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Atypical agents

Nuno Cerveira, Rosa Branca Ferreira, Susana Bizarro, Cecília Correia, Lurdes Torres, Susana Lisboa, Joana Vieira, Rui Santos, Fernando Campilho, Carlos Pinho Vaz, Luís Leite, Manuel R Teixeira, António Campos
BACKGROUND: Atypical BCR-ABL1 transcripts are detected in less than 5% of patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), of which e19a2 is the most frequently observed, with breakpoints in the micro breakpoint cluster region (μ-BCR) and coding for the p230 BCR-ABL1 protein. p230 CML is associated with various clinical presentations and courses with variable responses to first-line imatinib. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a case of imatinib resistance due to an E255V mutation, followed by early post-transplant relapse with a T315I mutation that achieved a persistent negative deep molecular response (MR5...
December 7, 2018: BMC Cancer
Amanda C Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality among children under 5 years worldwide. However, the choices of chemical therapy for the empirical treatment of CAP are frequently debated. Areas covered: The authors provide an update on the chemical management recommendations for childhood CAP. The authors have performed a MEDLINE literature search, using the keywords 'guidelines,' 'community-acquired pneumonia,' AND 'children.' Articles published in English, providing consensual recommendations on management of children >2 months and <5 years with CAP but without HIV infection, were included...
December 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Giacomo Emmi, Alessandra Bettiol, Elena Silvestri, Gerardo Di Scala, Matteo Becatti, Claudia Fiorillo, Domenico Prisco
Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a complex vasculitis, characterised by peculiar histological, pathogenetic and clinical features. Superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are the most frequent vascular involvements, affecting altogether 15-40% of BS patients. Atypical thrombosis is also an important clinical feature of BS, involving the vascular districts of the inferior and superior vena cava, suprahepatic veins with Budd-Chiari syndrome, portal vein, cerebral sinuses and right ventricle...
November 29, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Maria Guillermina Ferraresso, Ana Clara Torre, Maria Manuela Martínez Piva, Laura Barcan
Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis caused by a protozoan agent called Trypanosoma cruzi. It is mainly transmitted by a hematophagous vector, and less frequently by blood transfusion, transplacental and solid organ transplant. In most cases, primary infection is not diagnosed and the disease progresses to a chronic phase. Immunosuppressed patients are a vulnerable population that may present an acute, atypical and severe reactivation of the chronic form of this disease. We hereby report a case of a female patient, who received a renal transplant with immunosuppressive treatment, who was diagnosed with a chagasic hypodermitis secondary to an acute reactivation of a chronic phase of this disease...
November 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Irene E G van Hellemond, Annemarie M Thijs, Geert-Jan Creemers
Capecitabine is an oral fluoropyrimidine used as adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer. Diarrhea is a well-known side effect of capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil agents. We present a case with terminal ileitis as a rare adverse event of capecitabine treatment. Capecitabine-induced terminal ileitis is likely to be underreported. It should be considered more often as a cause of severe and atypical complaints of diarrhea during treatment with capecitabine or other 5-fluorouracil agents...
September 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Ulrika Marking, Berit Hammas, Malin Grabbe, Christian Giske
Psittacosis, parrot fever, is an infectious disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, a common pathogen among birds. The clinical course ranges from a mild flu-like illness to severe disease that requires intensive care in humans. We report three cases of severe pneumonia where C. psittaci was unexpectedly detected during routine validation of a new C. psittaci PCR assay. Psittacosis is a notifiable disease in Sweden and national statistics show that 96% of Swedish psittacosis cases were identified in five of the 24 microbiological laboratories available in the country...
November 27, 2018: Läkartidningen
Lavicie R Arais, André V Barbosa, João R C Andrade, Tânia A T Gomes, Marise D Asensi, Caio A M Aires, Aloysio M F Cerqueira
Recent studies point atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) to be an important agent in childhood diarrhoea in Brazil. aEPEC are commonly found in various animal species, including dogs. Although the true zoonotic risk remains unknown, some strains recovered from dogs present the same serotypes and carry the same virulence genes implicated in human disease. In this study, we compared the virulence and genetic relationship among a set of aEPEC strains previously isolated from diarrheic faeces from companion dogs and humans...
December 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
F Broccolo, F Drago, G Ciccarese, A Genoni, A Puggioni, G M Rosa, A Parodi, H Manukyan, M Laassri, K Chumakov, A Toniolo
BACKGROUND: Typically, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a mild childhood illness associated with coxsackievirus (CV)-A16, CV-A6, enterovirus (EV)-A71. OBJECTIVES: To identify the viral agents associated with severe cases of atypical HFMD in Italy. STUDY DESIGN: Epidemiologically unrelated cases of severe atypical HFMD admitted to the Emergency Room (ER) of IRCCS San Martino IST (Genoa, Italy) in 2014-2016 were investigated. Serologic screening for viral positivity was performed against exanthem-inducing agents...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Marta Miarons, Laia Rofes
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effect of antipsychotic medication on dysphagia based on clinical case reports. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Literature searches were performed using the electronic databases PubMed and Embase. In PubMed, we used the MeSH terms "antipsychotic agents" OR "tranquilizing agents" combined with "deglutition disorders" OR "deglutition". In Embase, we used the Emtree terms "neuroleptic agents" combined with "swallowing" OR "dysphagia"...
November 20, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Michał Burdukiewicz, Piotr Sobczyk, Jarosław Chilimoniuk, Przemysław Gagat, Paweł Mackiewicz
Signal peptides are N-terminal presequences responsible for targeting proteins to the endomembrane system, and subsequent subcellular or extracellular compartments, and consequently condition their proper function. The significance of signal peptides stimulates development of new computational methods for their detection. These methods employ learning systems trained on datasets comprising signal peptides from different types of proteins and taxonomic groups. As a result, the accuracy of predictions are high in the case of signal peptides that are well-represented in databases, but might be low in other, atypical cases...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Evangelia Kalaitzoglou, John L Fowlkes, Iuliana Popescu, Kathryn M Thrailkill
Persons with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D) have a significantly higher fracture risk than age-matched persons without diabetes, attributed to disease-specific deficits in the microarchitecture and material properties of bone tissue. Therefore, independent effects of diabetes drugs on skeletal integrity are vitally important. Studies of incretin-based therapies have shown divergent effects of different agents on fracture risk, including detrimental, beneficial and neutral effects. The sulfonylurea class of drugs, owing to its hypoglycemic potential, is thought to amplify the risk of fall-related fractures, particularly in the elderly...
November 22, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Sara Castiglioni, Valentina Romeo, Silvana Casati, Roberta Ottria, Cristiana Perrotta, Pierangela Ciuffreda, Jeanette A M Maier
N6-isopentenyladenosine is an anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic atypical nucleoside for normal and tumor cells. Considering the role of angiogenesis in various diseases, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of N6-isopentenyladenosine on human microvascular endothelial cells, protagonists in angiogenesis. Our results show that N6-isopentenyladenosine induced a significant reduction of cell viability, upregulated p21 and promoted caspase-3 cleavage in a dose dependent manner leading to apoptotic cell death as detected by FACS analysis...
November 22, 2018: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Chaithanya Kotyada, Mintu Chandra, Aashutosh Tripathi, Anil R Narooka, Sunando Datta, Akash Verma
Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, liver abscess and colitis, exploits its vesicular trafficking machinery for survival and virulence. Rab family of small GTPases play a key role in the vesicular transport by undergoing the GTP/GDP cycle which is central to the biological processes. Amoebic genome encodes several atypical Rab GTPases which are unique due to absence of conserved sequence motif(s) or atypical residues in their catalytic site [Saito-Nakano et al., 2005 ]. Previously, EhRab21 has been reported to involve in amoebic invasion and migration [Emmanuel et al...
November 30, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sucharit Basu Neogi, Nityananda Chowdhury, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Masahiro Asakura, Kentaro Okuno, Zahid Hayat Mahmud, Mohammad Sirajul Islam, Atsushi Hinenoya, Gopinath Balakrish Nair, Shinji Yamasaki
Atypical El Tor strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 harboring variant ctxB genes of cholera toxin (CT) are gradually becoming a major cause of recent cholera epidemics. Vibrio mimicus occasionally produces CT, encoded by ctxAB on CTXФ genome; and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), a major intestinal colonization factor and also the CTXФ-specific receptor. This study carried out extensive molecular characterization of CTXФ and ToxT regulon in ctx+ve strains of V. mimicus isolated from the Bengal coast. Southern hybridization, PCR, and DNA sequencing of virulence related-genes revealed the presence of an El Tor type CTX prophage (CTXET ) carrying a novel ctxAB , tandem copies of environmental type pre-CTX prophage (pre-CTXEnv ), and RS1 elements, which were organized in an array of RS1-CTXET -RS1-pre-CTXEnv -pre-CTXEnv Additionally, a novel variant of tcpA and toxT respectively, showing phylogenetic lineage to a clade of V...
November 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mohammad Hadi Karbalaie Niya, Mina Mobini Kesheh, Glavizh Keshtmand, Ali Basi, Hamidreza Rezvani, Farid Imanzade, Mahshid Panahi, Nasser Rakhshani
The human papilloma virus (HPV) as a major causative agent of different cancers is under investigation globally. In this study, we aim to investigate HPV infection in different cytological and pathological stages by different molecular methods, and then the viral genome integration of HPV-16 and -18 is determined by a specific real-time PCR method. The study included women who underwent liquid-based cytology. HPV PCR was conducted by MY09/11 universal primers, HPV genotyping was performed by INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping assay, and the viral genome status was defined by two real-time PCR assays...
November 15, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Nina Anika Richarz, Luis Puig, Noelia Pérez, Jose Cuadra-Urteaga, Elena Elez, Maria Teresa Fernández-Figueras
Neutrophilic panniculitis is an infrequent but characteristic adverse event under therapy with BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi). Since the approval of vemurafenib for treatment of metastatic melanoma in 2011, only two cases of neutrophilic panniculitis in malignancies other than melanoma have been published. Histiocytoid infiltrates of immature neutrophils resembling histiocytes or myelocytes have been reported in Sweet's syndrome and rarely in other neutrophilic dermatoses. We describe a novel variant of neutrophilic panniculitis with histiocytoid myeloid cells in an early lesion from a patient treated with vemurafenib in combination with an anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) agent for metastatic colon carcinoma, three weeks after initiation of therapy...
November 14, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Zhiqiang Wu, Bo Liu, Jiang Du, Junpeng Zhang, Liang Lu, Guangjian Zhu, Yelin Han, Haoxiang Su, Li Yang, Shuyi Zhang, Qiyong Liu, Qi Jin
Bats and rodents are widely distributed worldwide and can be native or intermediate reservoirs of many important zoonotic viruses. Pestiviruses are a group of virus species of the genus Pestivirus under the family Flaviviridae that can infect a wide variety of artiodactylous hosts, including swine and ruminants. Two classic types of pestiviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus and classical swine fever virus, are important causative agents of mild-to-severe disease in bovine and swine hosts, respectively, and cause tremendous economic losses in these industries...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hui Liu, Hong Xiang, Ruixue Mu, Palida Tuoerhan, Qianqian Zeng, Huili Zhou, Rong Hu, Gulinaer Shahai
Objective: To evaluate the value of transvaginal two-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (2D-CEUS) in the diagnosis of atypical ovarian corpus luteum hematoma (AT-OCLH). Methods: A prospective study was performed on 53 consecutive patients with suspected AT-OCLH, and the diagnostic results by transvaginal 2D-CEUS were statistically compared with the gold standard. The gold standard results were confirmed by surgical pathology or long-term follow-up. Results: The characteristic perfusion patterns of AT-OCLH in 2D-CEUS showed no contrast agent perfusion within the tumor mass, and the capsule wall showed rapid, annular, high enhancement perfusion; perfusion patterns could be classified into type Ia and type IIa...
2018: BioMed Research International
Hironari Tamiya, Hiroki Hagizawa, Takaaki Nakai, Yoshinori Imura, Takaaki Tanaka, Kazuya Oshima, Toshikazu Ito, Norifumi Naka, Shigeyuki Kuratsu
Zoledronate or denosumab treatment is beneficial for cancer patients with bone metastasis. However, each agent may trigger atypical femoral fractures. Incomplete atypical femoral fractures can be successfully treated with prophylactic intramedullary nailing. On the other hand, intramedullary nailing for displaced atypical femoral fractures occasionally causes problems with regard to bone healing, resulting in long-term treatment. In cancer patients with poor prognosis who experience atypical femoral fractures, improvement in activities of daily living should be the priority...
2018: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Maria Kordoni, Georgios Rigakos, Young Hun Minjoo Kim, Loukas Kaklamanis, Ourania Nikolatou-Galitis, Lina Hadjiyassemi, Stefanos Labropoulos, Evangelia Razis
Anti-resorptive drugs like bisphosphonates (BP) and denosumab are widely used for prevention and treatment of skeletal diseases, such as osteoporosis and bone metastases and mainly work through the prevention of osteoclast-mediated bones resorption. BP can lead to atypical femoral fractures (AFF) that is a rare, easily misdiagnosed treatment-related complication with great impact on the quality of life of patients. We present a concise review of the literature on BP related AFF based on the cases of 3 breast cancer patients that reflect the diagnostic pitfall of this rare entity...
November 2018: Anticancer Research
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