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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919427/age-dependent-atrial-arrhythmic-phenotype-secondary-to-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-pgc-1%C3%AE-deficient-murine-hearts
#1
Haseeb Valli, Shiraz Ahmad, Karan Chadda, Ali Al-Hadithi, Andrew A Grace, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Christopher L-H Huang
INTRODUCTION: Ageing and several age-related chronic conditions including obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and represent independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Atrial arrhythmogenesis was investigated in Langendorff-perfused young (3-4 month) and aged (>12 month), wild type (WT) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β deficient (Pgc-1β(-/-)) murine hearts modeling age-dependent chronic mitochondrial dysfunction during regular pacing and programmed electrical stimulation (PES)...
September 14, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918598/triacsin-c-reduces-lipid-droplet-formation-and-induces-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-primary-rat-hepatocytes
#2
Carlos R P Dechandt, Felippe H Zuccolotto-Dos-Reis, Bruno G Teodoro, Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Marcos N Eberlin, Isis C Kettelhut, Carlos Curti, Luciane C Alberici
Intracellular long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA, which undergoes β-oxidation and participates in the synthesis of esterified lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). Imbalances in these metabolic routes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Triacsin C is one of the few compounds that inhibit TAG accumulation into lipid droplets (LD) by suppressing ACSL activity. Here we report that treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with triacsin C at concentrations lower than the IC50 (4...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912098/melatonin-mediated-upregulation-of-sirt3-attenuates-sodium-fluoride-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-activating-the-mt1-pi3k-akt-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#3
Chao Song, Jiamin Zhao, Beibei Fu, Dan Li, Tingchao Mao, Wei Peng, Haibo Wu, Yong Zhang
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been implicated in the pathogenesis of fluoride toxicity in liver. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized in the pineal gland, was previously shown to protect against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced hepatotoxicity. This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin pretreatment on NaF-induced hepatotoxicity and elucidates the potential mechanism of melatonin-mediated protection. Reducing mitochondrial ROS by melatonin substantially attenuated NaF-induced NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) upregulation and cytotoxicity in L-02 cells...
September 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906435/mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-response-to-chromium-vi-toxicity-in-human-liver-cells
#4
Xiali Zhong, Rita de Cássia da Silveira E Sá, Caigao Zhong
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, which poses a threat to human public health. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial biogenesis can be activated by inflammatory and oxidative stress. However, whether mitochondrial biogenesis is involved in Cr(VI)-induced hepatotoxicity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated the induction of inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as indicated by upregulation of inflammatory factors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subsequently, we demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis, comprising the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass, was significantly increased in HepG2 cells exposed to low concentrations of Cr(VI)...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905148/building-a-pgc-lc-ms-n-glycan-retention-library-and-elution-mapping-resource
#5
Jodie L Abrahams, Matthew P Campbell, Nicolle H Packer
Porous graphitised carbon-liquid chromatography (PGC-LC) has been proven to be a powerful technique for the analysis and characterisation of complex mixtures of isomeric and isobaric glycan structures. Here we evaluate the elution behaviour of N-glycans on PGC-LC and thereby provide the potential of using chromatographic separation properties, together with mass spectrometry (MS) fragmentation, to determine glycan structure assignments more easily. We used previously reported N-glycan structures released from the purified glycoproteins Immunoglobulin G (IgG), Immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin, α1-acid glycoprotein, Ribonuclease B (RNase B), fetuin and ovalbumin to profile their behaviour on capillary PGC-LC-MS...
September 13, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903379/extracorporeal-shock-wave-treatment-attenuated-left-ventricular-dysfunction-and-remodeling-in-mini-pig-with-cardiorenal-syndrome
#6
Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Hani E E Ali, Ben-Chung Cheng, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Pei-Hsun Sung, Kuan-Hung Chen, Chih-Chao Yang, Yen-Ta Chen, John Y Chiang, Pao-Yuan Lin, Sarah Chua, Han-Tan Chai, Sheng-Ying Chung, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hon-Kan Yip
This study tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) treatment can improve ischemia-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in mini-pig with co-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). LV ischemia in mini-pigs was induced by applying an ameroid constrictor over mid-left anterior descending artery (LAD), while model of CKD was established by right nephrectomy with partial ligation of left renal arterioles 2 weeks before LAD constriction. Thirty mini-pigs were randomly divided into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (LV-ischemia), group 3 (LV-ischemia + CKD), Group 4 [LV-ischemia + ECSW (applied 1200 shots at 0...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898431/anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidant-properties-of-schisandrin-c-promote-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-human-dental-pulp-cells
#7
J S Takanche, Y-H Lee, J-S Kim, J-E Kim, S-H Han, S-W Lee, H-K Yi
AIM: To examine the properties of Schisandrin C as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant compound, and whether its characteristics promote mitochondrial biogenesis in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). METHODOLOGY: HDPCs were extracted from fresh third molars and cultured for experiments. Reactive oxidative stress (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) formation were analyzed by a Muse cell analyzer. Western blotting and gelatin zymography were used to identify the presence of anti-oxidants, as well as anti-inflammatory and mitochondrial biogenesis with specific antibody...
September 12, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895883/the-effects-of-resveratrol-on-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Xiao-Li Wang, Ting Li, Ji-Hong Li, Shu-Ying Miao, Xian-Zhong Xiao
Oxidative stress and inflammation are hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol in a rat model with COPD on the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation via the activation of Sirtuin1 (SIRTl) and proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, COPD group and resveratrol intervention group...
September 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888986/pde-5-inhibitor-improves-insulin-sensitivity-by-enhancing-mitochondrial-function-in-adipocytes
#9
Hea Min Yu, Hyo Kyun Chung, Koon Soon Kim, Jae Min Lee, Jun Hwa Hong, Kang Seo Park
Adipocytes are involved in many metabolic disorders. It was recently reported that phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) is expressed in human adipose tissue. In addition, PDE5 inhibitors have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in humans. However, the mechanism underlying the role of PDE5 inhibitors as an insulin sensitizer remains largely unknown. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of the PDE5 inhibitor udenafil in insulin signaling in adipocytes and whether this is mediated through the regulation of mitochondrial function...
September 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887652/disruption-of-adenylyl-cyclase-type-5-mimics-exercise-training
#10
John J Guers, Jie Zhang, Sara C Campbell, Marko Oydanich, Dorothy E Vatner, Stephen F Vatner
Exercise training is key to healthful longevity. Since exercise training compliance is difficult, it would be useful to have a therapeutic substitute that mimicked exercise training. We compared the effects of exercise training in wild-type (WT) littermates with adenylyl cyclase type 5 knock out (AC5 KO) mice, a model of enhanced exercise performance. Exercise performance, measured by maximal distance and work to exhaustion, was increased in exercise-trained WT to levels already attained in untrained AC5 KO...
September 8, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887535/metabolic-stress-induced-cardiomyopathy-is-caused-by-mitochondrial-dysfunction-due-to-attenuated-erk5-signaling
#11
Wei Liu, Andrea Ruiz-Velasco, Shoubao Wang, Saba Khan, Min Zi, Andreas Jungmann, Maria Dolores Camacho-Muñoz, Jing Guo, Guanhua Du, Liping Xie, Delvac Oceandy, Anna Nicolaou, Gina Galli, Oliver J Müller, Elizabeth J Cartwright, Yong Ji, Xin Wang
The prevalence of cardiomyopathy from metabolic stress has increased dramatically; however, its molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (Erk5) is lost in the hearts of obese/diabetic animal models and that cardiac-specific deletion of Erk5 in mice (Erk5-CKO) leads to dampened cardiac contractility and mitochondrial abnormalities with repressed fuel oxidation and oxidative damage upon high fat diet (HFD). Erk5 regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (Pgc-1α) is critical for cardiac mitochondrial functions...
September 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884876/intranasal-insulin-treatment-restores-cognitive-deficits-and-insulin-signaling-impairment-induced-by-repeated-methamphetamine-exposure
#12
Elmira Beirami, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhoseini Tamijani, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Leila Dargahi
Long-term use of methamphetamine (MA) causes a broad range of cognitive deficits. Recently, it has been reported insulin signaling and mitochondrial biogenesis are involved in cognitive processes. This study aimed to examine whether MA induces cognitive deficits concomitant with insulin signaling impairment and mitochondrial dysfunctions and also intranasal (IN) insulin treatment can reverse cognitive deficits caused by MA. Rats were repeatedly treated with increasing doses of MA (1-10 mg/kg) twice a day for 10 days, and their cognitive functions were assessed using Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance tasks...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883902/sirt1-activation-by-resveratrol-alleviates-cardiac-dysfunction-via-mitochondrial-regulation-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-mice
#13
Sai Ma, Jing Feng, Ran Zhang, Jiangwei Chen, Dong Han, Xiang Li, Bo Yang, Xiujuan Li, Miaomiao Fan, Congye Li, Zuhong Tian, Yabin Wang, Feng Cao
BACKGROUND: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major threat for diabetic patients. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) has a regulatory effect on mitochondrial dynamics, which is associated with DCM pathological changes. Our study aims to investigate whether resveratrol, a SRIT1 activator, could exert a protective effect against DCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac-specific SIRT1 knockout (SIRT1(KO)) mice were generated using Cre-loxP system. SIRT1(KO) mice displayed symptoms of DCM, including cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, insulin resistance, and abnormal glucose metabolism...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880266/the-intracellular-angiotensin-system-buffers-deleterious-effects-of-the-extracellular-paracrine-system
#14
Begoña Villar-Cheda, Maria A Costa-Besada, Rita Valenzuela, Emma Perez-Costas, Miguel Melendez-Ferro, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
The 'classical' renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a circulating system that controls blood pressure. Local/paracrine RAS, identified in a variety of tissues, including the brain, is involved in different functions and diseases, and RAS blockers are commonly used in clinical practice. A third type of RAS (intracellular/intracrine RAS) has been observed in some types of cells, including neurons. However, its role is still unknown. The present results indicate that in brain cells the intracellular RAS counteracts the intracellular superoxide/H2O2 and oxidative stress induced by the extracellular/paracrine angiotensin II acting on plasma membrane receptors...
September 7, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874749/structural-and-pharmacological-basis-for-the-induction-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-formoterol-but-not-clenbuterol
#15
Robert B Cameron, Craig C Beeson, Rick G Schnellmann
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with numerous acute and chronic degenerative diseases. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist formoterol induces mitochondrial biogenesis (MB), but other β2AR agonists, such as clenbuterol, do not. We sought to identify the MB signaling pathway of formoterol and the differences in signaling between these two ligands that result in the differential induction of MB. While formoterol and clenbuterol increased cAMP, only formoterol increased the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream target eNOS...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874356/impact-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-pgc-1%C3%AE-mediated-adaptations-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#16
Nina Brandt, Lene Nielsen, Bjørg Thiellesen Buch, Anders Gudiksen, Stine Ringholm, Ylva Hellsten, Jens Bangsbo, Henriette Pilegaard
PGC-1α has been suggested to regulate exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations and autophagy in skeletal muscle. The factors regulating PGC-1α are however not fully resolved. The aim was to investigate the impact of β-adrenergic signaling in PGC-1α mediated metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle with exercise training. Muscle was obtained from muscle specific PGC-1α knockout (MKO) mice and LOX/LOX 1) 3h after a single exercise bout with or without prior injection of propranolol or 3h after a single injection of clenbuterol and 2) after 5 weeks of wheel running exercise training with or without propranolol treatment or after 5 weeks of clenbuterol treatment...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869535/mitochondrial-targeted-antioxidant-maintains-blood-flow-mitochondrial-function-and-redox-balance-in-old-mice-following-prolonged-limb-ischemia
#17
Shunsuke Miura, Shu-Ichi Saitoh, Tomoki Kokubun, Takashi Owada, Hiroyuki Yamauchi, Hirofumi Machii, Yasuchika Takeishi
Aging is a major factor in the decline of limb blood flow with ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) with regard to limb perfusion recovery in aging during ischemia. We performed femoral artery ligation in young and old mice with or without treatment with a scavenger of mitochondrial superoxide, MitoTEMPO (180 μg/kg/day, from pre-operative day 7 to post-operative day (POD) 21) infusion using an implanted mini-pump...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869034/plasticity-and-function-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-relation-to-disuse-and-rehabilitation-influence-of-ageing-and-surgery
#18
Charlotte Suetta
In order to study the influence of disuse and aging on skeletal muscle homeostasis, different human models were employed. Effects of chronic disuse were investigated in elderly patients suffering from uni-lateral hip-osteoarthritis, whereas the effect of short-term disuse (4 and 14 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation) was assessed in healthy young and old individuals. In summary, chronic muscle disuse in the elderly was associated with marked quantitative as well as qualitative neuromuscular impairments...
August 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867720/chronic-rapamycin-treatment-improved-metabolic-phenotype-but-inhibited-adipose-tissue-browning-in-high-fat-diet-fed-c57bl-6j-mice
#19
Yan Wang, Zhi He, Xianhui Li
Rapamycin (Rap) has been demonstrated to affect lipid metabolism through stimulating lipolysis, inhibiting de novo lipogenesis and reducing adiposity. In the present study, we investigated rapamycin exposure's influence on adipose tissue browning in high-fat diet-induced fatty mice. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed normal chow or high-fat diet for a period of 6 weeks and then divided into three groups: (1) Nor group: mice fed with normal chow; (2) high fat diet (HFD) group: fatty mice fed with high-fat diet; (3) Rap group: high-fat diet-fed fatty mice treated intragastrically with rapamycin at a dose of 2...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864016/effects-of-maternal-diabetes-and-fetal-sex-on-human-placenta-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#20
Shaoning Jiang, April M Teague, Jeanie B Tryggestad, Christopher E Aston, Timothy Lyons, Steven D Chernausek
Abnormal placental function in maternal diabetes affects fetal health and can predispose offspring to metabolic diseases in later life. There are fetal sex-specific differences in placenta structure and gene expression, which may affect placental responses to maternal diabetes. The present study examined the effects of maternal diabetes on indices of mitochondrial biogenesis in placentae from male and female offspring. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and expression of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed in placentae from 19 diabetic and 23 non-diabetic women...
September 2017: Placenta
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