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Sven Rutkowski, Ling Mu, Tieyan Si, Meiyu Gai, Mengmeng Sun, Johannes Frueh, Qiang He
One of the most promising future applications of hydrogels is drug delivery. The hydrogels act as a biomedical cargo model to reach the target and release drugs to cure diseases. This application requires no side effects of the hydrogel and the ability to pass through porous media (e.g. membranes, interstitial tissue etc.) with nanoscaled channels. At the same time, the hydrogel must be mass-producible in an economic way. In this work, we show that hydrodynamic electrospray ionization jetting combined with ultrasound can fulfill these high requirements...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Joel Pel, Amy Leung, Wendy W Y Choi, Milenko Despotovic, W Lloyd Ung, Gosuke Shibahara, Laura Gelinas, Andre Marziali
Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is being adopted increasingly broadly in many research, commercial and clinical settings. Currently used target capture methods, however, typically require complex and lengthy (sometimes multi-day) workflows that complicates their use in certain applications. In addition, small panels for high sequencing depth applications such as liquid biopsy typically have low on-target rates, resulting in unnecessarily high sequencing cost. We have developed a novel targeted sequencing library preparation method, named Linked Target Capture (LTC), which replaces typical multi-day target capture workflows with a single-day, combined 'target-capture-PCR' workflow...
2018: PloS One
Mostafa Zamani, Amin Shirinzadeh, Mozhgan Aghajanzadeh, Sina Andalib, Hossein Danafar
PURPOSE: In this study, methoxy poly (ethylene glycol) -poly (ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) di block copolymers were synthesized. The purpose of this work is to investigate the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin-loaded micelles. METHODS: The structure of synthesized copolymers were characterized by using HNMR, FTIR and GPC techniques. Simvastatin was encapsulated in micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, leading to formation of simvastatin-loaded mPEG-PCL (simvastatin-mPEG-PCL) micelles...
December 5, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Maja S Hellsing, Adrian R Rennie, Michael Rodal, Fredrik Höök
Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring is traditionally used to investigate adsorption processes at liquid-solid interfaces but has also been applied increasingly to characterize the viscoelastic properties of complex liquids. Here, we contribute new insights to the latter field by using QCM-D to investigate the structure near an interface and high-frequency viscoelastic properties of charge stabilized polystyrene particles (radius 37 nm) dispersed in pure water. The study reveals changes with increasing ionic-strength from the crystalline order at low salt concentration to that with a less-structured particle distribution at high ionic strength...
December 5, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Matthew Mills, Nesrin Sarigul-Klijn
Mathematical models of the human spine can be used to investigate spinal biomechanics without the difficulties, limitations and ethical concerns associated with physical experimentation. Validation of such models is necessary to ensure the modeled system behavior accurately represents the physics of the actual system. The goal of this work was to validate a medical image-based nonlinear lumbosacral spine finite element model of a healthy 20-year-old female subject under physiological moments. Range of motion, facet joint forces, and intradiscal pressure were compared with experimental values and validated finite element models from the literature...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Yaoping Liu, Tingyu Li, Mingxin Xu, Wei Zhang, Yan Xiong, Ligong Nie, Qi Wang, Haichao Li, Wei Wang
Liquid biopsy techniques for rare tumor cell separation from body fluids have shown enormous promise in cancer detection and prognosis monitoring. This work established a high-throughput liquid biopsy platform with a high recovery rate and a high cell viability based on a previously reported 2.5D micropore-arrayed filtration membrane. Thanks to its high porosity (>40.2%, edge-to-edge space between the adjacent micropores <4 μm), the achieved filtration throughputs can reach >110 mL min-1 for aqueous samples and >17 mL min-1 for undiluted whole blood, only driven by gravity with no need for any extra pressure loading...
December 5, 2018: Lab on a Chip
J Sandjojo, W A Gebhardt, A M E E Zedlitz, J Hoekman, E Dusseldorp, J A den Haan, A W M Evers
BACKGROUND: Support staff of adults with intellectual disability (ID) play an important role in promoting independence in home and community settings. However, little is known about the types of behaviours staff should use to promote independence and instruments that assess such behaviour do not yet exist. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and initially validate a reliable questionnaire that measures the degree to which support staff display behaviours that promote independence in people with ID...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Lily J Doershuk, Jaap P P Saers, Colin N Shaw, Tea Jashashvili, Kristian J Carlson, Jay T Stock, Timothy M Ryan
OBJECTIVE: This project investigates trabecular bone structural variation in the proximal humerus and femur of hunter-gatherer, mixed-strategy agricultural, medieval, and human groups to address three questions: (a) What is the extent of trabecular bone structural variation in the humerus and femur between populations with different inferred activity levels? (b) How does variation in the proximal humerus relate to variation in the proximal femur? (c) Are trabecular bone microstructural variables sexually dimorphic? METHODS: The proximal humerus and femur of 73 adults from five human groups with distinct subsistence strategies were scanned using a micro-computed tomography system...
January 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Huan You, Zhaode Mu, Min Zhao, Jing Zhou, Yongjie Chen, Lijuan Bai
This work describes a voltammetric and ultrasensitive aptasensor for sulfadimethoxine (SDM). It is based on signal amplification by making use of a multifunctional fullerene-doped reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid. The nanohybrid was coated with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) to obtain a material (P-C60 -rGO) with large specific surface area and a unique adsorption ability for loading it with glucose oxidase (GOx). The coating also facilitates the direct electron transfer between the active site of GOx and the glassy carbon electrode (GCE)...
December 4, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Devin B Phillips, Cameron M Ehnes, Michael K Stickland, Stewart R Petersen
PURPOSE AND METHODS: To compare the effects of thoracic load carriage on the ventilatory and perceptual responses to graded exercise, 14 pairs of height-matched, physically active males and females completed randomly ordered modified Balke treadmill exercise tests with and without a correctly sized and fitted 20.4 kg backpack and work clothing. Subjects walked at 1.56 m.s- 1 while grade was increased by 2% every 2 min until exhaustion. Ventilatory responses were measured with open circuit spirometry and perceptual responses were evaluated using the modified Borg scale...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Hao-Yang Mi, Xin Jing, Zhiyong Cai, Yuejun Liu, Lih-Sheng Turng, Shaoqin Gong
Boosting power generation performance while employing economical and biocompatible materials is an ongoing direction in the field of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs). Here, highly porous, biocompatible, cellulose nanofibril (CNF) composite-based TENGs are developed through an environmentally friendly freeze-drying approach. High tribopositivity materials, including silica fiber, human hair, and rabbit fur, are used as fillers in composite TENG fabrication for the first time to enhance the triboelectric output performance...
December 5, 2018: Nanoscale
Guangzhi He, Zhihua Lian, Yunbo Yu, Yang Yang, Kuo Liu, Xiaoyan Shi, Zidi Yan, Wenpo Shan, Hong He
The structure of dispersed vanadyl species plays a crucial role in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 over vanadia-based catalysts. Here, we demonstrate that the polymeric vanadyl species have a markedly higher NH3 -SCR activity than the monomeric vanadyl species. The coupling effect of the polymeric structure not only shortens the reaction pathway for the regeneration of redox sites but also substantially reduces the overall reaction barrier of the catalytic cycle. Therefore, it is the polymeric vanadyl species, rather than the monomeric vanadyl species, that determine the NH3 -SCR activity of vanadia-based catalysts, especially under low-temperature conditions...
November 2018: Science Advances
Patrick Williamson, Amin Mohamadi, Arun J Ramappa, Joseph P DeAngelis, Ara Nazarian
BACKGROUND: Numerous biomechanical studies have addressed normal shoulder function and the factors that affect it. While these investigations include a mix of in-vivo clinical reports, ex-vivo cadaveric studies, and computer-based simulations, each has its own strengths and limitations. A robust methodology is essential in cadaveric work but does not always come easily. Precise quantitative measurements are difficult in in-vivo studies, and simulation studies require validation steps...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Sudesh D Ayare, Parag R Gogate
Treatment of actual industrial wastewater is a challenging task and has not been investigated using the cavitation-based approaches significantly. In the present work, sonocatalytic degradation (catalysts as CuO and TiO2 ) of phosphonate based industrial wastewater, procured from a local company, has been studied in terms of COD reduction under optimized conditions (established using initial studies involving only ultrasound) of pH as 3.2, the temperature of 32 ± 2 °C and 120 min as treatment time...
March 2019: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Cui Ma, Pengfei Yuan, Shengyong Jia, Yaqi Liu, Xingjun Zhang, Sen Hou, Hanxu Zhang, Zhengguang He
In this work, the biologically pre-treated leachate was subjected to catalytic micro-ozonation using cow-dung ash composites loaded with Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (nano-Fe3 O4 @CDA) as the catalyst. The optimal conditions used were nano-Fe3 O4 @CDA dosage of 0.8 g/L, input ozone of 3.0 g/L, and reaction time of 120 min. This environment yielded the following results: The COD and color number (CN) removal reached 53% and 89%, respectively, and the BOD5 /COD increased from 0.05 to 0.32. The catalytic micro-ozonation partially degraded the refractory substances into intermediates with lower molecular weight...
January 2019: Waste Management
Vanesa Baño, Daniel Godoy, Diego Figueredo, Abel Vega
The main objective of this work was to study the structural viability of using small-diameter logs of Uruguayan Loblolly/Slash pine, mainly from thinning operations, to design cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels. A visual grade named "CTH" (coniferous thinning) was proposed, and 45 specimens of sawn timber boards were tested, resulting in 51% lower bending strength than that of the minimum strength class C14. Subsequently, 20 CLT panels were manufactured and experimentally tested, the results showed that the bending strength of the CLT panels was 43% above that of the individual layers...
November 30, 2018: Materials
Wei Tang, Rui Liu, Xiangyong Lu, Shaogang Zhang, Songyong Liu
In this study, the tribological behavior of lamellar MoO₃ as a lubricant additive was investigated under different concentrations, particle sizes, normal loads, velocity, and temperature. The friction and wear tests were performed using a tribometer and with a reciprocating motion. The results indicate that the friction-reducing ability and antiwear property of the base oil can be improved effectively with the addition of lamellar MoO₃. The 0.5 wt % and 0.1 wt % concentrations of MoO₃ yield the best antifriction and antiwear effects, respectively...
November 30, 2018: Materials
James F Nowak, Johnson Samuel
Minimally-assisted tooth repair (MaTR) systems are envisioned to be capable of substituting for the skill of a dentist. If successfully developed, MaTR systems could enable lower-skilled dental technicians to provide dental care at a fraction of the overall medical cost. This paper explores a key initial step towards the development of such systems by quantifying the machining responses of pristine human teeth relevant to dental preparation procedures. The working hypothesis of the study is that such findings will enable the benchmarking of key process planning and control metrics relevant for the future development of MaTR systems...
November 16, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ming-Jie Yin, Qiang Zhao, Jushuai Wu, Karoline Seefeldt, Jiayin Yuan
Porous poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) recently have been actively serving as a multifunctional, interdisciplinary materials platform in quite a few research areas, including separation, catalysis, actuator, sensor, and energy storage, just to name a few. In this context, the capability to photo-pattern PIL microstructures in a porous state on a substrate is still missing but is a crucial step for their real industrial usage. Here, we developed a method for in situ rapid patterning of porous PIL microstructures via a maskless photolithography approach coupled with a simple electrostatic complexation treatment...
December 4, 2018: ACS Nano
Kelly D Good, Jeanne M Vanbriesen
Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater discharges from coal-fired power plants may increase bromide concentrations at downstream drinking water intakes, leading to increased formation of toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Despite this, bromide was not regulated in FGD wastewater in the 2015 Steam Electric Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards (ELGs). Case-by-case management was recommended instead, depending on downstream drinking water effects. The present work seeks to identify U.S. regions where power plant discharges could affect drinking water...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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