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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207794/protected-graft-copolymer-formulated-fibroblast-growth-factors-mitigate-the-lethality-of-partial-body-irradiation-injury
#1
Gerardo M Castillo, Akiko Nishimoto-Ashfield, Cynthia C Jones, Kasim K Kabirov, Alexander Zakharov, Alexander V Lyubimov
We evaluated the mitigating effects of fibroblast growth factor 4 and 7 (FGF4 and FGF7, respectively) in comparison with long acting protected graft copolymer (PGC)-formulated FGF4 and 7 (PF4 and PF7, respectively) administered to C57BL/6J mice a day after exposure to LD50/30 (15.7 Gy) partial body irradiation (PBI) which targeted the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The PGC that we developed increased the bioavailability of FGF4 and FGF7 by 5- and 250-fold compared to without PGC, respectively, and also sustained a 24 hr presence in the blood after a single subcutaneous administration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199195/tissue-transglutaminase-tg2-and-mitochondrial-function-and-dysfunction
#2
Thung-S Lai, Cheng-Jui Lin, Yu-Ting Wu, Chih-Jen Wu
Mitochondria are the cell's power plant to satisfy the energy demands. However, dysfunctional mitochondria can cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, and alteration of calcium homeostasis, which are the hallmarks of mitochondrial diseases. Under prolong oxidative stress, repeated cytosolic calcium elevations even only transiently, can lead to activation of some enzymes. One calcium-activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological important in mitochondrial disease is tissue transglutaminase (TG2)...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195989/time-since-menopause-and-skeletal-muscle-estrogen-receptors-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-ampk
#3
Young-Min Park, Rocio I Pereira, Christopher B Erickson, Tracy A Swibas, Chounghun Kang, Rachael E Van Pelt
OBJECTIVE: Short-term administration of estradiol (E2) improves insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate in early postmenopausal (EPM) women compared with a reduction in late postmenopausal (LPM) women. The underlying mechanisms by which E2 action on glucose disposal rate reversed from beneficial early to harmful late in menopause is unknown, but might include adverse changes in estrogen receptors (ERs) or other biomarkers of cellular energy metabolism with age or duration of estrogen deficiency...
February 13, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194437/mitochondrial-quality-control-dysregulation-in-conditional-ho-1-mice
#4
Hagir B Suliman, Jeffrey E Keenan, Claude A Piantadosi
The heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1; HO-1) pathway was tested for defense of mitochondrial quality control in cardiomyocyte-specific Hmox1 KO mice (HO-1[CM](-/-)) exposed to oxidative stress (100% O2). After 48 hours of exposure, these mice showed persistent cardiac inflammation and oxidative tissue damage that caused sarcomeric disruption, cardiomyocyte death, left ventricular dysfunction, and cardiomyopathy, while control hearts showed minimal damage. After hyperoxia, HO-1(CM)(-/-) hearts showed suppression of the Pgc-1α/nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) axis, swelling, low electron density mitochondria by electron microscopy (EM), increased cell death, and extensive collagen deposition...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193784/impaired-myogenic-response-of-the-afferent-arteriole-contributes-to-the-increased-susceptibility-to-renal-disease-in-milan-normotensive-rats
#5
Ying Ge, Fan Fan, Sean P Didion, Richard J Roman
Milan normotensive (MNS) rats are more susceptible to the development of renal disease than Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats, but the genes and pathways involved are unknown. This study compared the myogenic response of isolated perfused afferent arterioles (Af-Art) and autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular capillary pressure (Pgc) in 6-9-week-old MNS and MHS rats. The diameter of the Af-Art of MHS rats decreased significantly from 14.3 ± 0.5 to 11.5 ± 0.6 μm when perfusion pressure was elevated from 60 to 120 mmHg...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192862/long-term-dietary-quercetin-enrichment-as-a-cardioprotective-countermeasure-in-mdx-mice
#6
Christopher Ballmann, Thomas Denney, Ronald J Beyers, Tiffany Quindry, Matthew Romero, Joshua T Selsby, John C Quindry
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) causes declines in cardiac health resulting in premature mortality. As a potential countermeasure, quercetin is a polyphenol possessing inherent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that activate proliferator-activated γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) increasing mitochondrial biogenesis protein abundance. We investigated the extent to which lifelong 0.2% dietary quercetin enrichment attenuates dystrophic cardiopathology in mdx mice. Dystrophic animals were fed quercetin or control diet for 12 months while control C57 mice were fed a control diet...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191864/overexpression-of-nad-p-h-quinone-oxidoreductase-1-inhibits-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-and-induced-apoptosis-by-activating-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway
#7
Xin Zhang, Kun Han, Dong-Hong Yuan, Cun-Ying Meng
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common lethal malignancy and a leading cause of malignancy-associated death in many countries, but mainly in Asia. Expression of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) protein is involved in the growth of various human cancers, including HCC. NQO1 is considered an inhibitor of cancers. The present study aimed to investigate the function and mechanism of NQO1 in HCC. In this study, we found that NQO1 overexpression decreased HCC cell SK-hep-1 and Hep3B cell proliferation and induced apoptosis...
February 13, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191013/quercetin-and-quercetin-rich-red-onion-extract-alter-pgc-1%C3%AE-promoter-methylation-and-splice-variant-expression
#8
Prasad P Devarshi, Aarin D Jones, Erin M Taylor, Barbara Stefanska, Tara M Henagan
Pgc-1α and its various isoforms may play a role in determining skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations in response to diet. 8 wks of dietary supplementation with the flavonoid quercetin (Q) or red onion extract (ROE) in a high fat diet (HFD) ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/J mice while upregulating Pgc-1α and increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and function. Here, mice were fed a low fat (LF), high fat (HF), high fat plus quercetin (HF + Q), or high fat plus red onion extract (HF + RO) diet for 9 wks and skeletal muscle Pgc-1α isoform expression and DNA methylation were determined...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188344/skeletal-muscle-secretome-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-pivotal-anti-inflammatory-role-of-adiponectin
#9
S Lecompte, M Abou-Samra, R Boursereau, L Noel, S M Brichard
BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation exacerbates the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The hormone, adiponectin (ApN), which is decreased in the metabolic syndrome, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties on skeletal muscle and alleviates the dystrophic phenotype of mdx mice. Here, we investigate whether ApN retains its anti-inflammatory action in myotubes obtained from DMD patients. We unravel the underlying mechanisms by studying the secretome and the early events of ApN...
February 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178868/low-level-lasers-effect-on-proliferation-migration-and-anti-apoptosis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Kan Yin, Rongjia Zhu, Shihua Wang, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to be helpful elements in tissue regeneration. Photobiomodulation (PBM) used extremely low level lasers (LLL) to affect the behaviour of cells. The effect mechanism of LLL on MSCs remained to be discovered. Here cell viability was assessed using MTS assays and cell cycle was evaluated by FACS. The influence of LLL on mitochondrial biogenesis (fission or fusion) and function (ATP, ROS, NO) were evaluated by TEM, FACS, RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry. Cell migration and cytoskeleton alteration (actin and tubulin) were evaluated using transwell assay, immunocytochemistry, ELISA and Western blotting...
February 8, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177717/a-systematic-upregulation-of-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-genes-is-not-present-in-the-initial-post-exercise-recovery-period-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#11
Trisha D Scribbans, Brittany A Edgett, Jacob T Bonafiglia, Brittany L Baechler, Joe Quadrilatero, Brendon J Gurd
The purpose of the current investigation was to determine if an exercise-mediated upregulation of nuclear and mitochondrial-encoded genes targeted by the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) occurs in a systematic manner following different exercise intensities in humans. Ten recreationally active males (Age: 23 ±3 yrs; VO2peak: 41.8 ±6.6 mL/kg/min) completed two acute bouts of work-matched interval exercise at ~73% (LO) and ~100% (HI) of work rate at VO2peak in a randomized cross-over design...
January 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177702/modulation-of-mitochondrial-biomarkers-by-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-and-aerobic-exercise-after-eccentric-exercise-in-trained-rats
#12
David Rizo-Roca, Juan Gabriel Ríos-Kristjánsson, Cristian Núñez-Espinosa, Estela Santos-Alves, José Magalhães, António Ascensão, Teresa Pagès, Ginés Viscor, Joan Ramon Torrella
Unaccustomed eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, calcium homeostasis disruption and mitochondrial alterations. Since exercise and hypoxia are known to modulate mitochondrial function, we aimed to analyze the effects on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EEIMD), in trained rats, of two recovery protocols based on: 1) intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and 2) IHH followed by exercise. The expression of biomarkers related to mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, oxidative stress and bioenergetics was evaluated...
February 2, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177701/acute-upregulation-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-mrna-correlates-with-training-induced-increases-in-sdh-activity-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#13
Jacob T Bonafiglia, Brittany A Edgett, Brittany L Baechler, Matthew William Nelms, Craig A Simpson, Joe Quadrilatero, Brendon J Gurd
The purpose of the present study was to determine if acute responses in pgc-1α, vegfa, sdha, and gpd1/2 mRNA expression predict their associated chronic skeletal muscle molecular (SDH/GPD activity and substrate storage) and morphological (fibre type composition and capillary density) adaptations following training. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected from fourteen recreationally active men (age: 22.0 ± 2.4 years) before (PRE) and 3 hours after (3HR) the completion of an acute bout of SIT (eight, 20-second intervals at ~170% VO2peak work rate separated by 10 seconds of recovery)...
February 2, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161521/germ-cell-regeneration-mediated-enhanced-mutagenesis-in-the-ascidian-ciona-intestinalis-reveals-flexible-germ-cell-formation-from-different-somatic-cells
#14
Keita Yoshida, Akiko Hozumi, Nicholas Treen, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Maki Shirae-Kurabayashi, Yasunori Sasakura
The ascidian Ciona intestinalis has a high regeneration capacity that enables the regeneration of artificially removed primordial germ cells (PGCs) from somatic cells. We utilized PGC regeneration to establish efficient methods of germ line mutagenesis with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). When PGCs were artificially removed from animals in which a TALEN pair was expressed, somatic cells harboring mutations in the target gene were converted into germ cells, this germ cell population exhibited higher mutation rates than animals not subjected to PGC removal...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161458/effect-of-mptp-on-mrna-expression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-mouse-brain
#15
Rita Torok, Andras Salamon, Evelin Sumegi, Denes Zadori, Gabor Veres, Mate Fort Molnar, Laszlo Vecsei, Peter Klivenyi
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, respiration and adaptive thermogenesis. Besides the full-length protein (FL-PGC-1α), several other functionally active PGC-1α isoforms were identified as a result of alternative splicing (e.g., N-truncated PGC-1α; NT-PGC-1α) or alternative promoter usage (e.g., central nervous system-specific PGC-1α isoforms; CNS-PGC-1α). Achieving neuroprotection via CNS-targeted pharmacological stimulation is limited due to poor penetration of the blood brain barrier (BBB) by the proposed pharmaceutical agents, so preconditioning emerged as another option...
February 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159367/selective-chromatographic-separation-of-polycarbonate-according-to-hydroxyl-end-groups-using-a-porous-graphitic-carbon-column
#16
N Apel, E Uliyanchenko, S Moyses, S Rommens, C Wold, T Macko, K Rode, R Brüll
Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) has shown unique separation efficiency in liquid chromatography for a wide range of substance classes. In the characterization of polymers PGC has particularly been used for analysis of polyolefins. Its retention mechanisms differ dramatically from those of silica-based stationary phases and therefore allow interesting applications. Due to its unprecedented retention mechanisms PGC does not only promise good separation performance for polyolefins but also for more polar polymers such as Polycarbonate (PC)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158196/transcriptome-wide-co-expression-analysis-identifies-lrrc2-as-a-novel-mediator-of-mitochondrial-and-cardiac-function
#17
Chris McDermott-Roe, Marion Leleu, Glenn C Rowe, Oleg Palygin, John D Bukowy, Judy Kuo, Monika Rech, Steffie Hermans-Beijnsberger, Sebastian Schaefer, Eleonora Adami, Esther E Creemers, Matthias Heinig, Blanche Schroen, Zoltan Arany, Enrico Petretto, Aron M Geurts
Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to myriad monogenic and complex pathologies. To understand the underlying mechanisms, it is essential to define the full complement of proteins that modulate mitochondrial function. To identify such proteins, we performed a meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression data. Gene co-expression analysis of a large and heterogeneous compendium of microarray data nominated a sub-population of transcripts that whilst highly correlated with known mitochondrial protein-encoding transcripts (MPETs), are not themselves recognized as generating proteins either localized to the mitochondrion or pertinent to functions therein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156058/aging-and-caloric-restriction-impact-adipose-tissue-adiponectin-and-circulating-lipids
#18
Karl N Miller, Maggie S Burhans, Josef P Clark, Porsha R Howell, Michael A Polewski, Tyler M DeMuth, Kevin W Eliceiri, Mary J Lindstrom, James M Ntambi, Rozalyn M Anderson
Adipose tissue expansion has been associated with system-wide metabolic dysfunction and increased vulnerability to diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. A reduction in adiposity is a hallmark of caloric restriction (CR), an intervention that extends longevity and delays the onset of these same age-related conditions. Despite these parallels, the role of adipose tissue in coordinating the metabolism of aging is poorly defined. Here, we show that adipose tissue metabolism and secretory profiles change with age and are responsive to CR...
February 3, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155812/human-muscle-precursor-cells-overexpressing-pgc-1%C3%AE-enhance-early-skeletal-muscle-tissue-formation
#19
Deana Haralampieva, Souzan Salemi, Ivana Dinulovic, Tullio Sulser, Simon M Ametamey, Christoph Handschin, Daniel Eberli
Muscle precursor cells (MPCs) are activated satellite cells capable of muscle fiber reconstruction. Therefore, autologous MPC transplantation is envisioned for the treatment of muscle diseases. However, the density of MPCs, as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential gradually decline with age. The goal of this research was to genetically modify human MPCs (hMPCs) to overexpress the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1α), a key regulator of exercise-mediated adaptation, and thereby to enhance early skeletal muscle formation and quality...
February 3, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154348/promoting-effect-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-on-beige-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-rat-white-adipose-tissue
#20
Rieko Tanaka-Yachi, Chie Takahashi-Muto, Kazuya Adachi, Yukina Tanimura, Yoshinori Aoki, Taisuke Koike, Chikako Kiyose
Thermogenic adipocytes that are distinct from classical brown adipocytes (beige adipocytes) were identified in 2012. Beige adipocytes are also called inducible brown adipocytes because their differentiation is induced by a number of physiological stimuli, including adrenaline or myokines. PPARγ is the master regulator of adipogenesis and promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation. A PPARγ agonist also promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation in mouse white adipose tissues. The vitamin E analog α-tocopherol promotes PPARγ expression and induces mRNA expression of target genes...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
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