, Li Wan, Tao Chen, Lin Zhou, Yong Chen, Xian-En Zhang, Chuanyou Li, Hongtai Zhang, Lijun Bi
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) systems are prokaryotic adaptive immune systems against invading nucleic acids. CRISPR locus variability has been exploited in evolutionary and epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, for over 20 yr, yet the biological function of this type III-A system is largely unexplored. Here, using cell biology and biochemical, mutagenic, and RNA-seq approaches, we show it is active in invader defense and has features atypical of type III-A systems: mature CRISPR RNA (crRNA) in its crRNA-CRISPR/Cas protein complex are of uniform length (∼71 nt) and appear not to be subject to 3'-end processing after Cas6 cleavage of repeat RNA 8 nt from its 3' end...
July 6, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Réka Gál, Rodica Bălaşa, Zoltán Bajkó, Smaranda Maier, Iunius Simu, Adrian Bălaşa
Giant cell arteritis is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis, typically involving the superficial temporal arteries, but with possible ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular complications. The case is reported of a patient with a clinical picture of giant cell arteritis, who had multiple occupational exposures to various infectious agents. His initial favourable progress was followed by an atypical outcome. Despite immunosuppressive treatment, he developed fatal subarachnoid and intracerebral haemorrhages, possibly due to rupture of a microaneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery...
October 2017: Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Zuojie Zhang, Chunsong Yang, Ling-Li Zhang, Qiusha Yi, Bo Liu, Jing Zeng, Dan Yu
The efficacy of all pharmacotherapies for patients suffering from tics were unclear. Literatures were searched from Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and four Chinese databases. The primary efficacy outcome scale was defined as the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Overall estimates of pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each outcome measure. A total of 53 trials were included. Meta-analysis suggested that alpha-2 adrenergic agonist agents and atypical antipsychotic agents were effective in improving tics, which included the maximum number of trials...
June 15, 2018: Oncotarget
Pedram Normohamadpur, Forugh Ghaedi
Although leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran the mucosal involvement is rare. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) mainly caused by Leishmanial braziliensis infection, reported with other Leishmania species such as L. major . Herein a 78 yr old man with MCL from Iran is presented who referred to Razi Hospital Dermatology Clinic, Tehran, Iran, for multiple ulcerative lesions on mid face skin, mucosa of upper lip and anterior fossa of nose, dorsal aspect of the hands and the posterior aspect of heels. Skin biopsy revealed necrotizing and granulomatous tissue pattern that suggested infection pathogenesis but the smear for leishmaniasis, Mycobacterium spp, and fungal elements was negative at first...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Hande Celiker, Haluk Kazokoglu, Muhsin Eraslan, Eren Cerman, Levent Karabas
Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a syndrome which is characterized by lymphadenopathy, fever, and skin lesions in association with a cat scratch or bite. Bartonella henselae is the primary bacterial agent responsible for CSD. Here we report serologically proven atypical presentation cases of B henselae neuroretinitis. In this study, three neuroretinitis patients were evaluated. Animal contact histories, ocular examinations, systemic work-up, clinical findings, and treatment compliance of the patients were assessed...
June 29, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
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