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Busisani W Lembede, Kennedy H Erlwanger, Pilani Nkomozepi, Eliton Chivandi
Background Terminalia sericea (T. sericea) is traditionally used to treat stomach ailments, infections, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Previous in vitro studies have reported that T. sericea has lipolytic properties. This study interrogated the effects of T. sericea on linear growth, development of fatty liver disease, viscera morphometry and health of growing rats fed a 12% fructose solution (FS). Methods Thirty 21-day old male Wistar rat pups were randomly allocated to five treatments: group I - plain gelatine cubes (PGC) + plain tap water (PW), group II - 12% FS + PGC, group III - gelatine cubes containing fenofibrate (Feno) at a dose of 100 mg/kg body + FS, group IV - gelatine cubes containing the low dose (100 mg/kg body mass per day) of the T...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Ming-Yue Liu, Ming-Jia Zhang, Ming-Jie Xie
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, is known as the "cellular energy regulator" and a key molecule to maintain the energy balance of cells and organism. Recent studies have shown that AMPK exerts anti-inflammatory effects mainly through activating SIRT1, PGC-1α, p53, FoxO3a and p300, and down-regulating the activity of various inflammatory related proteins such as NF-κB and AP-1. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms of the anti- inflammatory effects of AMPK, and provides some clues for the development of AMPK-targeted therapeutics to treat inflammation and related diseases...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Meng Zhang, Yi Chu, Joseph Mowery, Brandon Konkel, Susana Galli, Alexander C Theos, Nady Golestaneh
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major cause of blindness in the elderly in developed countries and its prevalence is increasing with the aging population. AMD initially affects the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and gradually leads to secondary photoreceptor degeneration. Recent studies have associated mitochondrial damage with AMD, and we have observed mitochondrial and autophagic dysfunction and repressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α in native RPE from AMD donor eyes and their respective induced pluripotent stem cell-derived RPE (AMD RPE-iPSC-RPE)...
June 20, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, Xiaoli Chen
Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine regulating thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and retinoic acid (RA)-induced thermogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism for Lcn2 in the recruitment and retinoic acid-induced activation of brown-like or "beige" adipocytes. We found Lcn2 deficiency reduces key markers of thermogenesis including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and inguinal adipocytes derived from Lcn2-/- mice...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Yusuke Ishida, Hidetoshi Fujita, Satoko Aratani, Miyuki Chijiiwa, Noboru Taniguchi, Maho Yokota, Yukihiko Ogihara, Naomi Uoshima, Fumiaki Nagashima, Hiroyuki Uchino, Toshihiro Nakajima
Sepsis‑associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome of which the precise associated mechanisms remain unclear. Synoviolin (Syvn1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in conditions associated with chronic inflammation, including rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. However, the role of Syvn1 in acute inflammation is not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Syvn1 in a septic mouse model induced by cecal ligation/perforation (CLP)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jue-Long Wang, Chin-Wang Chen, Mu-Rou Tsai, Shu-Fen Liu, Tsuing-Jeu Hung, Yu-Ju-Hung, Wen-Teng Chang, Ming-Der Shi, Pei-Fang Hsieh, Yu-Lin Yang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, mitochondrial dysfunction has been indicated as an established risk factor for the development of renal fibrosis. However, whether PGC-1α is involved in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we treated NRK-49F (normal rat kidney fibroblast) cells with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) for 24h to establish an in vitro fibrosis model...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Yan Wen, Feng Zhang, Xiancang Ma, Qianrui Fan, Wenyu Wang, Jiawen Xu, Feng Zhu, Jingcan Hao, Awen He, Li Liu, Xiao Liang, Yanan Du, Ping Li, Cuiyan Wu, Sen Wang, Xi Wang, Yujie Ning, Xiong Guo
Background: Psychiatric disorders are usually caused by the dysfunction of various brain regions. Incorporating the genetic information of brain regions into correlation analysis can provide novel clues for pathogenetic and therapeutic studies of psychiatric disorders. Methods: The latest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BIP), autism spectrum disorder (AUT), major depression disorder (MDD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were obtained from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC)...
June 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Hsuan-Ju Chen, Tsubasa Ihara, Hidetugu Yoshioka, Erina Itoyama, Shoko Kitamura, Hiroshi Nagase, Hiroaki Murakami, Yoichiro Hoshino, Masaru Murakami, Shozo Tomonaga, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Brown/beige adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. We previously showed that brown/beige adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) of fattening cattle. The present study examined the effect of vitamin A restriction on mRNA expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes. In Japan, fattening cattle are conventionally fed a vitamin A-restricted diet to improve beef marbling. Twelve Japanese Black steers aged 10 months were fed control feed (n=6) or vitamin A-restricted feed (n=6) for 20 months. Subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and mesenteric WAT (mesWAT) were collected, and mRNA expression levels of molecules related to function of brown/beige adipocytes (Ucp1, Cidea, Dio2, Cox7a and Cox8b) as well as transcriptional regulators related to brown/beige adipogenesis (Zfp516, Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α) were evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Kazuki Kurimoto, Mitinori Saitou
Germ cells undergo epigenome reprogramming for proper development of the next generation. The realization of germ cell derivation from human and mouse pluripotent stem cells offers unprecedented opportunity for investigation of germline development. Primordial germ cells reconstituted in vitro (PGC-like cells [PGCLCs]) show progressive dilution of genomic DNA methylation, tightly linked with chromatin remodeling, during their specification. PGCLCs can be further expanded by plane culture, allowing maintenance of the gene-expression profiles of early PGCs and continuance of the DNA methylation erasure, thereby establishing an epigenetic `blank slate'...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Se-Jin Kim, Channy Park, Joon No Lee, Raekil Park
Cisplatin is an alkylating agent that interferes with DNA replication and kills proliferating carcinogenic cells. Several studies have been conducted to attenuate the side effects of cisplatin; one such side effect in cancer patients undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy is ototoxicity. However, owing to a lack of understanding of the precise mechanism underlying cisplatin-induced side effects, management of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity remains unsolved. We investigated the protective effects of fenofibrate, a PPAR-α activator, on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity...
June 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Lin Yuan, Guangliang Han
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of cadmium chloride on mitochondrial function and the expression of PGC-1α in HK-2 cells, and explore the possible role of cadmium chloride in the process of mitochondrial oxidative damage of HK-2 cells. METHODS: HK-2 cells were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 μmol/L of CdCl_2 respectively for 24 h in vitro. MTT assay was used to observe the viability of HK-2 cells. The mitochondrial ROS was detected by Mito SOXTMRed staining...
March 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Jerome C Foo, Fabian Streit, Jens Treutlein, Stephan Ripke, Stephanie H Witt, Jana Strohmaier, Franziska Degenhardt, Andreas J Forstner, Per Hoffmann, Michael Soyka, Norbert Dahmen, Norbert Scherbaum, Norbert Wodarz, Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefan Herms, Sven Cichon, Ulrich Preuss, Wolfgang Gaebel, Monika Ridinger, Sabine Hoffmann, Thomas G Schulze, Wolfgang Maier, Peter Zill, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Marcus Ising, Susanne Lucae, Markus M Nöthen, Karl Mann, Falk Kiefer, Marcella Rietschel, Josef Frank
The clinical comorbidity of alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established, whereas genetic factors influencing co-occurrence remain unclear. A recent study using polygenic risk scores (PRS) calculated based on the first-wave Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD meta-analysis (PGC-MDD1) suggests a modest shared genetic contribution to MDD and AD. Using a (∼10 fold) larger discovery sample, we calculated PRS based on the second wave (PGC-MDD2) of results, in a severe AD case-control target sample...
June 12, 2018: Psychiatric Genetics
Zuheng Liu, Jinghai Hua, Wanqiang Cai, Qiong Zhan, Wenyan Lai, Qingchun Zeng, Hao Ren, Dingli Xu
N‑terminal truncated peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ coactivator‑1α (NT‑PGC‑1α) is an alternative splice variant of PGC‑1α. NT‑PGC‑1α exhibits stronger anti‑obesity effects in adipose tissue than PGC‑1α; however, NT‑PGC‑1α has not yet been investigated in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs). The present study aimed to investigate the role of NT‑PGC‑1α in mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism and its possible regulatory mechanism in NRCMs. NRCMs were exposed to phenylephrine (PE) or angiotensin II (Ang II) to induce cardiac hypertrophy...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sophie Zhao, Ian Walsh, Jodie L Abrahams, Louise Royle, Terry Nguyen-Khuong, Daniel Spencer, Daryl L Fernandes, Nicolle H Packer, Pauline M Rudd, Matthew P Campbell
Summary: GlycoStore is a curated chromatographic, electrophoretic and mass-spectrometry composition database of N-, O-, glycosphingolipid (GSL) glycans and free oligosaccharides associated with a range of glycoproteins, glycolipids and biotherapeutics. The database is built on publicly available experimental data sets from GlycoBase developed in the Oxford Glycobiology Institute and then the National Institute for Bioprocessing Research and Training (NIBRT). It has now been extended to include recently published and in-house data collections from the Bioprocessing Technology Institute (BTI) A*STAR, Macquarie University and Ludger Ltd...
April 20, 2018: Bioinformatics
Julian Eigendorf, Marcus May, Jan Friedrich, Stefan Engeli, Norbert Maassen, Gerolf Gros, Joachim D Meissner
We present here a longitudinal study determining the effects of two 3 week-periods of high intensity high volume interval training (HIHVT) (90 intervals of 6 s cycling at 250% maximum power, Pmax /24 s) on a cycle ergometer. HIHVT was evaluated by comparing performance tests before and after the entire training (baseline, BSL, and endpoint, END) and between the two training sets (intermediate, INT). The mRNA expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and markers of energy metabolism were analyzed in M...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xi Zhang, Yifan Feng, Yuping Wang, Jing Wang, Danni Xiang, Weiran Niu, Fei Yuan
AIMS: To explore the roles of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in both RGC-5 cells apoptosis and rat retinal damage induced by elevated pressure and their involvement in resveratrol (RSV)-induced cell protection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model was established in rats by injecting superparamagnetic iron oxide into anterior chamber. The RGC-5 cells were incubated under ambient and elevated pressure (70 mm Hg) respectively...
June 9, 2018: Life Sciences
Tian Zhang, Jun Li, Hao Yu, Yongyong Shi, Zhiqiang Li, Linyan Wang, Ziqi Wang, Tianlan Lu, Lifang Wang, Weihua Yue, Dai Zhang
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe psychiatric disorder with evidence of a strong genetic component in the complex etiologies. Some studies indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor β2 subunit gene (GABRB2) was associated with SCZ. Other studies reported a negative association. Moreover, the results of two previous meta-analyses of GABRB2 with SCZ were inconsistent and the sample sizes were limited. Therefore, an updated meta-analysis combined with genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of the Han Chinese population and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) was performed...
2018: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2018: Endocrinology
Dongshi Liang, Airong Huang, Yimei Jin, Miaomiao Lin, Xiaojiao Xia, Xiaoli Chen, Airong Huang
This study aimed to examine whether exogenous NaHS can protect myocardial mitochondrial injury from sepsis by enhancing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α)/ nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2) pathway and mitochondrial biosynthesis in mice. Animals were divided into sham-operated, sepsis, sepsis + 25 μmol/L NaHS, sepsis + 50 μmol/L NaHS, sepsis + 100 μmol/L NaHS, and sepsis + 200 μmol/L NaHS groups. The myocardial damage was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining for myocardial microstructure and serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) detection...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
W F Theeuwes, H R Gosker, R C J Langen, N A M Pansters, A M W J Schols, A H V Remels
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial biogenesis is crucial for myogenic differentiation and regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue and is tightly controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1 (PGC-1) signaling network. In the present study, we hypothesized that inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, previously suggested to interfere with PGC-1 in non-muscle cells, potentiates PGC-1 signaling and the development of mitochondrial biogenesis during myogenesis, ultimately resulting in an enhanced myotube oxidative capacity...
June 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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