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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646756/protein-functionalization-of-zno-nanostructure-exhibits-selective-and-enhanced-toxicity-to-breast-cancer-cells-through-oxidative-stress-based-cell-death-mechanism
#1
Sailendra Mahanta, S Prathap, Deependra Kumar Ban, Subhankar Paul
Zinc oxide nanostructure (ZnONS) was chemically synthesized and functionalized (FZnONSBLA) with a small protein bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) by chemical cross-linking methods. Both nano-structures were characterized using various techniques such as electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, photo-luminescence and X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy and DLS analysis revealed their (ZnONS and FZnONSBLA) average size of 200nm and 450nm, respectively. When cytotoxicity of both the nanostructures were assessed in breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDAMB231 by MTT assay and PI/Annexin V staining (FACS), FZnONSBLA demonstrated higher cell death than ZnONS primarily due to generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645637/antimicrobial-and-biological-activity-of-leachate-from-light-curable-pulp-capping-materials
#2
Maria Teresa Arias-Moliz, Cher Farrugia, Christie Y K Lung, Pierre Schembri Wismayer, Josette Camilleri
OBJECTIVES: Characterization of a number of pulp capping materials and assessment of the leachate for elemental composition, antimicrobial activity and cell proliferation and expression. METHODOLOGY: Three experimental light curable pulp-capping materials, Theracal and Biodentine were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The elemental composition of the leachate formed after 24hours was assessed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645381/examining-dna-double-strand-break-repair-in-a-cell-cycle-dependent-manner
#3
Janapriya Saha, Shih-Ya Wang, Anthony J Davis
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are deleterious DNA lesions that must be properly repaired to maintain genome stability. Agents, generated both exogenously (environmental radiation, dental X-rays, etc.) and endogenously (reactive oxygen species, DNA replication, V(D)J recombination, etc.), induce numerous DSBs every day. To counter these DSBs, there are two major repair pathways in mammalian cells, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ directly mediates the religation of the broken DNA molecule and is active in all phases of the cell cycle...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643937/proinflammatory-effects-and-mechanisms-of-calprotectin-on-human-gingival-fibroblasts
#4
H Gao, J Hou, H Meng, X Zhang, Y Zheng, L Peng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Calprotectin (S100A8/A9) is a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 and is associated with multiple inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Levels of calprotectin are elevated in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with periodontitis; however, the effects of calprotectin on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) remain unknown. This study investigated the proinflammatory activity of calprotectin on HGFs and the functional receptors and signaling pathways engaged by calprotectin...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643775/zika-virus-pathogenesis-in-rhesus-macaques-is-unaffected-by-pre-existing-immunity-to-dengue-virus
#5
Petraleigh Pantoja, Erick X Pérez-Guzmán, Idia V Rodríguez, Laura J White, Olga González, Crisanta Serrano, Luis Giavedoni, Vida Hodara, Lorna Cruz, Teresa Arana, Melween I Martínez, Mariah A Hassert, James D Brien, Amelia K Pinto, Aravinda de Silva, Carlos A Sariol
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging virus that has recently spread into dengue virus (DENV) endemic regions and cross-reactive antibodies (Abs) could potentially affect ZIKV pathogenesis. Using DENV-immune serum, it has been shown in vitro that antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of ZIKV infection can occur. Here we study the effects of pre-existing DENV immunity on ZIKV infection in vivo. We infect two cohorts of rhesus macaques with ZIKV; one cohort has been exposed to DENV 2.8 years earlier and a second control cohort is naïve to flaviviral infection...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640996/a-polyoxometalate-based-radiosensitization-platform-for-treating-hypoxic-tumor-by-attenuating-radio-resistance-and-enhancing-radiation-response
#6
Yuan Yong, Chunfang Zhang, Zhanjun Gu, Jiangfeng Du, Zhao Guo, Xinghua Dong, Jiani Xie, Guangjin Zhang, Xiangfeng Liu, Yuliang Zhao
Radioresistance is one of the undesirable impediments in hypoxia tumor, which sharply diminishes therapeutic effectiveness of radiotherapy and eventually results in the failure of their treatments. An attractive strategy for attenuating radioresistance is developing an ideal radiosensitization system with admirable radiosensitization capacity to attenuate tumor hypoxia and reinforce radiotherapy response in hypoxia tumor. Therefore, we describe the development of Gd-containing polyoxometalates-conjugated chitosan (GdW10@CS nanosphere) as a radiosensitization system for simultanous extrinsic and intrinsic radiosensitization, by generating overabundance cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) using high energy X-ray stimulation and mediating the hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) siRNA to down-regulate HIF-1α expression and suppress the broken double-stranded DNA self-healing...
June 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640616/the-twist-of-a-silicon-silicon-double-bond-selective-anti-addition-of-hydrogen-to-an-iminodisilene
#7
Daniel Wendel, Tibor Szilvási, Christian Jandl, Shigeyoshi Inoue, Bernhard Rieger
Hydrogenation of alkenes with C=C bonds is a ubiquitous reaction in organic chemistry. However, this transformation remains unknown for heavier counterparts, disilenes with Si=Si bonds. Here we report the isolation of (Z)-diiminodisilyldisilene 2 featuring a highly trans-bent and twisted structure and the longest silicon-silicon double bond reported to date. In silico studies suggested that the Si=Si bond in 2 is described as very weak double donor-acceptor bond. We utilized the remarkable electronic and structural features of this product to achieve the first demonstration of hydrogen activation by a multiply bonded silicon compound under ambient conditions...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640304/addressing-the-characterisation-challenge-to-understand-catalysis-in-mofs-the-case-of-nanoscale-cu-supported-in-nu-1000
#8
Ana E Platero-Prats, Zhanyong Li, Leighanne C Gallington, Aaron W Peters, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha, Karena W Chapman
We explore the dynamic structure and reactivity of Cu species supported on NU-1000. By combining pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and difference envelope density (DED) analysis of in situ synchrotron-based X-ray scattering data, we simultaneously probe the local structure of supported Cu-species, their distribution within NU-1000 and distortions of the NU-1000 lattice under conditions relevant to catalysis and catalyst activation. These analyses show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Cu in NU-1000 (Cu-AIM) leads to the formation of Cu-oxo clusters within the small pores that connect the triangular and hexagonal channels...
June 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640302/influence-of-substituents-on-dna-and-protein-binding-of-cyclometalated-ir-iii-complexes-and-anticancer-activity
#9
Sujay Mukhopadhyay, Roop Shikha Singh, Rajendra Prasad Paitandi, Gunjan Sharma, Biplob Koch, Daya Shankar Pandey
Synthesis of terpyridyl based ligands 3-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridin]-4'-yl)-7-methoxy-2-(methylthio)-quinolone, (L1); 3-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridin]-4'-yl)-6-methoxyquinolin-2(1H)-one, (L2); 3-([2,2'-:6',2''-terpyridin]-4'-yl)-6-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (L3) and cyclometalated iridium(iii) complexes [[Ir(ppy)2L1](+)PF6(-) (1), [Ir(ppy)2L2](+)PF6(-) (2), [Ir(ppy)2L3](+)PF6(-) (3) (2-phenylpyridine = Hppy)] involving these ligands has been described. The ligands L1-L3 and complexes 1-3 have been thoroughly characterized by elemental analyses, spectral studies (IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, UV/vis and fluorescence) ESI-MS, and the structure of 3 has been unambiguously authenticated by single crystal X-ray analyses...
June 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640164/associations-between-postmenopausal-endogenous-sex-hormones-and-c-reactive-protein-a-clearer-picture-with-regional-adiposity-adjustment
#10
Shannon M Conroy, Heather K Neilson, Rachel O'Reilly, Christy G Woolcott, Frank Z Stanczyk, Kerry S Courneya, Christine M Friedenreich
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the pathogenesis of inflammatory-related diseases after menopause, we studied the adiposity-independent association between endogenous sex hormones and C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of inflammation. METHODS: We conducted a secondary, cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (2003-2007), including 319 healthy, postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy...
June 19, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639650/mechanisms-of-h-and-co-loss-from-the-uracil-nucleobase-following-low-energy-electron-irradiation
#11
Mark A Fennimore, Tolga N V Karsili, Spiridoula Matsika
Ionising radiation in cells generates secondary low energy electrons (LEEs) which can induce biomolecular damage when incident upon a particular biomolecule. Notable biomolecules include those contained within double-stranded DNA and RNA helices, which upon exposure to LEEs, may form reactive intermediate products that show detriment to their specific structures and functions. Such damaging processes are understood to proceed via dissociative electron attachment (DEA). Using anion resonance stabilisation methods, coupled to state-of-the-art electronic structure methods, and reaction path mapping, the work presented herein highlights the detailed mechanisms associated with molecular elimination of CO and H from the uracil nucleobase following LEE irradiation - providing a rationale for earlier experiments...
June 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638277/titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-as-radiosensitisers-an-in-vitro-and-phantom-based-study
#12
Esho Qasho Youkhana, Bryce Feltis, Anton Blencowe, Moshi Geso
Objective: Radiosensitisation caused by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) is investigated using phantoms (PRESAGE(®) dosimeters) and in vitro using two types of cell lines, cultured human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and prostate cancer (DU145) cells. Methods: Anatase TiO2-NPs were synthesised, characterised and functionalised to allow dispersion in culture-medium for in vitro studies and halocarbons (PRESAGE(®) chemical compositions). PRESAGE(®) dosimeters were scanned with spectrophotometer to determine the radiation dose enhancement...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638140/imaging-dynamic-fingerprints-of-competing-e2-and-sn2-reactions
#13
Eduardo Carrascosa, Jennifer Meyer, Jiaxu Zhang, Martin Stei, Tim Michaelsen, William L Hase, Li Yang, Roland Wester
The competition between bimolecular nucleophilic substitution and base-induced elimination is of fundamental importance for the synthesis of pure samples in organic chemistry. Many factors that influence this competition have been identified over the years, but the underlying atomistic dynamics have remained difficult to observe. We present product velocity distributions for a series of reactive collisions of the type X(-) + RY with X and Y denoting the halogen atoms fluorine, chlorine and iodine. By increasing the size of the residue R from methyl to tert-butyl in several steps, we find that the dynamics drastically change from backward to dominant forward scattering of the leaving ion relative to the reactant RY velocity...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638080/thermoelectric-performance-of-n-type-mg2ge
#14
Rafael Santos, Mitchell Nancarrow, Shi Xue Dou, Sima Aminorroaya Yamini
Magnesium-based thermoelectric materials (Mg2X, X = Si, Ge, Sn) have received considerable attention due to their availability, low toxicity, and reasonably good thermoelectric performance. The synthesis of these materials with high purity is challenging, however, due to the reactive nature and high vapour pressure of magnesium. In the current study, high purity single phase n-type Mg2Ge has been fabricated through a one-step reaction of MgH2 and elemental Ge, using spark plasma sintering (SPS) to reduce the formation of magnesium oxides due to the liberation of hydrogen...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636313/iodine-iii-reagents-in-radical-chemistry
#15
Xi Wang, Armido Studer
The chemistry of hypervalent iodine(III) compounds has gained great interest over the past 30 years. Hypervalent iodine(III) compounds show valuable ionic reactivity due to their high electrophilicity but also express radical reactivity as single electron oxidants for carbon and heteroatom radical generation. Looking at ionic chemistry, these iodine(III) reagents can act as electrophiles to efficiently construct C-CF3, X-CF3 (X = heteroatom), C-Rf (Rf = perfluoroalkyl), X-Rf, C-N3, C-CN, S-CN, and C-X bonds...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635285/triazole-triazine-functionalized-mesoporous-silica-as-a-hybrid-material-support-for-palladium-nanocatalyst
#16
Ali Saad, Christian Vard, Manef Abderrabba, Mohamed Mehdi Chehimi
Noble and precious metal catalysts are sought for their remarkable efficiency in catalyzing numerous reactions in heterogeneous phase. However, they are costly and request the development of high surface area supports that favor their strong immobilization, dispersion and stability. Towards this end, mesoporous silica-based materials can be regarded as unique supports for nanometric-sized noble metal catalysts provided they are functionalized with appropriate ligands. In this work, mesoporous silica SBA-15 was prepared and modified with 3-azidopropyltriethoxysilane then clicked with alkyne derivatives of 1,3,5-triazines complex ligand...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634471/a-chitin-binding-protein-purified-from-moringa-oleifera-seeds-presents-anticandidal-activity-by-increasing-cell-membrane-permeability-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#17
João X S Neto, Mirella L Pereira, Jose T A Oliveira, Lady C B Rocha-Bezerra, Tiago D P Lopes, Helen P S Costa, Daniele O B Sousa, Bruno A M Rocha, Thalles B Grangeiro, José E C Freire, Ana Cristina O Monteiro-Moreira, Marina D P Lobo, Raimunda S N Brilhante, Ilka M Vasconcelos
Candida species are opportunistic pathogens that infect immunocompromised and/or immunosuppressed patients, particularly in hospital facilities, that besides representing a significant threat to health increase the risk of mortality. Apart from echinocandins and triazoles, which are well tolerated, most of the antifungal drugs used for candidiasis treatment can cause side effects and lead to the development of resistant strains. A promising alternative to the conventional treatments is the use of plant proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631802/aqueous-tantalum-polyoxometalate-reactivity-with-peroxide
#18
Lauren B Fullmer, Christopher E Malmberg, Dylan B Fast, Lindsay A Wills, Paul Ha-Yeon Cheong, Michelle R Dolgos, May Nyman
Peroxide ligation of aqueous metal-oxo clusters provides rich speciation and structural diversity, radiation sensitivity for manipulation with light, and both broadens and shifts pH-range stability. Here we demonstrate peroxide ligation of the polyoxometalate (POM) [Ta6O19](8-). We study in detail solution speciation of the peroxide-substituted cluster, and benchmark it to the peroxide-ligated niobate analogue, [Nb6O10(OH)3(O2)6](5-), whose solid-state structure has been reported. Raman and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy do not detect any significant differences between the two analogues...
June 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631360/reduced-cell-attachment-to-poly-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-coated-ventricular-catheters-in-vitro
#19
Brian W Hanak, Chia-Yun Hsieh, William Donaldson, Samuel R Browd, Kenneth K S Lau, William Shain
The majority of patients with hydrocephalus are dependent on ventriculoperitoneal shunts for diversion of excess cerebrospinal fluid. Unfortunately, these shunts are failure-prone and over half of all life-threatening pediatric failures are caused by obstruction of the ventricular catheter by the brain's resident immune cells, reactive microglia and astrocytes. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels are widely used for biomedical implants. The extreme hydrophilicity of PHEMA confers resistance to protein fouling, making it a strong candidate coating for ventricular catheters...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630441/overcoming-the-biological-aging-of-titanium-using-a-wet-storage-method-after-ultraviolet-treatment
#20
Sung-Hwan Choi, Won-Seok Jeong, Jung-Yul Cha, Jae-Hoon Lee, Kee-Joon Lee, Hyung-Seog Yu, Eun-Ha Choi, Kwang-Mahn Kim, Chung-Ju Hwang
We evaluated whether the biological activity of the surface of titanium, when stored in an aqueous solution after ultraviolet (UV) treatment, is comparable to that of the surface immediately after UV treatment. We subjected Grade IV titanium discs with machined surfaces to UV radiation for 15 min and then tested them immediately and after storage for 28 days, with and without distilled H2O (dH2O). We evaluated the surface characteristics using surface profiling, contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and in terms of the surface zeta-potential...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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