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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627583/deoxyactein-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-against-methylglyoxal-induced-oxidative-cell-damage-by-the-upregulation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#1
Kwang Sik Suh, Eun Mi Choi, Woon-Won Jung, Yu Jin Kim, Soo Min Hong, So Yong Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Suk Chon
Methylglyoxal (MG) is one of the major precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are considered to be one of the causes of diabetes and its complications. The root and rhizomes of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) have long been used medicinally, and deoxyactein is one of its major constituents. In the present study, the protective effects of deoxyactein against MG-induced oxidative cell damage were investigated in insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. We found that deoxyactein protected the pancreatic β-cells against MG-induced cell death...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627208/irisin-is-weakly-associated-with-usual-physical-activity-in-young-overweight-women
#2
Beatriz Tenorio, Teresa Jiménez, Gladys Barrera, Sandra Hirsch, Maria Pia De la Maza, Rodrigo Troncoso, María Belén Farias, Juan Manuel Rodríguez, Daniel Bunout
PURPOSE: To determine if irisin plasma levels are associated with regular physical activity, body composition and metabolic parameters in women subjected to calorie restriction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied 42 women aged 34 ± 13 years with a body mass index of 27.7 ± 1.8 kg/m2, who were subjected to a calorie restriction for three months. At baseline and at the end of the study, weight, waist and hip circumference, laboratory parameters, body composition by DEXA, resting and activity energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry and 72 hours actigraphy were measured...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624812/extracorporeal-shock-wave-treatment-attenuated-left-ventricular-dysfunction-and-remodeling-in-mini-pig-with-cardiorenal-syndrome
#3
Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Hani E E Ali, Ben-Chung Cheng, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Pei-Hsun Sung, Kuan-Hung Chen, Chih-Chao Yang, Yen-Ta Chen, John Y Chiang, Pao-Yuan Lin, Sarah Chua, Han-Tan Chai, Sheng-Ying Chung, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hon-Kan Yip
This study tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) treatment can improve ischemia-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in mini-pig with co-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). LV ischemia in mini-pigs was induced by applying an ameroid constrictor over mid-left anterior descending artery (LAD), while model of CKD was established by right nephrectomy with partial ligation of left renal arterioles 2 weeks before LAD constriction. Thirty mini-pigs were randomly divided into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (LV-ischemia), group 3 (LV-ischemia + CKD), Group 4 [LV-ischemia + ECSW (applied 1200 shots at 0...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624581/polygenic-risk-for-depression-and-the-neural-correlates-of-working-memory-in-healthy-subjects
#4
Dilara Yüksel, Bruno Dietsche, Andreas J Forstner, Stephanie H Witt, Robert Maier, Marcella Rietschel, Carsten Konrad, Markus M Nöthen, Udo Dannlowski, Bernhard T Baune, Tilo Kircher, Axel Krug
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients show impairments of cognitive functioning such as working memory (WM), and furthermore alterations during WM-fMRI tasks especially in frontal and parietal brain regions. The calculation of a polygenic risk score (PRS) can be used to describe the genetic influence on MDD, hence imaging genetic studies aspire to combine both genetics and neuroimaging data to identify the influence of genetic factors on brain functioning. We aimed to detect the effect of MDD-PRS on brain activation during a WM task measured with fMRI and expect healthy individuals with a higher PRS to be more resembling to MDD patients...
June 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621732/lipid-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-is-attenuated-by-strawberry-extract-through-ampk-activation
#5
Tamara Y Forbes-Hernández, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Sadia Afrin, Luca Mazzoni, Mario D Cordero, Bruno Mezzetti, José L Quiles, Maurizio Battino
Regulation of lipid metabolism is essential for treatment and prevention of several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for most deaths worldwide. It has been demonstrated that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a direct impact on lipid metabolism by modulating several downstream-signaling components. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of a methanolic strawberry extract on AMPK and its possible repercussion on lipid metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2)...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620456/effects-of-physical-activity-on-the-link-between-pgc-1a-and-fndc5-in-muscle-circulating-%C3%AE-risin-and-ucp1-of-white-adipocytes-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#6
Petros C Dinas, Ian M Lahart, James A Timmons, Per-Arne Svensson, Yiannis Koutedakis, Andreas D Flouris, George S Metsios
Background: Exercise may activate a brown adipose-like phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the effects of physical activity on the link between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1a) and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) in muscle, circulating Irisin and uncoupling protein one (UCP1) of white adipocytes in humans. Methods: Two databases (PubMed 1966 to 08/2016 and EMBASE 1974 to 08/2016) were searched using an appropriate algorithm...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614293/histone-deacetylase-3-prepares-brown-adipose-tissue-for-acute-thermogenic-challenge
#7
Matthew J Emmett, Hee-Woong Lim, Jennifer Jager, Hannah J Richter, Marine Adlanmerini, Lindsey C Peed, Erika R Briggs, David J Steger, Tao Ma, Carrie A Sims, Joseph A Baur, Liming Pei, Kyoung-Jae Won, Patrick Seale, Zachary Gerhart-Hines, Mitchell A Lazar
Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ that dissipates chemical energy as heat to protect animals against hypothermia and to counteract metabolic disease. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that determine the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue before environmental cold are unknown. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is required to activate brown adipose tissue enhancers to ensure thermogenic aptitude. Mice with brown adipose tissue-specific genetic ablation of HDAC3 become severely hypothermic and succumb to acute cold exposure...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612505/set-domain-containing-protein-5-is-required-for-expression-of-primordial-germ-cell-specification-associated-genes-in-murine-embryonic-stem-cells
#8
Seung Eun Yu, Min Seong Kim, Su Hyung Park, Byong Chul Yoo, Kyung Hee Kim, Yeun Kyu Jang
Primordial germ cell (PGC) specification is one of the most fundamental processes in developmental biology. Because PGCs are a common source of both gametes, generation of PGCs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a useful model for analysing the germ line lineage. Although several studies focused on the role of epigenetic regulation on PGC differentiation from ESCs in vitro have been published, germ line commitment remains poorly understood. Here, we show that SET domain-containing protein (Setd5), which has a previously unknown function, is essential for regulating germ cell-associated genes in murine ESCs (mESCs)...
June 13, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611589/mitochondrial-effects-of-pgc-1alpha-silencing-in-mpp-treated-human-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#9
Qinyong Ye, Chun Chen, Erwang Si, Yousheng Cai, Juhua Wang, Wanling Huang, Dongzhu Li, Yingqing Wang, Xiaochun Chen
The dopaminergic neuron degeneration and loss that occurs in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been tightly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the aged-related cause of the mitochondrial defect observed in PD patients remains unclear, nuclear genes are of potential importance to mitochondrial function. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) is a multi-functional transcription factor that tightly regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. The goal of the present study was to explore the potential pathogenic effects of interference by the PGC-1α gene on N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced SH-SY5Y cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611284/activation-of-the-atf2-creb-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway-by-metformin-leads-to-dopaminergic-neuroprotection
#10
Hojin Kang, Rin Khang, Sangwoo Ham, Ga Ram Jeong, Hyojung Kim, Minkyung Jo, Byoung Dae Lee, Yun Il Lee, Areum Jo, Chi Hu Park, Hyein Kim, Jeongkon Seo, Sun Ha Paek, Yun-Song Lee, Jeong-Yun Choi, Yunjong Lee, Joo-Ho Shin
Progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration is responsible for the canonical motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). The widely prescribed anti-diabetic medicine metformin is effective in preventing neurodegeneration in animal models; however, despite the significant potential of metformin for treating PD, the therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuroprotection by metformin are largely unknown.In this study, we found that metformin induced substantial proteomic changes, especially in metabolic and mitochondrial pathways in the substantia nigra (SN)...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608457/potential-therapeutic-interventions-for-chronic-kidney-disease-associated-sarcopenia-via-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#11
Yuki Enoki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Riho Arake, Rui Fujimura, Kana Ishiodori, Tadashi Imafuku, Kento Nishida, Ryusei Sugimoto, Saori Nagao, Shigeyuki Miyamura, Yu Ishima, Motoko Tanaka, Kazutaka Matsushita, Hirotaka Komaba, Masafumi Fukagawa, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients experience skeletal muscle wasting and decreased exercise endurance. Our previous study demonstrated that indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, accelerates skeletal muscle atrophy. The purpose of this study was to examine the issue of whether IS causes mitochondria dysfunction and IS-targeted intervention using AST-120, which inhibits IS accumulation, or mitochondria-targeted intervention using L-carnitine or teneligliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor which retains mitochondria function and alleviates skeletal muscle atrophy and muscle endurance in chronic kidney disease mice...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607951/pgc-1-coactivators-shepherding-the-mitochondrial-biogenesis-of-tumors
#12
Chi Luo, Hans R Widlund, Pere Puigserver
As coordinators of energy demands and nutritional supplies, the PGC-1 family of transcriptional coactivators regulates mitochondrial biogenesis to control the cellular bioenergetic state. Aside from maintaining normal and adapted cell physiology, recent studies indicate that PGC-1 coactivators also serve important functions in cancer cells. In fact, by balancing mitochondrial energy production with demands for cell proliferation, these factors are involved in almost every step of tumorigenesis. In this review, we discuss the interplay between PGC-1 coactivators and cancer pathogenesis, including tumor initiation, metastatic spread, and response to treatment...
October 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603486/comparison-of-sirtuin-3-levels-in-als-and-huntington-s-disease-differential-effects-in-human-tissue-samples-vs-transgenic-mouse-models
#13
Eva Buck, Hanna Bayer, Katrin S Lindenberg, Johannes Hanselmann, Noemi Pasquarelli, Albert C Ludolph, Patrick Weydt, Anke Witting
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by distinct patterns of neuronal loss. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) upper and lower motoneurons degenerate whereas in Huntington's disease (HD) medium spiny neurons in the striatum are preferentially affected. Despite these differences the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are remarkably similar. In addition, non-neuronal features, such as weight loss implicate a dysregulation in energy metabolism. Mammalian sirtuins, especially the mitochondrial NAD+ dependent sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), regulate mitochondrial function and aging processes...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599882/saponins-from-stems-and-leaves-of-panax-ginseng-prevent-obesity-via-regulating-thermogenesis-lipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-c57bl-6-mice
#14
Guilin Chen, Haijun Li, Yan Zhao, Hongyan Zhu, Enbo Cai, Yugang Gao, Shuangli Liu, He Yang, Lianxue Zhang
In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mouse model was used to evaluate the dietary effect of saponins from stems and leaves of Panax ginseng (SLG), and to explore its mechanism of action in producing anti-obesity effects. The results indicate that SLG showed significant anti-obesity effects in diet-induced obese mice, represented by decreased serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, glucose, leptin and insulin, as well as a reduction in overall body and liver weight, epididymal adipose tissue weight, and food efficiency, and inhibition of abnormal increases in acyl carnitine levels normally caused by an HFD...
June 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597846/single-trial-effective-brain-connectivity-patterns-enhance-discriminability-of-mental-imagery-tasks
#15
Dheeraj Rathee, Hubert Cecotti, Girijesh Prasad
The majority of the current approaches of connectivity based BCI systems focus on distinguishing between different motor imagery (MI) tasks. Brain regions associated with MI are anatomically close to each other, hence these BCI systems suffer from low performances. Our objective is to introduce single-trial connectivity feature based BCI system for cognition imagery (CI) based tasks wherein the associated brain regions are located relatively far away as compared to those for MI...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597334/jak-stat-signaling-regulation-of-chicken-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation-into-male-germ-cells
#16
Yu Zhang, Lei Zhang, Qisheng Zuo, Yinjie Wang, Yani Zhang, Qi Xu, Bichun Li, Guohong Chen
The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling is crucial in chicken germ stem cell differentiation, but its role in the regulation of germ cell differentiation is unknown. To address this, cucurbitacin I or interleukin 6 was used to inhibit or activate JAK-STAT signaling during embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation. The expression of downstream JAK-STAT signaling molecules was assessed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
June 8, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591649/activation-of-lineage-regulators-and-transposable-elements-across-a%C3%A2-pluripotent-spectrum
#17
Jamie A Hackett, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Sabine Dietmann, M Azim Surani
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterized by the pluripotent capacity to generate all embryonic lineages. Here, we show that ESCs can occupy a spectrum of distinct transcriptional and epigenetic states in response to varied extrinsic conditions. This spectrum broadly corresponds to a developmental continuum of pluripotency and is coupled with a gradient of increasing global DNA methylation. Each pluripotent state is linked with activation of distinct classes of transposable elements (TEs), which in turn influence ESCs through generating chimeric transcripts...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591571/global-hypertranscription-in-the-mouse-embryonic-germline
#18
Michelle Percharde, Priscilla Wong, Miguel Ramalho-Santos
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are vital for inheritance and evolution. Their transcriptional program has been extensively studied and is assumed to be well known. We report here a remarkable global upregulation of the transcriptome of mouse PGCs compared to somatic cells. Using cell-number-normalized genome-wide analyses, we uncover significant transcriptional amplification in PGCs, including mRNAs, rRNA, and transposable elements. Hypertranscription preserves tissue-specific gene expression patterns, correlates with cell size, and can still be detected in E15...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587104/c1q-tnf-related-protein-9-ameliorates-ox-ldl-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-via-pgc-1%C3%AE-ampk-mediated-antioxidant-enzyme-induction
#19
Haijian Sun, Xuexue Zhu, Yuetao Zhou, Weiwei Cai, Liying Qiu
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) accumulation is one of the critical determinants in endothelial dysfunction in many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9) is identified to be an adipocytokine with cardioprotective properties. However, the potential roles of CTRP9 in endothelial function remain largely elusive. In the present study, the effects of CTRP9 on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, angiogenesis, nitric oxide (NO) production and oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to ox-LDL were investigated...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585425/cide-gene-expression-in-adipose-tissue-liver-and-skeletal-muscle-from-obese-and-lean-pigs
#20
Yue-Qin Qiu, Xue-Fen Yang, Xian-Yong Ma, Yun-Xia Xiong, Zhi-Mei Tian, Qiu-Li Fan, Li Wang, Zong-Yong Jiang
The expression of the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor α-like effector (CIDE) family including Cidea, Cideb, and Cidec was significantly increased in mouse and human models of obesity. However, there was less information on these genes' expression in pigs. Here, we hypothesized that different fat accumulation between lean (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire gilts, DLY) and obese (Lantang) pigs was attributed to porcine CIDE-modulating lipid metabolism. Our data showed that Cidea and Cidec were expressed at a high level in adipose tissue, and at a relatively high level in skeletal muscle, whereas Cideb was mainly expressed in the liver in both breeds of pig...
June 2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
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