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Shouryadipta Ghosh, Kenneth Tran, Lea M D Delbridge, Anthony J R Hickey, Eric Hanssen, Edmund J Crampin, Vijay Rajagopal
Recent electron microscopy data have revealed that cardiac mitochondria are not arranged in crystalline columns but are organised with several mitochondria aggregated into columns of varying sizes often spanning the cell cross-section. This raises the question-how does the mitochondrial arrangement affect the metabolite distributions within cardiomyocytes and their impact on force dynamics? Here we employed finite element modelling of cardiac bioenergetics, using computational meshes derived from electron microscope images, to address this question...
December 5, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Thomas P Forbes, Jennifer R Verkouteren
The trace detection and forensic analysis of black powders and black powder substitutes, directly from wipe-based sample collections was demonstrated using infrared thermal desorption (IRTD) coupled with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). Discrete 15 s heating ramps were generated, creating a thermal desorption profile that desorbed more volatile species (e.g., organic and semivolatile inorganic compounds) at lower temperatures (250 °C to 400 °C) and nonvolatile inorganic oxidizers at high temperatures (450 °C to 550 °C)...
December 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Claudia Schmidt, Lucia Albrecht, Shantheya Balasupramaniam, Rainer Misgeld, Bianka Karge, Mark Brönstrup, Aram Prokop, Knut Baumann, Stephan Reichl, Ingo Ott
Gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been attracting major attention in medicinal inorganic chemistry based on their favorable antiproliferative effects and the structural versatility of the coordinated NHC ligands. Here we present a novel complex of the type (NHC)2Au+, which represents a substantially improved and selective TrxR inhibitor compared to close structural analogues. The complex is highly stable in various solutions over 96 hours, however, comparative cellular uptake studies indicate metabolic transformations inside cells over time...
December 5, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Jianfang Wu, Bo-Wei Pu, Da Wang, Siqi Shi, Ning Zhao, Xiangxin Guo, Xin Guo
Introduction of inorganic solid electrolytes is believed to be an ultimate strategy to dismiss dendritic Li in high-energy Li-metal batteries (LMBs), and garnet-type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) electrolytes are impressive candidates. However, the current density for stable Li plating/stripping in LLZO is still quite limited. Here we create in-situ formed Li-deficient shields by the high-temperature calcination at 900 °C. By this novel process, the formation of Li2CO3 on LLZO is restrained, and then we successfully obtain Li2CO3-free LLZO after removing the Li-deficient compounds...
December 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wei Jun Chen, Kai Bin Chu, Jun Ling Song
Organic-inorganic hybrid lead-based perovskite crystal materials have been widely studied due to their excellent optical-electronic properties. However, the toxicity of lead limits their widespread use. Here, a lead-free perovskite-type compound, tetrakis(1,2,3-trimethylimidazolium) di-μ3 -iodido-tetra-μ2 -iodido-decaiodidotetrabismuth(III), (C6 H11 N2 )4 [Bi4 I16 ], has been successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. It exhibits a zero-dimensional (0D) tetrameric structure, including edge-sharing [Bi4 I16 ]4- distorted octahedra...
December 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Damian Rosiak, Andrzej Okuniewski, Jarosław Chojnacki
Two products of the reactions of CuI with 1-benzoyl-3-(4-bromophenyl)thiourea and with 1-benzoyl-3-(2-iodophenyl)thiourea have been obtained and characterized, namely poly[[[1-benzoyl-3-(4-bromophenyl)thiourea-κS]-μ3 -iodido-copper(I)] acetone hemisolvate], {[CuI(C14 H11 BrN2 OS)]·0.5C3 H6 O}n , and poly[μ4 -iodido-μ3 -iodido-[N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)benzamide-κN]dicopper(I)], [Cu2 I2 (C14 H10 N2 OS)]n . Their structures, determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, exhibit different stoichiometries and molecular organizations; however, both compounds are polymeric and possess close Cu...
December 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Swati Parbhakar, Reetam Kaushik, Firasat Hussain
A series of 12 inorganic-organic hybrid 4f-substituted arsenotungstates decorated with 3d-based complexes along with acetate bridging, viz. {[Cu2 (H2 O)(1,10-phen)2 (μ-CH3 COO)2 ]4 [Ln2 (H2 O)2 (μ-CH3 COO)2 (α-AsW11 O39 )2 ]}2- (LnIII = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu), have been synthesized. These compounds were isolated using a one-pot synthetic strategy with copper, lanthanoid, trilacunary arsenotungstate and 1,10-phenanthroline as precursors. They were characterized using various analytical techniques, such as single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), powder XRD (PXRD), Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)...
December 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Peijia Ku, Martin Tsz-Ki Tsui, Xiangping Nie, Huan Chen, Tham C Hoang, Joel D Blum, Randy A Dahlgren, Alex T Chow
Wildfires are expected to become more frequent and intensive at the global scale due to climate change. Many studies have focused on the loss of mercury (Hg) from burned forests; however, little is known about the origins, concentration, reactivity, and bioavailability of Hg in residual ash materials in postfire landscapes. We examine Hg levels and reactivity in black ash (BA, low burn intensity) and white ash (WA, high burn intensity) generated from two recent northern California wildfires and document that all ash samples contained measurable, but highly variable, Hg levels ranging from 4 to 125 ng/g dry wt...
December 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hong Li, Xiaoying Lin, Jiating Zhao, Liwei Cui, Liming Wang, Yuxi Gao, Bai Li, Chunying Chen, Yu-Feng Li
Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant, which is linked with different diseases. The methylation of Hg and demethylation of methylmercury (MeHg) in the environment were extensively studied and summarized; however, the transformation of Hg in the intestine is less presented. In this review, the research progress and the perspectives on the intestinal transformation of Hg were discussed. Studies found that MeHg could be formed when exposed to inorganic Hg by the gut microbiota in aquatic organisms, terrestrial invertebrates, and mammals, etc...
December 4, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Dandan Cao, Bin He, Yongguang Yin
Ethylmercury (EtHg) has been widely observed in the environment due to anthropogenic contamination and/or environmental ethylation of inorganic mercury. Herein, the acute and sublethal effect of EtHg chloride on Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) as a fish model was studied. EtHg chloride showed an obvious toxicity to 4-month-old Chinese rare minnow (LC50 24.8 µg L-1 (as Hg) at 24 h). Histological analysis revealed that acute EtHg exposure can induce necrosis, telangiectasis and exfoliation of epithelial cells in the gill, as well as edema, vacuoles, and pyknotic nuclei in hepatocytes...
December 4, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
W D Chanaka Udayanga, Andrei Veksha, Apostolos Giannis, Teik-Thye Lim
A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the fuel properties of the char produced from pyrolysis of municipal sludge (MS) and industrial sludge (IS) at different pyrolysis temperatures (500-700 °C). A detailed characterisation of the char was performed to investigate the impact of the decomposition and the accumulation of organic and inorganic compounds during pyrolysis on the fuel properties of the derived char. Increase in pyrolysis temperature increased the fuel ratios especially in the MS-derived char...
January 2019: Waste Management
Michael R Hamblin, Heidi Abrahamse
We have recently discovered that the photodynamic action of many different photosensitizers (PSs) can be dramatically potentiated by addition of a solution containing a range of different inorganic salts. Most of these studies have centered around antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation that kills Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in suspension. Addition of non-toxic water-soluble salts during illumination can kill up to six additional logs of bacterial cells (one million-fold improvement). The PSs investigated range from those that undergo mainly Type I photochemical mechanisms (electron transfer to produce superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals), such as phenothiazinium dyes, fullerenes, and titanium dioxide, to those that are mainly Type II (energy transfer to produce singlet oxygen), such as porphyrins, and Rose Bengal...
December 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mattia Di Nunzio, Alessandra Bordoni, Federica Aureli, Francesco Cubadda, Andrea Gianotti
Although selenium is of great importance for the human body, in several world regions the intake of this essential trace element does not meet the dietary reference values. To achieve optimal intake, fortification of bread by using selenium-enriched flour has been put forward. Less is known on the potential effect of sourdough fermentation, which might be worth exploring as the biological effects of selenium strongly depend on its chemical form and sourdough fermentation is known to cause transformations of nutrients and phytochemicals, including the conversion of inorganic selenium into organic selenocompounds...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Arijit Nath, Máté András Molnár, Attila Csighy, Kornélia Kőszegi, Ildikó Galambos, Klára Pásztorné Huszár, András Koris, Gyula Vatai
Lactose-based prebiotics are synthesized by enzymatic- or microbial- biotransformation of lactose and have unique functional values. In this comprehensive review article, the biochemical mechanisms of controlling osteoporosis, blood-lipid, and glucose levels by lactose-based prebiotics and symbiosis with probiotics are reported along with the results of clinical investigations. Interaction between lactose-based prebiotics and probiotics reduces osteoporosis by (a) transforming insoluble inorganic salts to soluble and increasing their absorption to gut wall; (b) maintaining and protecting mineral absorption surface in the intestine; (c) increasing the expression of calcium-binding proteins in the gut wall; (d) remodeling osteoclasts and osteoblasts formation; (e) releasing bone modulating factors; and (f) degrading mineral complexing phytic acid...
December 3, 2018: Medicina
Alessandra Nigro, Michele Pellegrino, Marianna Greco, Alessandra Comandè, Diego Sisci, Luigi Pasqua, Antonella Leggio, Catia Morelli
Advances in nanotechnology for drug delivery are fostering significant progress in medicine and diagnostics. The multidisciplinary nature of the nanotechnology field encouraged the development of innovative strategies and materials to treat a wide range of diseases in a highly specific way, which allows reducing the drug dosage and, consequently, improving the patient's compliance. Due to their good biocompatibility, easy synthesis, and high versatility, inorganic frameworks represent a valid tool to achieve this aim...
December 1, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Beñat Artetxe, Amaia Iturrospe, Pablo Vitoria, Estibaliz Ruiz-Bilbao, José S Garitaonandia, Juan M Gutiérrez-Zorrilla
A new hybrid inorganic-organometallic salt has been obtained from the reaction of the Keggin-type silicotungstate anion with ferrocene in a water/methanol mixture as a result of the partial oxidation of ferrocene molecules to ferrocenium cations. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of four ferrocenium (FeIII ) cations and one ferrocene (FeII ) molecule per plenary Keggin anion in the crystal structure of [FeIII (Cp)₂]₄[SiW12 O40 ]·[FeII (Cp)₂]·2CH₃OH ( 1 ). Compound 1 thus constitutes the first example in the literature in which ferrocenium and ferrocene species coexist in the structure of a polyoxometalate-based salt...
November 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Stephen Munoz, Steven Greenbaum
Current and future demands for increasing the energy density of batteries without sacrificing safety has led to intensive worldwide research on all solid state Li-based batteries. Given the physical limitations on inorganic ceramic or glassy solid electrolytes, development of polymer electrolytes continues to be a high priority. This brief review covers several recent alternative approaches to polymer electrolytes based solely on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to elucidate structure and ion transport properties in these materials...
November 30, 2018: Membranes
Yao Huang, Yanyan Gong, Jingchun Tang, Siyu Xia
A novel thiol-functionalized graphene oxide/Fe-Mn (SGO/Fe-Mn) was investigated for aqueous Hg2+ and CH3 Hg+ removal. Mercury were removed mainly through ligand exchange and surface complexation with surface active sites (i.e., -SH, OH, OCO, CC, SiO, and ππ bond). SH had the strongest binding ability with mercury, forming sulfur-containing organic matter or polymers with Hg2+ , and sulfur-containing organometallic compounds or thiolate-like species with CH3 Hg+ . The BET sorption isotherm model well simulated the sorption isotherm data of Hg2+ (R2 =0...
November 18, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hui Lin, Stephen J Chapman, Thomas E Freitag, Carol Kyle, Junwei Ma, Yuyi Yang, Zulin Zhang
This study provided an assessment of the environmental fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in a Scottish grassland field repeatedly treated with different organic fertilizers. The impacts of manure, biosolids and municipal food-derived compost on the relative abundances of tetracycline ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG and tetW), sulfonamide ARGs (sul1 and sul2) and class 1 integron-integrase gene (IntI1) in soils were investigated, with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) as a comparison. The background soil with a history of low intensity farming showed a higher total relative abundance of tet ARGs over sul ARGs, with tetracycline efflux genes occurring in a higher frequency...
December 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xiaoyu Jiang, Xingwei Liu, Ziqi Zeng, Lifen Xiao, Xinping Ai, Hanxi Yang, Yuliang Cao
Most of the currently developed sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have potential safety hazards due to the use of highly volatile and flammable alkyl carbonate electrolytes. To overcome this challenge, we report an electrochemically compatible and nonflammable electrolyte, tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphate (TFEP) with low-concentration sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (0.9 M), which is designed not only to match perfectly with the hard carbon (HC) anode but also to enhance the thermal stability of SIBs. Experimental results and theoretical calculations reveal that TFEP molecules have a significantly low barrier to decompose before Na+ inserts into HC, forming a stable inorganic solid-electrolyte interface layer, thus improving the electrochemical and structural stabilities of HC anodes...
November 15, 2018: iScience
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