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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424211/connecting-tubule-glomerular-feedback-mediates-tubuloglomerular-feedback-resetting-post-unilateral-nephrectomy
#1
Sumit R Monu, Yilin Ren, J X Masjoan Juncos, Kristopher Kutskill, Hong Wang, Nitin Kumar, Edward L Peterson, Oscar A Carretero
Unilaterally nephrectomized rats (UNx) have higher glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) that can cause significant glomerular injury in the remnant kidney. PGC is controlled by the ratio of afferent (Af-Art) and efferent arteriole resistance. Af-Art resistance in turn is regulated by two intrinsic feedback mechanisms: 1) Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) that causes Af-Art constriction in response to increased NaCl in the macula densa and 2) connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF) that causes Af-Art dilatation in response to an increase in NaCl transport in the connecting tubule via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420087/skeletal-muscle-nucleo-mitochondrial-crosstalk-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Prasad P Devarshi, Sean M McNabney, Tara M Henagan
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction, evidenced by incomplete beta oxidation and accumulation of fatty acid intermediates in the form of long and medium chain acylcarnitines, may contribute to ectopic lipid deposition and insulin resistance during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. The present review discusses the roles of anterograde and retrograde communication in nucleo-mitochondrial crosstalk that determines skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations, specifically alterations in mitochondrial number and function in relation to obesity and insulin resistance...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416581/trp-channels-in-brown-and-white-adipogenesis-from-human-progenitors-new-therapeutic-targets-and-the-caveats-associated-with-the-common-antibiotic-streptomycin
#3
Anna Goralczyk, Marc van Vijven, Mathilde Koch, Cedric Badowski, M Shabeer Yassin, Sue-Anne Toh, Asim Shabbir, Alfredo Franco-Obregón, Michael Raghunath
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodal cell sensors responding to diverse stimuli and widely implicated in the developmental programs of numerous tissues. The evidence for an involvement of TRP family members in adipogenesis, however, is scant. We present the first comprehensive expression profile of all known 27 human TRP genes in mesenchymal progenitors cells during white or brown adipogenesis. Using positive trilineage differentiation as an exclusion criterion, TRP polycystic (P)3, and TPR melastatin (M)8 were found to be uniquely adipospecific...
April 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414942/coenzyme-q10-protects-against-statin-induced-myotoxicity-in-zebrafish-larvae-danio-rerio
#4
Rand Pasha, Thomas W Moon
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonic acid pathway and is required for cholesterol biosynthesis and the synthesis of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Statins inhibit HMGCR, thus inhibiting the downstream products of this pathway including the biosynthesis of decaprenyl-pyrophosphate that is critical for the synthesis of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). We show that zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae treated in tank water with Atorvastatin (ATV; Lipitor) exhibited movement alterations and reduced whole body tissue metabolism...
April 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411102/zl006-protects-spinal-cord-neurons-against-ischemia-induced-oxidative-stress-through-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-sirt3-pathway
#5
Shu-Guang Liu, Yun-Mei Wang, Yan-Jun Zhang, Xi-Jing He, Tao Ma, Wei Song, Yu-Min Zhang
Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) induces a range of cellular and molecular cascades, including activation of glutamate receptors and downstream signaling. Post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) links neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors to form a ternary complex in the CNS. This molecular complex-mediated cytotoxicity has been implicated in brain ischemia, but its role in SCI has not been determined. The goal of the study was to investigate the potential protective effects of ZL006, a small-molecule inhibitor of the PSD-95/nNOS interaction, in an in vitro SCI model induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured spinal cord neurons...
April 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409883/melanocortin-4-receptor-activation-attenuates-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-skeletal-muscle-of-diabetic-rats
#6
Hao-Hao Zhang, Jiao Liu, Gui-Jun Qin, Xia-Lian Li, Pei-Jie Du, Xiao Hao, Tian-Tian Tian, Jing- Wu, Meng- Yun, Yan-Hui Bai
Backgroud: A previous study has confirmed that the central melanocortin system was able to mediate skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in mice fed a high-fat diet, while activation of the AMPK signaling pathway significantly induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Our hypothesis was that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) was involved in the development of skeletal muscle injury in diabetic rats. METHODS: In this study, we treated diabetic rats intracerebroventricularly with MC4R agonist R027-3225 or antagonist SHU9119, respectively...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407521/genetic-or-pharmacological-activation-of-the-drosophila-pgc-1%C3%AE-ortholog-spargel-rescues-the-disease-phenotypes-of-genetic-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Chee-Hoe Ng, Adeline H Basil, Liting Hang, Royston Tan, Kian-Leong Goh, Sharon O'Neill, Xiaodong Zhang, Fengwei Yu, Kah-Leong Lim
Despite intensive research, the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains poorly understood and the disease remains incurable. However, compelling evidence gathered over decades of research strongly support a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in PD pathogenesis. Related to this, PGC-1α, a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, has recently been proposed to be an attractive target for intervention in PD. Here, we showed that silencing of expression of the Drosophila PGC-1α ortholog spargel results in PD-related phenotypes in flies and also seem to negate the effects of AMPK activation, which we have previously demonstrated to be neuroprotective, that is, AMPK-mediated neuroprotection appears to require PGC-1α...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403913/brilliant-blue-g-but-not-fenofibrate-treatment-reverts-hemiparkinsonian-behavior-and-restores-dopamine-levels-in-an-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Enéas G Ferrazoli, Héllio D N de Souza, Isis C Nascimento, Ágatha Oliveira-Giacomelli, Telma T Schwindt, Luiz R Britto, Henning Ulrich
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and their projections to the striatum. Several processes have been described as potential inducers of the dopaminergic neuron death, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the death of dopaminergic neurons seems to be multifactorial, and its cause remains unclear. ATP-activating purinergic receptors influence various physiological functions in the CNS, including neurotransmission...
April 13, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402650/comprehensive-analytical-approach-toward-glycomic-characterization-and-profiling-in-urinary-exosomes
#9
Guozhang Zou, John D Benktander, Solomon T Gizaw, Stefan Gaunitz, Milos V Novotny
Exosomes are extracellular nano-sized vesicles with lipid bilayers encapsulating nucleic acids and proteins, both with and without glycosylation. While exosomal nucleic acids and proteins have previously been explored to identify cancer biomarkers with some promising results, little information has been available concerning their glycoconjugate content. Herein, we developed analytical methods to investigate glycosylation of urinary exosomes for future diagnostic and prognostic measurements pertaining to the malignancies of genitourinary tract...
April 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400752/expression-and-function-of-different-guanine-plus-cytosine-content-16s-rrna-genes-in-haloarcula-hispanica-at-different-temperatures
#10
Yu Sato, Taketomo Fujiwara, Hiroyuki Kimura
The halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica harbors three ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons (rrnA, rrnB, and rrnC) that contain the 16S rRNA genes rrsA, rrsB, and rrsC, respectively. Although rrsB and rrsC (rrsBC) have almost identical sequences, the rrsA and rrsBC sequences differ by 5.4%, and they differ by 2.5% with respect to guanine-plus-cytosine content (PGC). The strong correlation between the typical growth temperatures of archaea and PGC of their 16S rRNA genes suggests that H. hispanica may harbor different 16S rRNA genes having different PGC to maintain rapid growth in a wide range of temperatures...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400503/pgc-1%C3%AE-and-fasting-induced-pdh-regulation-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#11
Anders Gudiksen, Henriette Pilegaard
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether lack of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) affects the switch in substrate utilization from a fed to fasted state and the fasting-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific PGC-1α knockout (MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls were fed or fasted for 24 h. Fasting reduced PDHa activity, increased phosphorylation of all four known sites on PDH-E1α and increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) protein levels, but did not alter total acetylation of PDH-E1α Lack of muscle PGC-1α did not affect the switch from glucose to fat oxidation in the transition from the fed to fasted state, but was associated with lower and higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in the fed and fasted state, respectively...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400332/sexual-dimorphic-expression-of-dnd-in-germ-cells-during-sex-reversal-and-its-requirement-for-primordial-germ-cell-survival-in-protogynous-hermaphroditic-grouper
#12
Zhi-Hui Sun, Li Zhou, Zhi Li, Xiao-Chun Liu, Shui-Sheng Li, Yang Wang, Jian-Fang Gui
Dead end (dnd), vertebrate-specific germ cell marker, had been demonstrated to be essential for primordial germ cell (PGC) migration and survival, and the link between PGC number and sex change had been revealed in some teleost species, but little is known about dnd in hermaphroditic vertebrates. In the present study, a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) dnd homologue (Ecdnd) was identified and characterized. Quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization analysis revealed a dynamic and sexually dimorphic expression pattern in PGCs and germ cells of gonads...
April 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397605/xenopus-vasa-homolog-xvlg1-is-essential-for-migration-and-survival-of-primordial-germ-cells
#13
Kazumi Shimaoka, Yoshiko Mukumoto, Yoko Tanigawa, Tohru Komiya
Xenopus vasa-like gene 1 (XVLG1), a DEAD-Box Helicase 4 (DDX4) gene identified as a vertebrate vasa homologue, is required for the formation of primordial germ cells (PGCs). However, it remains to be clarified when and how XVLG1 functions in the formation of the germ cells. To gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying XVLG1 during PGC development, we injected XVLG1 morpholino oligos into germ-plasm containing blastomeres of 32-cell stage of Xenopus embryos, and traced cell fates of the injected blastomere-derived PGCs...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397218/-generation-of-gabaergic-interneuron-specific-pgc-1%C3%AE-knockout-mice
#14
Jia Wang, Xianlu Chang, Jinjun Qian, Yang Jiang, Chunyan Wang, Yucong Wang, Chi Feng, Yongjie Wang, Peihui Xia, Ying Zhang, Danping Wu, Weining Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To generate mice which are specific for peroxisomproliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1(PGC-1α) knockout in the GABAergic interneuron. METHODS: Conditional mice specific for PGC-1α(f/+) were introduced from the Jackson Laboratory, USA and initially inbred to obtain homozygote PGC-1α (f/f) mice. The PGC-1α(f/f) conditional mice were further crossed with Dlx5/6-Cre-IRES-EGFP transgenic mice to achieve specific knockout of PGC-1α in the GABAergic interneuron...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395336/dose-dependent-functions-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-9-regulate-the-fate-of-murine-xy-primordial-germ-cells%C3%A2
#15
Ferhat Ulu, Sung-Min Kim, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Yukiko Yamazaki
Male differentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is initiated by the inhibition of entry into meiosis and exposure to male-inducing factor(s), which are regulated by somatic elements of the developing gonad. Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) produced by pre-Sertoli cells is essential for male gonadal differentiation and also contributes to survival and male differentiation of XY PGCs. However, it is not clear how FGF9 regulates PGC fate. Using a PGC culture system, we identified dose-dependent, fate-determining functions of FGF9 in XY PGCs...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391633/comparisons-of-cardioprotective-efficacy-between-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-in-pre-diabetic-rats
#16
Pongpan Tanajak, Piangkwan Sa-Nguanmoo, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Xiaojie Wang, Guang Liang, Xiaokun Li, Chao Jiang, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
AIMS: Comparative efficacy between fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and vildagliptin on metabolic regulation, cardiac mitochondrial function, heart rate variability (HRV) and left ventricular (LV) function is not known. We hypothesized that FGF21 and vildagliptin share a similar efficacy in improving these parameters in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese-insulin resistant rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were fed with either a normal diet (ND) or a HFD for 12 weeks...
April 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390981/neurochemical-effects-of-the-r-form-of-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-and-its-neuroprotective-mechanism-in-cellular-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Hong Zhao, Xingcheng Zhao, Lijuan Liu, Hongxu Zhang, Mingwen Xuan, Zhaohui Guo, Hongcai Wang, Chang Liu
OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the R form of α-lipoic acid (RLA) in cellular models of PD induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were detected using CCK8 and Annexin V-FITC assays, respectively. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by fluorescence staining. ELISA assays were performed to detect the levels of dopamine and α-synuclein...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388562/cbx7-negatively-regulates-migration-and-invasion-in-glioma-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-inactivation
#18
Zhongyuan Bao, Xiupeng Xu, Yinlong Liu, Honglu Chao, Chao Lin, Zheng Li, Yongping You, Ning Liu, Jing Ji
CBX7, a member of the Polycomb-group proteins, plays a significant role in normal and cancerous tissues and has been defined as a tumor suppressor in thyroid, breast and pancreatic cancers. However, its function in glioma remains undefined. CBX7 expression is decreased in glioma, especially in higher grade cases, according to data in the CGGA, GSE16001 and TCGA databases. Further experimental evidence has shown that exogenous CBX7 overexpression induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and migration of glioma cells...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387563/curcumin-upregulates-antioxidant-defense-lon-protease-and-heat-shock-protein-70-under-hyperglycemic-conditions-in-human-hepatoma-cells
#19
Shivona Gounden, Anil Chuturgoon
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) regulates mitochondrial antioxidant (AO) defense and improves mitochondrial disorders. Curcumin protects mitochondria; however, the mechanisms need investigation. We postulated that curcumin increases AO defense under hyperglycemic conditions in HepG2 cells through SIRT3-mediated mechanisms. Cell viability was determined in HepG2 cells cultured with 5 mM glucose, 19.9 mM mannitol, vehicle control, 10 mM glucose, and 30 mM glucose in the absence or presence of curcumin for 24 h. SIRT3, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and Lon protein expressions were determined using western blot...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386385/effects-of-dietary-leucine-supplementation-on-the-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-energy-metabolism-in-normal-birth-weight-and-intrauterine-growth-retarded-weanling-piglets
#20
Weipeng Su, Wen Xu, Hao Zhang, Zhixiong Ying, Le Zhou, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in the liver of normal birth weight (NBW) and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) weanling piglets. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of sixteen pairs of NBW and IUGR piglets from sixteen sows were selected according to their birth weight. At postnatal day 14, all piglets were weaned and fed either a control diet or a leucine-supplemented diet for 21 d...
April 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
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