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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886392/deregulated-expression-of-ezh2-in-congenital-brainstem-disconnection
#1
P G Barth, E Aronica, S Fox, K Fluiter, M A J Weterman, A Poretti, D C Miller, E Boltshauser, B Harding, M Santi, F Baas
Congenital brainstem disconnection (CBSD) is an enigmatic embryo-fetal defect presenting as (sub)total absence of a segment between mesencephalon and lower brainstem. Rostro-caudal limits of the defect vary while the basal pons is always involved and the cerebellum is globally hypoplastic. A recent update and review[1] lists 14 cases, including 3 brain autopsy studies[1-3]. Necrosis and glial- or inflammatory reactions were absent. Inferior olivary nuclei were small or absent, pontine nuclei depleted, and the cerebellar dentate nuclei dysplastic...
November 25, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878595/cell-type-specific-expression-of-nfix-in-the-developing-and-adult-cerebellum
#2
James Fraser, Alexandra Essebier, Richard M Gronostajski, Mikael Boden, Brandon J Wainwright, Tracey J Harvey, Michael Piper
Transcription factors from the nuclear factor one (NFI) family have been shown to play a central role in regulating neural progenitor cell differentiation within the embryonic and post-natal brain. NFIA and NFIB, for instance, promote the differentiation and functional maturation of granule neurons within the cerebellum. Mice lacking Nfix exhibit delays in the development of neuronal and glial lineages within the cerebellum, but the cell-type-specific expression of this transcription factor remains undefined...
November 23, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581449/a-novel-and-multivalent-role-of-pax6-in-cerebellar-development
#3
Joanna Yeung, Thomas J Ha, Douglas J Swanson, Dan Goldowitz
UNLABELLED: Pax6 is a prominent gene in brain development. The deletion of Pax6 results in devastated development of eye, olfactory bulb, and cortex. However, it has been reported that the Pax6-null Sey cerebellum only has minor defects involving granule cells despite Pax6 being expressed throughout cerebellar development. The present work has uncovered a requirement of Pax6 in the development of all rhombic lip (RL) lineages. A significant downregulation of Tbr1 and Tbr2 expression is found in the Sey cerebellum, these are cell-specific markers of cerebellar nuclear (CN) neurons and unipolar brush cells (UBCs), respectively...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199681/eppur-si-muove-evidence-for-an-external-granular-layer-and-possibly-transit-amplification-in-the-teleostean-cerebellum
#4
Daniela Biechl, Alessandro Dorigo, Reinhard W Köster, Benedikt Grothe, Mario F Wullimann
The secreted signaling factor Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) acts in the floor plate of the developing vertebrate CNS to promote motoneuron development. In addition, shh has dorsal expression domains in the amniote alar plate (i.e., in isocortex, superior colliculus, and cerebellum). For example, shh expressing Purkinje cells act in transit amplification of external granular layer (EGL) cells of the developing cerebellum. Our previous studies had indicated the presence of an EGL in anamniote zebrafish, but a possible role of shh in the zebrafish cerebellar plate remained elusive...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198720/cux2-serves-as-a-novel-lineage-marker-of-granule-cell-layer-neurons-from-the-rhombic-lip-in-mouse-and-chick-embryos
#5
Emily Capaldo, Angelo Iulianella
BACKGROUND: The rhombic lip (RL), a germinal zone in the developing hindbrain, gives rise to all of the excitatory neurons of the cerebellum. It is presently unclear what factors distinguish between RL progenitor pools and play a role in differentiating the multiple cell types that arise from this region. The transcription factor Cux2 has been shown to play important roles in proliferation and differentiation of distinct neuronal populations during embryogenesis, but its role in cerebellar fate restriction is unknown...
August 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081350/taxonomy-of-atlantic-central-african-orchids-5-a-new-species-of-angraecum-sect-conchoglossum-orchidaceae-angraecinae-from-gabon-and-cameroon
#6
Vladimir Ječmenica, Vincent Droissart, Nausicaa Noret, Tariq Stévart
Recent field inventories and taxonomic research in Central Africa have resulted in the discovery of many new orchid species. Five specimens of an apparently new Angraecum species were collected in Gabon and Cameroon. They stand out for their hanging habit and short zig-zag stem. Morphology of leaves and habit is somewhat comparable to Angraecum cultriforme and Angraecum stolzii, two species from East Africa. Flowers of the novelty share the general morphology of Angraecum pyriforme from which the new species is distinguished by being smaller and with a different lip-spur ratio...
2016: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068104/polycomb-ezh2-controls-the-fate-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-embryonic-cerebellum
#7
Xuesong Feng, Aster H Juan, Hongjun A Wang, Kyung Dae Ko, Hossein Zare, Vittorio Sartorelli
Although the genetic interactions between signaling pathways and transcription factors have been largely decoded, much remains to be learned about the epigenetic regulation of cerebellar development. Here, we report that cerebellar deletion of Ezh2, the methyltransferase subunit of the PRC2 complex, results in reduced H3K27me3 and profound transcriptional dysregulation, including that of a set of transcription factors directly involved in cerebellar neuronal cell-type specification and differentiation. Such transcriptional changes lead to increased GABAergic interneurons and decreased Purkinje cells...
June 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27032475/evolution-of-mammalian-sound-localization-circuits-a-developmental-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Hans Gerd Nothwang
Localization of sound sources is a central aspect of auditory processing. A unique feature of mammals is the smooth, tonotopically organized extension of the hearing range to high frequencies (HF) above 10kHz, which likely induced positive selection for novel mechanisms of sound localization. How this change in the auditory periphery is accompanied by changes in the central auditory system is unresolved. I will argue that the major VGlut2(+) excitatory projection neurons of sound localization circuits (dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), lateral and medial superior olive (LSO and MSO)) represent serial homologs with modifications, thus being paramorphs...
June 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26878236/evidence-from-cyclostomes-for-complex-regionalization-of-the-ancestral-vertebrate-brain
#9
Fumiaki Sugahara, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Yasuhiro Oisi, Shigehiro Kuraku, Shin-ichi Aota, Noritaka Adachi, Wataru Takagi, Tamami Hirai, Noboru Sato, Yasunori Murakami, Shigeru Kuratani
The vertebrate brain is highly complex, but its evolutionary origin remains elusive. Because of the absence of certain developmental domains generally marked by the expression of regulatory genes, the embryonic brain of the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate, had been regarded as representing a less complex, ancestral state of the vertebrate brain. Specifically, the absence of a Hedgehog- and Nkx2.1-positive domain in the lamprey subpallium was thought to be similar to mouse mutants in which the suppression of Nkx2-1 leads to a loss of the medial ganglionic eminence...
March 3, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559893/mosaic-expression-of-thyroid-hormone-regulatory-genes-defines-cell-type-specific-dependency-in-the-developing-chicken-cerebellum
#10
Joke Delbaere, Stijn L J Van Herck, Nele M A Bourgeois, Pieter Vancamp, Shuo Yang, Richard J T Wingate, Veerle M Darras
The cerebellum is a morphologically unique brain structure that requires thyroid hormones (THs) for the correct coordination of key cellular events driving its development. Unravelling the interplay between the multiple factors that can regulate intracellular TH levels is a key step to understanding their role in the regulation of these cellular processes. We therefore investigated the regional/cell-specific expression pattern of TH transporters and deiodinases in the cerebellum using the chicken embryo as a model...
November 12, 2015: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26475605/the-role-of-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-in-cerebellar-development-and-medulloblastoma
#11
REVIEW
Jerry Vriend, Saeid Ghavami, Hassan Marzban
Cerebellar granule cells precursors are derived from the upper rhombic lip and migrate tangentially independent of glia along the subpial stream pathway to form the external germinal zone. Postnatally, granule cells migrate from the external germinal zone radially through the Purkinje cell layer, guided by Bergmann glia fibers, to the internal granular cell layer.Medulloblastomas (MBs) are the most common malignant childhood brain tumor. Many of these tumors develop from precursor cells of the embryonic rhombic lips...
October 17, 2015: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26351220/posterior-fossa-tumors-in-children-developmental-anatomy-and-diagnostic-imaging
#12
Charles Raybaud, Vijay Ramaswamy, Michael D Taylor, Suzanne Laughlin
INTRODUCTION: Modern understanding of the relation between the mutated cancer stem cell and its site of origin and of its interaction with the tissue environment is enhancing the importance of developmental anatomy in the diagnostic assessment of posterior fossa tumors in children. The aim of this review is to show how MR imaging can improve on the exact identification of the tumors in the brainstem and in the vicinity of the fourth ventricle in children, using both structural imaging data and a precise topographical assessment guided by the developmental anatomy...
October 2015: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26226504/kruppel-like-factor-4-regulates-granule-cell-pax6-expression-and-cell-proliferation-in-early-cerebellar-development
#13
Peter Zhang, Thomas Ha, Matt Larouche, Douglas Swanson, Dan Goldowitz
Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a transcription factor that regulates many important cellular processes in stem cell biology, cancer, and development. We used histological and molecular methods to study the expression of Klf4 in embryonic development of the normal and Klf4 knockout cerebellum. We find that Klf4 is expressed strongly in early granule cell progenitor development but tails-off considerably by the end of embryonic development. Klf4 is also co-expressed with Pax6 in these cells. In the Klf4-null mouse, which is perinatal lethal, Klf4 positively regulates Pax6 expression and regulates the proliferation of neuronal progenitors in the rhombic lip, external granular layer and the neuroepithelium...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25783453/synthesis-of-ultrathin-face-centered-cubic-au-pt-and-au-pd-core-shell-nanoplates-from-hexagonal-close-packed-au-square-sheets
#14
Zhanxi Fan, Yihan Zhu, Xiao Huang, Yu Han, Qingxiao Wang, Qing Liu, Ying Huang, Chee Lip Gan, Hua Zhang
The synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates is reported through the epitaxial growth of Pt on hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Au square sheets (AuSSs). The Pt-layer growth results in a hcp-to-fcc phase transformation of the AuSSs under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the obtained fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates demonstrate a unique (101)f orientation with the same atomic arrangement extending from the Au core to the Pt shell. Importantly, this method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Pd on hcp AuSSs, resulting in the unprecedented formation of fcc Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates with (101)f orientation...
May 4, 2015: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25705796/bmp-smad-signaling-and-embryonic-cerebellum-development-stem-cell-specification-and-heterogeneity-of-anterior-rhombic-lip
#15
REVIEW
Ka Kui Tong, Tsz Ching Ma, Kin Ming Kwan
The canonical bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signaling have been shown to mediate many embryonic developmental processes. Due to its complexity, there are still many unknowns about this signal pathway including the Smad usage and requirement. Cerebellum, one of the most studied neural organs in development biology, requires canonical BMP signaling for stem cell specification. Here we review the role of canonical BMP signaling during the embryonic cerebellum development. Also, we raise several unsolved issues concerning the BMP signaling including the co-Smad independency of this signaling pathway...
February 2015: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25640179/self-organization-of-polarized-cerebellar-tissue-in-3d-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Keiko Muguruma, Ayaka Nishiyama, Hideshi Kawakami, Kouichi Hashimoto, Yoshiki Sasai
During cerebellar development, the main portion of the cerebellar plate neuroepithelium gives birth to Purkinje cells and interneurons, whereas the rhombic lip, the germinal zone at its dorsal edge, generates granule cells and cerebellar nuclei neurons. However, it remains elusive how these components cooperate to form the intricate cerebellar structure. Here, we found that a polarized cerebellar structure self-organizes in 3D human embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture. The self-organized neuroepithelium differentiates into electrophysiologically functional Purkinje cells...
February 3, 2015: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25528982/modulation-of-p53-and-met-expression-by-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-8-regulates-zebrafish-cerebellar-development
#17
Ming-Yuan Tsai, Yu-Fen Lu, Yu-Hsiu Liu, Huang-Wei Lien, Chang-Jen Huang, Jen-Leih Wu, Sheng-Ping L Hwang
Krüppel-like factor 8 (Klf8) is a zinc-finger transcription factor implicated in cell proliferation, and cancer cell survival and invasion; however, little is known about its role in normal embryonic development. Here, we show that Klf8 is required for normal cerebellar development in zebrafish embryos. Morpholino knockdown of klf8 resulted in abnormal cerebellar primordium morphology and the induction of p53 in the brain region at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf). Both p53-dependent reduction of cell proliferation and augmentation of apoptosis were observed in the cerebellar anlage of 24 hpf-klf8 morphants...
September 2015: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25209290/wls-provides-a-new-compartmental-view-of-the-rhombic-lip-in-mouse-cerebellar-development
#18
Joanna Yeung, Thomas J Ha, Douglas J Swanson, Kunho Choi, Yiai Tong, Dan Goldowitz
Math1 is the defining molecule of the cerebellar rhombic lip and Pax6 is downstream in the Math1 pathway. In the present study, we discover that Wntless (Wls) is a novel molecular marker of the cells in the interior face of the rhombic lip throughout normal mouse cerebellar development. Wls expression is found complementary to the expression of Math1 and Pax6, which are localized to the exterior face of the rhombic lip. To determine the interaction between these molecules, we examine the loss-of-Math1 or loss-of-Pax6 in the cerebellum, i...
September 10, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24963847/growth-and-differentiation-factor-10-gdf10-is-involved-in-bergmann-glial-cell-development-under-shh-regulation
#19
Nora Mecklenburg, Jesus E Martinez-Lopez, Juan Antonio Moreno-Bravo, Ariadna Perez-Balaguer, Eduardo Puelles, Salvador Martinez
Growth differentiation factor 10 (Gdf10), also known as Bmp3b, is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß superfamily. Gdf10 is expressed in Bergmann glial cells, which was investigated by single-cell transcriptional profiling (Koirala and Corfas, (2010) PLoS ONE 5: e9198). Here we provide a detailed characterization of Gdf10 expression from E14, the stage at which Gdf10 is expressed for the first time in the cerebellum, until P28. We detected Gdf10 expression in both germinal zones: in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the 4th ventricle as well as in the rhombic lip (RL)...
October 2014: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24842997/atoh1-dependent-rhombic-lip-neurons-are-required-for-temporal-delay-between-independent-respiratory-oscillators-in-embryonic-mice
#20
Srinivasan Tupal, Wei-Hsiang Huang, Maria Cristina D Picardo, Guang-Yi Ling, Christopher A Del Negro, Huda Y Zoghbi, Paul A Gray
All motor behaviors require precise temporal coordination of different muscle groups. Breathing, for example, involves the sequential activation of numerous muscles hypothesized to be driven by a primary respiratory oscillator, the preBötzinger Complex, and at least one other as-yet unidentified rhythmogenic population. We tested the roles of Atoh1-, Phox2b-, and Dbx1-derived neurons (three groups that have known roles in respiration) in the generation and coordination of respiratory output. We found that Dbx1-derived neurons are necessary for all respiratory behaviors, whereas independent but coupled respiratory rhythms persist from at least three different motor pools after eliminating or silencing Phox2b- or Atoh1-expressing hindbrain neurons...
2014: ELife
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