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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107467/relationship-between-brain-arterial-pathology-and-neurocognitive-performance-among-individuals-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#1
Jose Gutierrez, Desiree Byrd, Michael T Yin, Susan Morgello
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) individuals have higher rates of cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular disease compared with uninfected populations. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular disease, specifically brain large artery disease, may play a role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Methods: Participants (N = 94) in the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank study were followed on average 32 ± 33 months with repeated neuropsychological examinations until death...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107340/controllable-and-durable-release-of-bmp-2-loaded-3d-porous-sulfonated-polyetheretherketone-peek-for-osteogenic-activity-enhancement
#2
Zhenjie Sun, Liping Ouyang, Xiaohan Ma, Yuqin Qiao, Xuanyong Liu
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is ideal for dental and orthopedic applications because its mechanical properties are similar to cortical bones. However, its inherent inert ability hinders its clinical applications. In this work, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was immobilized onto the sulfonated PEEK (SPEEK) using lyophilization technology. The surface morphologies of the samples were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the chemical compositions were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS)...
August 8, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107209/strain-partitioning-between-nerves-and-axons-estimating-axonal-strain-using-sodium-channel-staining-in-intact-peripheral-nerves
#3
Fabio Bianchi, Ruby Sedgwick, Hua Ye, Mark S Thompson
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerves carry afferent and efferent signals between the central nervous system and the periphery of the body. When nerves are strained above physiological levels, conduction blocks occur, resulting in debilitating loss of motor and sensory function. Understanding the effects of strain on nerve function requires knowledge of the multi-scale mechanical behaviour of the tissue, and how this is transferred to the cellular environment. NEW METHOD: The aim of this work was to establish a technique to measure the partitioning of strain between tissue and axons in axially loaded peripheral nerves...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106722/a-self-propelled-mechanism-to-increase-range-of-bistable-operation-of-a-piezoelectric-cantilever-based-vibration-energy-harvester
#4
Kanishka Aman Singh, Madhav Pathak, Robert J Weber, Ratnesh Kumar
In our previous works, we presented a method to increase the harvested energy from vibrations using a piezoelectric cantilever, and to increase the frequency range of operation, by introducing bistability with the use of magnetic repulsion. However, for small excitations, the cantilever may not be able to overcome the magnetic repulsive force, but vibrate at one of its two equilibrium positions with reduced amplitude. This work introduces a method of increasing the range of excitations over which the operation remains bistable...
August 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106080/a-zno-znfe-2-o-4-uniform-core-shell-heterojunction-with-a-tubular-structure-modified-by-niooh-for-efficient-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#5
Yayao Lan, Zhifeng Liu, Zhengang Guo, Xifei Li, Lei Zhao, Li Zhan, Min Zhang
It is known that heterojunction photoelectrodes can improve light absorption and accelerate the separation of photogenerated carriers in the field of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. However, the key to efficient photoelectrochemical performance is to build heterojunctions with a narrow band gap semiconductor loaded on a wide band gap semiconductor uniformly and densely. Herein, a ZnO/ZnFe2O4 uniform core-shell heterojunction photoelectrode is prepared by a simple ion etching method. Moreover, the chemical reaction process and mechanism are discussed in detail...
August 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106066/-effect-of-employment-and-domestic-load-on-fetal-development-and-length-of-gestation-in-a-birth-cohort-study
#6
Vanessa Arizo-Luque, Ana M García, Marisa Estarlich, Ferran Ballester, Guillermo Fernández-Tardón, Adonina Tardón, Mónica Guxens, Martine Vrijheid, Aitana Lertxundi, Loreto Santa-Marina, Elena Ronda-Pérez
OBJECTIVE: Published studies are not conclusive on the impact of certain occupational exposures in pregnancy, stressing the need to consider the double role, professional and family, of women. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of employment and domestic load on the duration of pregnancy and fetal development. METHODS: Using Univariate and Multivariate regression models, we studied the association of preterm deliveries (PPT) (<37 weeks), full term newborns with low weight (BPT) (<2500g) and small for their gestational age (PEG) (<10th percentile) in weight, length and head circumference according to work situation (employment/non-employment) and domestic load (low/ medium/ high) in 2506 women...
August 17, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105240/bioconversion-of-p-tyrosol-into-hydroxytyrosol-under-bench-scale-fermentation
#7
Zouhaier Bouallagui, Sami Sayadi
Tyrosol hydroxylating Pseudomonas strain was previously isolated from olive mill wastewaters-irrigated soil. In the present work, experimental design was used to study the bioconversion of tyrosol in laboratory fermenters aiming at the recovery of the highest yields of hydroxytyrosol. The effects of biocatalyst loading and tyrosol concentration were studied. The bioconversion yield reached 86.9% (37.3 mM hydroxytyrosol) starting from a tyrosol concentration of 43 mM. Under these conditions, the specific productivity relative to the biocatalyst was 4...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104972/-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment-of-keratose-as-a-novel-excipient-of-paclitaxel-coated-balloons
#8
Emily Turner, Megan Erwin, Marzieh Atigh, Uwe Christians, Justin M Saul, Saami K Yazdani
Purpose: Drug coated balloons (DCB) are continually improving due to advances in coating techniques and more effective excipients. Paclitaxel, the current drug choice of DCB, is a microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapeutic agent that inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation. Excipients work to promote coating stability and facilitate paclitaxel transfer and retention at the target lesion, although current excipients lack sustained, long-term paclitaxel retention. Keratose, a naturally derived protein, has exhibited unique properties allowing for tuned release of various therapeutic agents...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104967/prefrontal-cortex-oxygenation-evoked-by-convergence-load-under-conflicting-stimulus-to-accommodation-and-stimulus-to-vergence-eye-movements-measured-by-nirs
#9
Hans O Richter, M Forsman, G H Elcadi, R Brautaset, John E Marsh, C Zetterberg
Purpose: To extend our knowledge of the functional linkages between visual fatigue and regional cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation, we measured time related hemodynamic changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye movements with and without concurrent mental load. Methods: Twenty healthy participants with a median age of 28 years (range: 18-44 years) fixated upon a vertical bar presented separately to the left and right eyes, using polarized filters, during four counterbalanced 10-min periods: (i) no accommodation/vergence conflict (Control, Ctrl ); (ii) added convergence load and accommodation/vergence conflict ( Conv ); (iii) added cognitive load only ( Cog ) and; (iv) a combination of added cognitive and convergence load and accommodation/vergence conflict ( Cc )...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103537/numerical-experimental-study-of-the-consolidation-phenomenon-in-the-selective-laser-melting-process-with-a-thermo-fluidic-coupled-model
#10
Francisco Cordovilla, Ángel García-Beltrán, Miguel Garzón, Diego A Muñoz, José L Ocaña
One of the main limiting factors for a widespread industrial use of the Selective Laser Melting Process it its lack of productivity, which restricts the use of this technology just for high added-value components. Typically, the thickness of the metallic powder that is used lies on the scale of micrometers. The use of a layer up to one millimeter would be necessarily associated to a dramatic increase of productivity. Nevertheless, when the layer thickness increases, the complexity of consolidation phenomena makes the process difficult to be governed...
August 12, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103347/working-memory-evaluation-based-on-eeg-signals-during-n-back-tasks
#11
Chia-Yen Yang, Chong-Kai Huang
Working memory is the cognitive process of receiving, processing, and communicating information. Early evaluation and training may help to prevent a marked decline in working-memory ability. The aim of this study was to establish an n-back task system for objectively evaluating the working-memory ability based on the θ power, the γ power, and the degree of θ-γ synchronization. Our experiments were divided into four memory loads (1-back to 4-back) and further divided into digital and matrix stimulation modes...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103329/endocytosis-and-transcytosis-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-by-astrocytes-a-possible-mechanism-for-amyloid-%C3%AE-clearance-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Marta Domínguez-Prieto, Ana Velasco, Arantxa Tabernero, José M Medina
Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, Aβ40, Aβ42, and recently Aβ25 - 35, have been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that all three peptides decrease neuronal viability, but Aβ40 also promotes synaptic disassembling. In this work, we have studied the effects of these peptides on astrocytes in primary culture and found that the three Aβ peptides were internalized by astrocytes and significantly decreased astrocyte viability, while increasing ROS production...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103158/label-free-spatially-multiplexed-spr-detection-of-immunoassays-on-a-highly-integrated-centrifugal-lab-on-a-disc-platform
#13
Celina M Miyazaki, David J Kinahan, Rohit Mishra, Faith Mangwanya, Niamh Kilcawley, Marystela Ferreira, Jens Ducrée
As a direct, label-free method, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) detection significantly reduces the needs for liquid handling and reagent storage compared to common enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), thus enabling comprehensive multiplexing of bioassays on microfluidic sample-to-answer systems. This paper describes a highly integrated centrifugal Lab-on-a-Disc (LoaD) platform for automating the full process chain extending between plasma extraction and subsequent aliquoting to five parallelized reaction channels for quantitative SPR detection by an inexpensive smartphone camera...
July 29, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103134/novel-fabrication-of-polymer-carbon-nanotube-composite-coated-janus-paper-for-humidity-stress-sensor
#14
Pan Tian, Xiaoyu Gao, Gang Wen, Lieshuang Zhong, Zelinlan Wang, Zhiguang Guo
In this work, we constructed a sensing system on Janus paper with hydrophilic side and hydrophobic side via depositing polymer precursor onto one side of qualitative filter paper. Water in humid environment (including liquid water, condensed moisture airflow and gaseous humid atmosphere) will be captured and gathered in the hydrophilic region of Janus paper due to the asymmetric hydrophobicity and hygroscopicity, which can induce the novel directional deformation. Additionally, MWCNTs (multiwalled carbon nanotubes) were loaded onto hydrophobic region beforehand to construct conductive network...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103111/dehydration-of-individual-bovine-trabeculae-causes-transition-from-ductile-to-quasi-brittle-failure-mode
#15
Martin Frank, Dorothee Marx, Vedran Nedelkovski, Julia-Theresa Fischer, Dieter H Pahr, Philipp J Thurner
Trabecular bone is located inside flat bones as well as in the epi- and metaphysis of long bones and plays a key role with respect to load transfer. Disorders, such as osteoporosis, weaken the structural integrity and may also cause changes in the mechanical properties of individual trabeculae, such as Young's modulus. Knowledge of mechanical tissue properties are necessary to assess risk of bone fracture with finite element analysis (FEA). However, such parameters are most often obtained from experiments on air-dried specimens which do not reflect the physiological conditions...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103076/a-three-dimensional-geometric-quantification-of-human-cortical-canals-using-an-innovative-method-with-micro-computed-tomographic-data
#16
X Roothaer, R Delille, H Morvan, B Bennani, E Markiewicz, C Fontaine
The complex architecture of bone has been investigated for several decades. Some pioneer works proved an existing link between microstructure and external mechanical loading applied on bone. Due to sinuous network of canals and limitations of experimental acquisition technique, there has been little quantitative analysis of three-dimensional description of cortical network. The aim of this study is to provide an algorithmic process, using Python 3.5, in order to identify 3D geometrical characteristics of voids considered as canals...
July 25, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102997/increasing-beta-amyloid-deposition-in-cognitively-healthy-aging-predicts-nonlinear-change-in-bold-modulation-to-difficulty
#17
Kristen M Kennedy, Chris M Foster, Karen M Rodrigue
Recent evidence indicates that the relationship between increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and functional task-activation can be characterized by a non-linear trajectory of change in functional activation (Foster et al., 2017), explaining mixed results in prior literature showing both increases and decreases in activation as a function of beta-amyloid burden in cognitively normal adults. Here we sought to replicate this nonlinear effect in the same sample using a different functional paradigm to test the generalizability of this phenomenon...
August 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102684/differences-in-the-electromyographic-activity-of-the-hamstring-gluteus-maximus-and-erector-spinae-muscles-in-a-variety-of-kinetic-changes
#18
Norikazu Hirose, Masaaki Tsuruike
Hirose, N and Tsuruike, M. Differences in the electromyographic activity of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae muscles in a variety of kinetic changes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study aimed to clarify the differences in the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris long head (BFl), gluteus maximus (GM), and erector spinae (ES) muscles during leg curl and bridge exercises across different knee angles and isometric contraction outputs...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102497/exposure-criteria-for-evaluating-lumbar-spine-load
#19
Lenka Pešáková, Jana Hlávková, Marie Nakládalová, Pavel Urban, Petr Gaďourek, Tomáš Tichý, Alena Boriková, Andrea Laštovková, Daniela Pelclová
OBJECTIVE: As a part of regular revision of the List of Occupational Diseases in the Czech Republic, efforts have been made to add a new item so that lumbar spine disease caused by overload may be recognized as occupational one, with adherence to the valid national rules, that is, clinical criteria are met and objective assessment confirms working conditions under which, according to recent scientific knowledge, such an occupational disease develops. The aim is to provide information on the use of a proposed method for working condition assessment in a real setting, based on the initial experiences gained from a pilot study carried out to validate the method...
June 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102144/evaluation-of-anticoagulant-agents-for-the-treatment-of-human-metapneumovirus-infection-in-mice
#20
Ba Vuong Lê, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Christian Couture, Liva Checkmahomed, Marie-Christine Venable, Marie-Ève Hamelin, Guy Boivin
Thrombin has been demonstrated to be involved in several viral diseases including human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections. We previously showed that immediate administration of thrombin inhibitor argatroban post-infection protected mice against hMPV disease. This current work aims at determining whether warfarin and heparin, two other anticoagulants inhibiting thrombin formation and activities, may also be used for treatment against hMPV in vivo. We found that immediate injections of argatroban, warfarin or heparin after virus challenge protected mice against hMPV infection, as evidenced by decreased or no mortality, less weight loss, reduced viral load and attenuated inflammation...
August 10, 2018: Journal of General Virology
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