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Atypical agents

Duncan A A MacLaren, Trisha L Ljungberg, Meghan E Griffin, Stewart D Clark
PSP is the most common atypical Parkinsonism. Although Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) shares some symptomology with Parkinson's Disease (PD), PSP has a different underlying pathology characterized by tau aggregation. Furthermore, PSP sufferers respond poorly to PD medications and there are no effective alternative therapeutics. The development of both palliative and disease altering therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that displays relevant PSP-like pathology and behavioral deficits...
October 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Nevine R El Baroudy, Amira S El Refay, Tamer A Abdel Hamid, Dina M Hassan, May S Soliman, Lobna Sherif
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are one of the prevalent pediatric diseases. Coinfections of respiratory viruses and atypical bacterial respiratory pathogens are common. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of co-infection between respiratory pathogens including viruses, bacteria and atypical bacteria in a sample of Egyptian children presenting with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection. METHODS: This one-year prospective cohort study conducted in Abo El Rish Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University over one year included children presenting with symptoms of acute respiratory infection...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Elena Monica Borroni, Benedetta Savino, Raffaella Bonecchi, Massimo Locati
As main drivers of leukocyte recruitment during inflammatory reactions, chemokines act as mediatrs of alarmins in priming host defense responses after tissue exposure to toxic or infectious agents, immunomediated damage, and in inflammation-driven tumors. Chemokines can therefore be considered alarm signals generated by tissues in a broad number of conditions, and mechanisms controlling chemokines biological activities are therefore key to regulate tissue reactions induced by alarmins. By transporting, presenting or scavenging different sets of chemokines, atypical chemokine receptors represent an emerign subfamily of chemokine receptors which operates in tissues as chemokine gatekeepers in order to establish and shape their gradients and coordinate leukocyte recruitment...
October 15, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Kun-Hung Lai, Chih-Yung Chiang, Rong-Sen Yang, Kai-Chiang Yang, Chang-Chin Wu
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have a high prevalence of osteoporosis, and different osteoporosis drugs are used to prevent fractures in these patients. Although the overall incidence of complete or incomplete, atypical femoral fracture (AFF) is low, long-term use of antiresorptive agents is associated with an increased risk of developing AFF. METHODS: We present a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with recurrent symptoms of an incomplete AFF who had been treated with glucocorticoids, and sequentially with alendronate, zoledronic acid, strontium ranelate, raloxifene, denosumab and finally with teriparatide...
October 19, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
S A Demura, E A Kogan, V L Goryachkina
The review of the literature deals with the participation of Clara cells now called club cells (CCs) of the epithelium in the respiratory and terminal bronchioles in the pathogenesis and morphogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, precancer, and cancer of the lung, which develop in the respiratory segments. The review summarizes data on the histophysiology of CCs and their participation in the pathogenesis and morphogenesis of chronic interstitial lung diseases, pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive diseases, adenomatosis, and adenocarcinoma of the lung...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
Nicole A Kratochwil, Stephen R Dueker, Dieter Muri, Claudia Senn, HyeJin Yoon, Byung-Yong Yu, Gwan-Ho Lee, Feng Dong, Michael B Otteneder
New therapeutic biological entities such as bispecific antibodies targeting tissue or specific cell populations form an increasingly important part of the drug development portfolio. However, these biopharmaceutical agents bear the risk of extensive target-mediated drug disposition or atypical pharmacokinetic properties as compared to canonical antibodies. Pharmacokinetics and bio-distribution studies become therefore more and more important during lead optimization. Biologics present, however, greater analytical challenges than small molecule drugs due to the mass and selectivity limitation of mass spectrometry and ligand-binding assay, respectively...
2018: PloS One
J Rasch, C M Ünal, A Klages, Ü Karsli, N Heinsohn, R M H J Brouwer, M Richter, A Dellmann, M Steinert
The gamma-proteobacterium Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, an atypical pneumonia that manifests itself with severe lung damage. L. pneumophila , a common inhabitant of fresh water environments, replicates in free-living amoebae, and persists in biofilms in natural and man-made water systems. Its environmental versatility is reflected in its ability to survive and grow within a broad temperature range as well as its capability to colonize and infect a wide range of hosts including protozoa and humans...
October 15, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Ayush Agarwal, Deepti Vibha, Rohan Chawla, Mehar Chand Sharma
We present a case of a 23-year-old man with history of fever followed by painless complete vision loss, with subsequent new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). He initially developed bilateral retinitis. A few days later, he started having focal seizures, and subsequently developed super-refractory status epilepticus, requiring anaesthetic agents. MRI brain revealed multifocal cortical and subcortical hyperintensities in occipital and temporoparietal regions without contrast enhancement. MRI repeated a month later showed new lesions with non-visualisation of some previous lesions...
October 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Morten Schultz Larsen, Hagen Schmal
Atypical femoral fractures (AFF) are stress or 'insufficiency' fractures, often complicated by the use of bisphosphonates or other bone turnover inhibitors. While these drugs are beneficial for the intact osteoporotic bone, they probably prevent a stress fracture from healing which thus progresses to a complete fracture.Key features of atypical femoral fractures, essential for the diagnosis, are: location in the subtrochanteric region and diaphysis; lack of trauma history and comminution; and a transverse or short oblique configuration...
September 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Rana Altan-Yaycioglu
PURPOSE: To present a case with unusual epithelial basement membrane detachment. METHODS: A 29-year-old female presented with blurred-vision and pain in left-eye for 2 months. Slit-lamp showed almost total bullous epithelial detachment with subepithelial fluid, and intraocular pressure rise. Recurrences were observed, despite repeated epithelial debridement and topical medication. RESULTS: Decrease in corneal endothelial cell density and changes resembling cytomegalovirus (CMV) keratitis were noted on specular microscopy...
October 10, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Emma C Tallantyre, Neil P Robertson, Stephen Jolles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Induction of lymphocyte depletion is increasingly used as a therapeutic strategy for central and peripheral neuroinflammatory disease. However, there is also a growing recognition of the treatment-related complication of secondary antibody deficiency (SAD). Although the occurrence of hypogammaglobulinaemia is a recognized phenomenon during immunomodulation, robust data on the coexistence of impaired responses to immunization, and significant and/or atypical infections is scarce...
October 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Rupesh Raina, Vinod Krishnappa, Taryn Blaha, Taylor Kann, William Hein, Linda Burk, Arvind Bagga
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), a rare variant of thrombotic microangiopathy, is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment. The condition is associated with poor clinical outcomes with high morbidity and mortality. Atypical HUS predominantly affects the kidneys but has the potential to cause multi-organ system dysfunction. This uncommon disorder is caused by a genetic abnormality in the complement alternative pathway resulting in over-activation of the complement system and formation of microvascular thrombi...
October 8, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Zyta B Wojszel, Małgorzata Toczyńska-Silkiewicz
Purpose: Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most frequently occurring infectious diseases in the geriatric population. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and clinical features of UTIs in geriatric in-patients and their association with health and functional ability characteristics. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was conducted among patients hospitalized on the geriatric ward. Patients were interviewed, examined, and had their hospital records analyzed...
2018: European Geriatric Medicine
Katie E Barber, Alison M Bell, Mary Joyce B Wingler, Jamie L Wagner, Kayla R Stover
Omadacycline is a novel aminomethylcycline seeking approval for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. This article reviews existing data pertaining to the biochemistry, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, in vitro activity, and current progress with omadacycline in clinical trials. Omadacycline inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome at the tetracycline binding site with an affinity similar to glycylcyclines...
October 5, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Maxi Wass, Marcus Bauer, Roald Pfannes, Kerstin Lorenz, Andreas Odparlik, Lutz P Müller, Claudia Wickenhauser
BACKGROUND: Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) of the T-/NK-cell type, systemic form is a rare and potentially life-threatening illness caused by persistent EBV infection. The highest incidence is found in children and adolescents with increased frequency among Asians and Native Americans, while the disease is uncommon in Western countries. Typically patients present with unspecific symptoms, like fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and liver dysfunction...
October 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
Mingliang Li, Jun Joelle Wang
A direct C(sp2 )-H thiolation of aromatic amides with disulfides was developed. The coupling reaction proceeds between the thioether radical and cobaltacycle intermediate. This method exhibits a relatively broad substrate scope and high functional group compatibility. A mechanistic study indicates that the cobalt(IV) intermediate is probably formed during the course of the reaction. The thiolation product can be transformed to Quetiapine, which is an atypical antipsychotic agent approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
October 4, 2018: Organic Letters
Avantika Mishra, Darren N Seril
Biological agents are frequently used in the management of inflammatory bowel disease, and it is important to understand the potential adverse effects of these therapies. Ustekinumab is a human monoclonal antibody that interferes with interleukin-12 and -23 cytokine signaling and is approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Crohn's disease. We report 2 cases of neurological adverse events, one of which is consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), in the setting of ustekinumab therapy for Crohn's disease...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Shuonan Pan, Yulin Yan, Kaichuang Shi, Minmin Wang, Chunxiao Mou, Zhenhai Chen
As one of emerging porcine viruses, atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) was found in three continents since it emerged in 2015. It is now thought as the causative agent for congenital tremor type A-II in piglets. At the end of 2017, two APPV strains were identified from piglets with congenital tremor in Guangxi and Yunnan, China. The genome of APPV GX04/2017 strain was so far determined to be 11,534 nucleotides (nt) in length and contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein comprising 3,635 amino acids...
October 3, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Dema T Alniemi, Alyssa Fischer, Laura A Greene, Joseph C Pierson
Ipilimumab is an immune-modulating drug that is being used today for various cancers including metastatic malignant melanoma. Owing to its mechanism of action, several adverse events have been reported, including some affecting skin. In this work, we report a novel display of multiple ipilimumab-associated halo lichenoid reactions surrounding benign nevi during treatment of metastatic melanoma. A patient underwent treatment with ipilimumab for treatment of stage IIIC melanoma at our center and was monitored for progress and adverse events throughout treatment...
July 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
Lovlesh Thakur, Kiran K Singh, Vinay Shanker, Ajeet Negi, Aklank Jain, Greg Matlashewski, Manju Jain
BACKGROUND: Among the neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis continues to be prevalent in many tropical and subtropical countries despite international, national, and local efforts towards its control and elimination over the last decade. This warrants a critical evaluation of such factors as under-reporting, asymptomatic infections, post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases, and drug resistance. In this review, we highlight lesser-understood atypical presentations of the disease involving atypical parasite strains against a background of classical leishmaniasis with a focus on the Indian subcontinent...
September 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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