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Lishuo Chen, Rui Ni, Tengjie Yuan, Qinyan Yue, Baoyu Gao
In this study, nanoscale zerovalent Fe0 /Cu0 bimetallic composites were synthesized by liquid-phase reduction of Fe(II)/Cu(II) and applied for decomposition of tridecane dicarboxylic acid (DC13). The removal performance of Fe0 /Cu0 bimetallic composites for DC13 in terms of Fe/Cu ratios, addition amount, reaction time and initial pH were studied. The as-prepared nanoscale composites were characterized by a transmission electron micrographs (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP)...
August 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Siyuan Wang, Xinghao Wang, Chenguang Li, Xinxin Xu, Zhongbo Wei, Zunyao Wang, Ruijuan Qu
This paper evaluates the UV photodegradation of 17β-estradiol (E2) on silica gel and in natural soil with different soil components. Silica gel was chosen as a stable and pure support to simulate the photochemical behavior of E2 on the surface of natural soil. Ultraviolet light, rather than visible light, was confirmed to play a decisive role in the photodegradation of E2 on silica gel. The effect of three soil components, including humic acid (HA), inorganic salts, and relative humidity (RH), on the photochemical behavior of E2 on silica gel or soil under UV irradiation was then evaluated...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Joshua M Bock, David P Treichler, Samuel L Norton, Kenichi Ueda, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by functional and vascular impairments as well as elevated levels of inflammation which are associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Inorganic nitrate supplementation boosts NO bioavailability potentially improving functional and vasodilatory capacities and may reduce inflammation. Twenty-one patients with PAD were randomly assigned to sodium nitrate (NaNO3 ) or placebo supplementation groups for eight-weeks. Outcome measures included a 6-min walk test (6 MWT), blood flow and vasodilator function in the forearm and calf, as well as plasma inflammatory and adhesion biomarker concentrations...
August 14, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Masahiro Hiramoto, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Seiichiro Izawa
Controlling the pn-type behavior of a semiconductor such as silicon by adding an extremely small quantity of an impurity (doping) is a central part of inorganic semiconductor electronics since the 20th century. Recent progress in the doping of organic semiconductors strongly suggests the advent of a new era of doped organic semiconductors. Here, the principles and effects of doping at the level of parts per million (ppm) in organic semiconductor films and single crystals are described, including descriptions of complete pn-control, doping sensitization, ppm doping using an extremely low-speed deposition technique reaching 10-9 nm s-1 , and emerging ppm-level doping effects, such as trap filling, majority carriers, homojunction formation, and decreased mobility, as well as ppm-level doping effects in organic single crystals measured by the Hall effect, which shows a doping efficiency of 24%...
August 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Junyong Wang, Ivan Verzhbitskiy, Goki Eda
Ultrathin layers of van der Waals inorganic semiconductors represent a new class of excitonic materials with attractive light-emitting properties. Recent observation of valley polarization, optically pumped lasing, exciton-polaritons, and single-photon emission highlights the exciting prospects for two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for applications in novel photonic devices. Development of efficient and reliable light sources based on excitonic electroluminescence in 2D semiconductors is of fundamental importance toward the practical implementation of photonic devices...
August 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Maria A Komkova, Elena E Karyakina, Arkady A Karyakin
We synthesized Prussian Blue (PB) nanoparticles through catalytic reaction involving hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activation. The resulting nanoparticles display the size-dependent catalytic rate constants in H2O2 reduction, which are significantly improved compared to natural enzyme peroxidase: for PB nanoparticles 200 nm in diameter the turnover number is 300 times higher, for 570 nm diameter nanoparticles - four orders of magnitude higher. Comparing to the known peroxidase-like nanozymes, the advantages of the reported PB nanoparticles are their true enzymatic properties: (i) enzymatic specificity (an absence of oxidase-like activity) and (ii) an ability to operate in physiological solutions...
August 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Kyungmi Kim, Hyeok-Chan Kwon, Sunihl Ma, Eunsong Lee, Seong-Cheol Yoon, Gyumin Jang, Hyunha Yang, Jooho Moon
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have recently attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent efficiency and the advantage of a low-cost fabrication process. As a transparent electrode for PSCs, the application of copper nanowire (CuNW)-network was limited due to its thermal/chemical instability, despite its advantages in terms of high optical/electrical properties and low-cost production. Here, the copper-nickel core-shell nanowire (Cu@Ni NW)-based composite electrode is proposed as a bottom window electrode for PSCs, without the involvement of a high-cost precious metal and vacuum process...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Meihui Hou, Haijuan Zhang, Ze Wang, Yingdong Xia, YongHua Chen, Wei Huang
Interfacial engineering is a simple and effective strategy that can improve the photovoltaic performance in organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, a dopamine (DA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was introduced on the top of the SnO2 electron transporting layer (ETL) to modify the SnO2/perovskite interface. The processing temperature of the present devices is around 150°C, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs was significantly improved to 16.65% compared to that of the device without modification (14...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Md Nadim Ferdous Hoque, Rui He, Juliusz Warzywoda, Zhaoyang Fan
Due to the polycrystalline nature, grain boundaries (GBs) in hybrid perovskite thin films play critical roles in determining the charge collection efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), material stability and in particular the ion migration, considering its relatively soft ionic bonds with a low formation energy. Different GB passivation methods are being studied, and introducing PbI2-rich phase at GBs in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) has been found to be useful. In this study, combining macroscale measurements with tip based microscopic probing that includes scanning Kelvin probe microscopy for surface potential mapping and conductive atomic force microscopy for charge transport mapping, we revealed the effects of PbI2-rich phase at GBs, which was introduced in moisture-assisted synthesis of MAPbI3 thin films...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ya Wang, Rongzhan Fu, Zhiguang Duan, Xijuan Jiang, Chenhui Zhu, Daidi Fan
An elastomer-like phase (ELP) of phosphate salts with ultra-high stability was successfully prepared at the air-solid interface. ELPs possess multilayered structures, and exhibit high elasticity, and strong self-healing abilities. These unique properties of ELPs greatly expand our understanding of inorganic salts and reveal their potential application in future material fields.
August 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Zhiming Pan, Pingping Niu, Yidong Hou, Yuanxing Fang, Minghui Liu, Xinchen Wang
Inorganic salts have been widely studied as template for the synthesis of 2D layer structure. However, these salts normally can only serve as templates without any catalytic property. Here, we report that the using LiCl salts for the synthesis of ultrathin nanosheets, such salts not only serve as templates to synthesize the ultrathin Co2P nanosheets with thickness of 0.7nm, but also act as phase-transfer catalysts to induce phase-transfer from CoP to Co2P. The Co2P nanosheets present a high electrochemical performance for oxygen evolution reaction...
August 17, 2018: ChemSusChem
Takeshi Kobayashi, Dilini Singappuli-Arachchige, Igor I Slowing, Marek Pruski
The distribution of organic functional groups attached to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) via co-condensation was scrutinized using 1D and 2D 1H solid-state NMR, including the triple-quantum/single-quantum (TQ/SQ) homonuclear correlation technique. The excellent sensitivity of 1H NMR and high resolution provided by fast magic angle spinning (MAS) allowed us to study surfaces with very low concentrations of aminopropyl functional groups. The sequential process, in which the injection of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) into the aqueous mother liquor was followed by dropwise addition of the organosilane precursor, resulted in deployment of organic groups on the surface, which were highly clustered even in a sample with a very low loading of ∼0...
August 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zuobing Liang, Xinfeng Zhao, Jianyao Chen, Lei Gao, Aiping Zhu, Zhuowei Wang, Shaoheng Li, Jiju Shan, Yuemin Long, Chang Yan, Kai Zhang
Fine particulate matter is associated with adverse health effects, but exactly which characteristics of PM2.5 are responsible for this is still widely debated. We evaluated seasonal dynamics of the composition and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in Zhuhai, China. PM2.5 characteristics at five selected sites within Zhuhai city were analyzed. Sampling began on January 10, 2015, and was conducted for 1 year. The ambient mass concentration, carbon content (organic and elemental carbon, OC and EC), level of inorganic ions, and major chemical composition of PM2...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Dan-Hong Zou, Li-Na Cui, Pei-Yi Liu, Shen Yang, Qin-Yu Zhu, Jie Dai
Titanium oxo clusters (TOCs) anchored with photoactive triphenylamine (TPA) dyes are reported for the first time. The TiO2 electrodes modified with the TPA dye pre-anchored TOCs showed excellent photocurrent response properties.
August 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
M T Nayakasinghe, Yulun Han, N Sivapragasam, Dmitri S Kilin, U Burghaus
The adsorption kinetics of CO2 was experimentally characterized in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). Unexpectedly, high desorption temperatures (640 K, 170 kJ mol-1) were seen. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest the stabilization mechanism: bicarbonate formation in the defected perovskite film due to CO2 and H2O coadsorption.
August 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Junke Jiang, Chidozie K Onwudinanti, Ross A Hatton, Peter A Bobbert, Shuxia Tao
Because of its thermal stability, lead-free composition, and nearly ideal optical and electronic properties, the orthorhombic CsSnI3 perovskite is considered promising as a light absorber for lead-free all-inorganic perovskite solar cells. However, the susceptibility of this three-dimensional perovskite toward oxidation in air has limited the development of solar cells based on this material. Here, we report the findings of a computational study which identifies promising Rb y Cs1- y Sn(Br x I1- x )3 perovskites for solar cell applications, prepared by substituting cations (Rb for Cs) and anions (Br for I) in CsSnI3 ...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Huaihai Chen, Qing Xia, Tianyou Yang, Wei Shi
Soil microbes have critical influence on the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems, yet the magnitude and direction to which management practices affect the soil microbial community remain unclear. This work aimed to examine the impacts of three farming systems, conventional grain cropping (CON), organic grain cropping (ORG), and grain cropping-pasture rotation (ICL), on the soil microbial community structure and putative gene abundances of N transformations using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrés Cózar, Soledad Morillo-García, María J Ortega, Qian P Li, Ana Bartual
The polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are bioactive metabolites commonly released by phytoplankton species. Based primarily on laboratory experiments, PUAs have been implicated in deleterious effects on herbivores and competing phytoplankton species or in the regulation of the rates of bacterial organic matter remineralization; however, the role of the PUAs at an ecosystem level is still under discussion. Using data of PUA production in natural phytoplankton assemblages over a wide range of conditions, we analyzed macroecological patterns aiming for a comprehensive environmental contextualization that will further our understanding of the control and ecologic role played by these compounds...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiao-Xu Song, Huifen Fu, Peng Wang, Hai-Yan Li, Yan-Qiu Zhang, Chong-Chen Wang
A polyoxomolybdate based hybrid, [δ-Mo8 O26 ](L)2 ·2H2 O (BUC-77), was synthesized via hydrothermal method, which exhibited selectively fluorescent detection and efficient adsorptive removal toward Pb2+ in aqueous environment. A good linearity was observed between the fluorescence quenching percentage of BUC-77 and the Pb2+ concentration, along with the detection limit being 6.91 ppb. BUC-77 was stable in common solvents and wide pH range, which could be regenerated by being washed with dilute inorganic acids like HNO3 after adsorption of Pb2+ ...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Lynn Lee, Kwan Hyuck Yoon, Jin Won Jung, Hong Rho Yoon, Hongbum Kim, Seung Hun Kim, Kyung Sun Park, Myung Mo Sung
Hermetic sealing is an important technology for isolating and protecting air-sensitive materials and is key in the development of foldable and stretchable electronic devices. Here we report an ultra gas-proof polymer hybrid thin layer prepared by filling the free volume of the polymer with Al2O3 using gas-phase atomic layer infiltration. The high-density polymer-inorganic hybrid shows extremely low gas transmission rate, below the detection limit of the Ca corrosion test (water vapor transmission rate < 10-7 g m-2 day-1)...
August 16, 2018: Nano Letters
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