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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140431/microvascular-adaptations-to-exercise-protective-effect-of-pgc-1-alpha
#1
Andrew O Kadlec, Chad Barnes, Matthew J Durand, David D Gutterman
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity has independent protective effects on the cardiovascular system, but the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Recent studies suggest that the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) participates in the response to exercise training. We hypothesized that the arterioles of athletes maintain dilation to flow despite combined inhibition of multiple vasodilators, but loss of PGC-1α renders these vessels susceptible to inhibition of a single vasodilator pathway...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138395/myokine-mediated-muscle-kidney-crosstalk-suppresses-metabolic-reprogramming-and-fibrosis-in-damaged-kidneys
#2
Hui Peng, Qianqian Wang, Tanqi Lou, Jun Qin, Sungyun Jung, Vivekananda Shetty, Feng Li, Yanlin Wang, Xin-Hua Feng, William E Mitch, Brett H Graham, Zhaoyong Hu
Kidney injury initiates metabolic reprogramming in tubule cells that contributes to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Exercise has been associated with beneficial effects in patients with CKD. Here we show that the induction of a myokine, irisin, improves kidney energy metabolism and prevents kidney damage. In response to kidney injury, mice with muscle-specific PGC-1α overexpression (mPGC-1α) exhibit reduced kidney damage and fibrosis. Metabolomics analysis reveals increased ATP production and improved energy metabolism in injured kidneys from mPGC-1α mice...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137482/uphill-running-excessive-training-increases-gastrocnemius-glycogen-content-in-c57bl-6-mice
#3
G P Morais, A da Rocha, A P Pinto, L da C Oliveira, L G de Vicente, G N Ferreira, E C de Freitas, A Sr da Silva
The main aim of the present investigation was to verify the effects of three overtraining (OT) protocols performed in downhill (OTR/down), uphill (OTR/up) and without inclination (OTR) on the protein levels of Akt (Ser473), AMPKalpha (Thr172), PGC-1alpha, plasma membrane GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 as well as on the glycogen contents in mice gastrocnemius. A trained (TR) protocol was used as positive control. Rodents were divided into naive (N, sedentary mice), control (CT, sedentary mice submitted to the performance evaluations), TR, OTR/down, OTR/up and OTR groups...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136581/honokiol-exerts-dual-effects-on-browning-and-apoptosis-of-adipocytes
#4
Jameel Lone, Jong Won Yun
BACKGROUND: Induction of brown adipocyte-like phenotype (browning) in white adipocytes and promotion of apoptosis by dietary and pharmacological compounds is considered a novel strategy against obesity. Here, we show that honokiol exerts dual modulatory effects on adipocytes via induction of browning in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes and apoptosis as well as activation of HIB1B brown adipocytes combined with inhibition of apoptosis. METHODS: Honokiol-induced browning and apoptosis were investigated by determining expression levels of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133865/cold-acclimation-causes-fiber-type-specific-responses-in-glucose-and-fat-metabolism-in-rat-skeletal-muscles
#5
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Yass Sotoudeh-Nia, Ayesha Iqbal, George Bikopoulos, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated fiber type-specific metabolic responses and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in oxidative and glycolytic muscles upon cold acclimation. Male Wistar rats were exposed to cold (4 °C) for 7 days, and then glycogen synthesis and content, glucose and palmitate oxidation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these metabolic pathways were assessed in soleus (Sol), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and epitrochlearis (Epit) muscles. Cold acclimation increased glycogen synthesis, glycogen content, glucose oxidation, and reduced glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation only in Sol muscles...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130614/panax-notoginseng-saponins-attenuate-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-through-mitochondrial-pathway-in-natural-aging-rats
#6
Zhiyong Zhou, Jiao Wang, Yanan Song, Yumin He, Changcheng Zhang, Chaoqi Liu, Haixia Zhao, Yaoyan Dun, Ding Yuan, Ting Wang
Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have been widely used in the cardiovascular system for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and stroke in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of PNS on cardiomyocytes in the natural aging rat and explored the potential mechanisms regarding oxidative stress and mitochondrial function signaling pathways. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: adult control (3-month old), aging control (24-month old), and different doses of PNS-treated aging rat groups (10, 30, 60 mg/kg/day, orally)...
November 12, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130104/expression-of-fatty-acid-synthase-is-regulated-by-pgc%C3%A2-1%C3%AE-and-contributes-to-increased-cell-proliferation
#7
Seong-Hoon Yun, Sung-Won Shin, Joo-In Park
We previously demonstrated that overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes increased cell proliferation and tumorigenic potential through upregulation of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, and its expression in various cancers is associated with survival, poor prognosis and cancer recurrence. In the present study, we evaluated whether PGC-1α regulated FASN expression in human colorectal cancer (SNU-C4 and HT-29) cells...
December 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129613/pgc-1%C3%AE-functions-as-a-co-suppressor-of-xbp1s-to-regulate-glucose-metabolism
#8
Jaemin Lee, Mario Andrés Salazar Hernández, Thomas Auen, Patrick Mucka, Justin Lee, Umut Ozcan
OBJECTIVE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating HNF4α and FoxO1. PGC-1α expression in the liver is highly elevated in obese and diabetic conditions, leading to increased hepatic glucose production. We previously showed that the spliced form of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) suppresses FoxO1 activity and hepatic gluconeogenesis. The shared role of PGC-1α and XBP1s in regulating FoxO1 activity and gluconeogenesis led us to investigate the probable interaction between PGC-1α and XBP1s and its role in glucose metabolism...
October 28, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127340/hair-cortisol-in-twins-heritability-and-genetic-overlap-with-psychological-variables-and-stress-system-genes
#9
Liz Rietschel, Fabian Streit, Gu Zhu, Kerrie McAloney, Josef Frank, Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Stephanie H Witt, Tina M Binz, John McGrath, Ian B Hickie, Narelle K Hansell, Margaret J Wright, Nathan A Gillespie, Andreas J Forstner, Thomas G Schulze, Stefan Wüst, Markus M Nöthen, Markus R Baumgartner, Brian R Walker, Andrew A Crawford, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Sarah E Medland, Nicholas G Martin, Marcella Rietschel
Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors. However, whether HCC and psychological variables share genetic risk factors remains unclear. The aims of the present twin study were to: (i) assess the heritability of HCC; (ii) estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlation between HPA axis activity and the psychological variables perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism; using formal genetic twin models and molecular genetic methods, i...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126696/coordination-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-human-skeletal-muscle-a-re-evaluation
#10
REVIEW
Hashim Islam, Brittany A Edgett, Brendon J Gurd
The transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is proposed to coordinate skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis through the integrated induction of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded gene transcription. This paradigm is based largely on experiments demonstrating PGC-1α's ability to co-activate various nuclear transcription factors that increase the expression of mitochondrial genes, as well PGC-1α's direct interaction with mitochondrial transcription factor A within mitochondria to increase the transcription of mitochondrial DNA...
November 7, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125913/standardized-kaempferia-parviflora-extract-enhances-exercise-performance-through-activation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#11
Mi-Bo Kim, Taeyoon Kim, Changhee Kim, Jae-Kwan Hwang
Exercise enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Increased mitochondrial function and content can contribute to the improvement in skeletal muscle function and the benefits of exercise by increasing the response to energy demands. The effect of standardized Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE) on exercise performance was accessed in L6 myotubes and C57BL/6J mice. KPE significantly activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and increased mitochondrial density in L6 myotubes...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125827/early-cerebellar-deficits-in-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-respiratory-chain-complexes-in-the-kiko-mouse-model-of-friedreich-ataxia
#12
Hong Lin, Jordi Magrane, Amy Rattelle, Anna Stepanova, Alexander Galkin, Elisia M Clark, Yi Na Dong, Sarah M Halawani, David R Lynch
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), the most common recessive inherited ataxia, results from deficiency of frataxin, a small mitochondrial protein crucial for iron-sulphur cluster formation and ATP production. Frataxin deficiency is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in FRDA patients and animal models; however, early mitochondrial pathology in FRDA cerebellum remains elusive. Using frataxin knock-in/knockout (KIKO) mice and KIKO mice carrying the mitoDendra transgene, we show early cerebellar deficits in mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory chain complexes in this FRDA model...
November 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123335/retracted-treadmill-training-increases-sirt-1-and-pgc-1%C3%AE-protein-levels-and-ampk-phosphorylation-in-quadriceps-of-middle-aged-rats-in-an-intensity-dependent-manner
#13
Mediators Of Inflammation
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2014/987017.].
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123026/the-klf14-transcription-factor-regulates-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-mice
#14
Lu Wang, Xin Tong, Fang Gu, Lei Zhang, Wei Chen, Xiaowen Cheng, Liwei Xie, Yongsheng Chang, Huabing Zhang
Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) is a member of the Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins. Despite strong evidence showing that a polymorphism in the Klf14 gene is closely linked to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), the physiological and metabolic functions of KLF14 still remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of KLF14 in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Adenoviruses expressing KLF14 (Ad-Klf14) or KLF14-specific shRNAs (Ad-shKlf14) were injected into normal C57BL/6J, db/db diabetic or high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122708/combinatory-effects-of-phytoestrogens-and-exercise-on-body-fat-mass-and-lipid-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-female-rats
#15
Wenya Zheng, Jana Rogoschin, Anja Niehoff, Kristina Oden, Sabine E Kulling, Mingyong Xie, Patrick Diel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the combinatory effects of an isoflavone (ISO)-rich diet and exercise on fat mass and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Therefore the female Wistar rats were sedentary, performed an intense treadmill uphill running, received ISOs, or a combination of ISOs and running after ovariectomy. The exercise reduced visceral fat mass, adipocyte size and serum leptin in Sham animals and antagonized the increases of these parameters induced by OVX. ISOs reduced OVX induced increase of serum leptin...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115599/aconitine-induces-apoptosis-in-h9c2-cardiac-cells-via-mitochondria%C3%A2-mediated-pathway
#16
Xiangting Gao, Xincai Zhang, Jun Hu, Xuehua Xu, Yuanyi Zuo, Yun Wang, Jingfeng Ding, Hongfei Xu, Shaohua Zhu
Aconitine, a diterpenoid alkaloids derived from Aconitum plants, is widely employed to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the apoptotic effect of aconitine in H9c2 cardiac cells. H9c2 cell apoptosis induced by aconitine was detected by a Cell Counting kit‑8 assay, DAPI staining, Annexin V‑FITC/propidium iodide double staining and western blotting. The effects of aconitine on reactive oxygen species levels and mitochondrial membrane potential were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113410/a-risk-prediction-system-of-postoperative-hemorrhage-following-laparoscopy-assisted-radical-gastrectomy-with-d2-lymphadenectomy-for-primary-gastric-cancer
#17
Xin-Sheng Xie, Jian-Xian Lin, Ping Li, Jian-Wei Xie, Jia-Bin Wang, Jun Lu, Qi-Yue Chen, Long-Long Cao, Mi Lin, Ru-Hong Tu, Chang-Ming Huang, Chao-Hui Zheng
Objectives: To investigate risk factors of postoperative hemorrhage (PH) following laparoscopy-assisted radical gastrectomy (LARG) with D2 lymphadenectomy for primary gastric cancer (PGC) and to use those risk factors to develop a scoring system for risk assessment. Materials and Methods: A total of 1789 PGC patients were enrolled in our study. We analyzed the risk factors of PH and constructed a scoring system using 75% of the cases as the experimental group and 25% of the cases as a verification group to demonstrate the effectiveness...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112628/exercise-induced-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-expression-in-skeletal-muscle
#18
Tiffany L vanLieshout, Derek W Stouth, Tania Tajik, Vladimir Ljubicic
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), -4 (also known as coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1; CARM1), and -5 expression and function during acute, exercise-induced skeletal muscle remodelling in vivo. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of three experimental groups: sedentary, acute bout of exercise, or acute exercise followed by 3 hours of recovery. The mice in the exercise groups performed a single bout of treadmill running at 15 m/min for 90 minutes...
November 6, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111977/nanos-promotes-epigenetic-reprograming-of-the-germline-by-down-regulation-of-the-thap-transcription-factor-lin-15b
#19
Chih-Yung Sean Lee, Tu Lu, Geraldine Seydoux
Nanos RNA-binding proteins are required for germline development in metazoans, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have profiled the transcriptome of primordial germ cells (PGCs) lacking the nanos homologs nos-1 and nos-2 in C. elegans. nos-1nos-2 PGCs fail to silence hundreds of transcripts normally expressed in oocytes. We find that this misregulation is due to both delayed turnover of maternal transcripts and inappropriate transcriptional activation. The latter appears to be an indirect consequence of delayed turnover of the maternally-inherited transcription factor LIN-15B, a synMuvB class transcription factor known to antagonize PRC2 activity...
November 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111103/muscle-specific-knockout-of-general-control-of-amino-acid-synthesis-5-gcn5-does-not-enhance-basal-or-endurance-exercise-induced-mitochondrial-adaptation
#20
Jessica R Dent, Vitor F Martins, Kristoffer Svensson, Samuel A LaBarge, Noah C Schlenk, Mary C Esparza, Elisa H Buckner, Gretchen A Meyer, D Lee Hamilton, Simon Schenk, Andrew Philp
OBJECTIVE: Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification that regulates metabolic function in skeletal muscle. The acetyltransferase, general control of amino acid synthesis 5 (GCN5), has been proposed as a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis via its inhibitory action on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). However, the specific contribution of GCN5 to skeletal muscle metabolism and mitochondrial adaptations to endurance exercise in vivo remain to be defined...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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