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Educational research

Stephanie C Rigters, Marc P van der Schroeff, Grigorios Papageorgiou, Robert J Baatenburg de Jong, André Goedegebure
We quantified changes in the auditory acuity of 675 aging adults (mean age 71.1 years, 52.0% female, mean follow-up 4.4 years ± 0.2) of an ongoing cohort study with a pure-tone audiogram and a speech-in-noise test. Generalized estimating equation models were used to study the association between hearing loss and the progression with age, sex, education, cognition, BMI, blood pressure, having type 2 diabetes mellitus, cholesterol ratio, smoking and alcohol consumption. The mean progression of hearing loss was 0...
December 11, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
Chelsey R Wilks, Leslie A Morland, Kirsten H Dillon, Margaret-Anne Mackintosh, Shannon M Blakey, H Ryan Wagner, Eric B Elbogen
There have been considerable efforts to understand, predict, and reduce suicide among U.S. military veterans. Studies have shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MDD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI) increase risk of suicidal behavior in veterans. Limited research has examined anger and social support as factors linked to suicidal ideation, which if demonstrated could lead to new, effective strategies for suicide risk assessment and prevention. Iraq/Afghanistan era veterans (N = 2467) were evaluated in the ongoing Veterans Affairs Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC) multi-site Study of Post-Deployment Mental Health on demographic and psychological variables...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Irina P Beletskaya, Valentin G Nenajdenko
The Markovnikov rule, known to every student of organic chemistry, was formulated 150 years ago, in 1869. During its long history (almost as long as the history of organic chemistry itself) attitudes towards this famous statement of chemical reactivity have evolved from indifference up to the 1930s, through common acceptance as a useful educational paradigm with a marginal use in research until the 1990s, to its vigorous re-launch as an important marker of regioselectivity in the last few decades. The unexpected new popularity of the classical rule is accounted for by a rapid expansion of catalytic addition reactions and their critical importance as highly effective atom-economical, regioselective methods in modern organic synthesis...
December 10, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Zoe C Bedford, Suzanne Bench
BACKGROUND: Having a child admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is a highly stressful experience, and post-traumatic stress among parents is well documented. How best to support these parents is currently unclear. AIM: To review research on interventions to support the psychological well-being of parents after their child's discharge from paediatric intensive care. METHODS: Searches were conducted using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL and The Cochrane library in January 2017...
December 10, 2018: Nursing in Critical Care
Simon Murphy, Hannah Littlecott, Gillian Hewitt, Sarah MacDonald, Joan Roberts, Julie Bishop, Chris Roberts, Richard Thurston, Alexa Bishop, Laurence Moore, Graham Moore
The paper reflects on a transdisciplinary complex adaptive systems (T-CAS) approach to the development of a school health research network (SHRN) in Wales for a national culture of prevention for health improvement in schools. A T-CAS approach focuses on key stages and activities within a continuous network cycle to facilitate systems level change. The theory highlights the importance of establishing transdisciplinary strategic partnerships to identify and develop opportunities for system reorientation. Investment in and the linking of resources develops the capacity for key social agents to take advantage of disruption points in the re-orientated system, and engagement activities develop the network to facilitate new social interactions and opportunities for transdisciplinary activities...
December 8, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Lucian Nenciovici, Geneviève Allaire-Duquette, Steve Masson
Scientifically literate individuals are defined as individuals who are able to apply scientific knowledge and use scientific reasoning skills to solve problems. In recent years, cognitive neuroscience has turned its attention to understanding the brain activation patterns associated with scientific reasoning skills, but this work has not been systematically reviewed for more than a decade. The present study reviews neuroimaging studies related to three types of scientific reasoning tasks: overcoming misconceptions, causal reasoning, and hypothesis generation...
December 8, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Sarah Marshall, Mandana Vahabi, Aisha Lofters
This review uncovers the extent to which immigrant and minority women find HPV self-sampling an acceptable and feasible alternative to PAP testing for screening for cervical cancer. A focused literature review was conducted using CINAHL, Medline, Proquest and Pubmed databases to search for content relating to acceptability or feasibility of HPV self-testing for immigrant populations or minorities. 575 prospective relevant papers were included in the final analysis and 28 selected using the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Mattia Siciliano, Carlo Chiorri, Valeria Battini, Valeria Sant'Elia, Manuela Altieri, Luigi Trojano, Gabriella Santangelo
OBJECTIVES: The Trail Making Test (TMT) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed and attentional set-shifting. Since the regression-based norms and equivalent scores (ESs) for the TMT Italian version trace back to more than 20 years ago, we aimed at providing updated normative data for basic (Part A and Part B) and derived (Score B-A and Score B/A) TMT scores collected in a larger sample with an extended age range. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-five Italian volunteers stratified for sex (166 men), age decades (age range 20-90 years), and educational level (from primary school to university) completed the TMT and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
December 7, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Hua-Ping Sun, Wei-Feng Sun, Yong Geng, Xi Yang, Bless Kofi Edziah
The "resource curse" phenomenon has been the subject of extensive research, with its causes and transmission mechanisms primarily examined from the perspectives of economic development and rent seeking. Education is a major factor contributing to economically sustainable development, owing to its potential for improving cognition and skill levels and thereby enhancing worker productivity. The crowding-out or crowding-in effect of natural resource dependence on public education spending has been identified as one of the key mechanisms of the resource curse or blessing...
December 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Brad Love, Catherine Benedict, Aubrey Van Kirk Villalobos, Joshua N Cone
PURPOSE: Comprehensive cancer control (CCC) coalitions and programs have delivered effective models and approaches to reducing cancer burden across the United States over the last two decades. Communication plays an essential role in diverse coalition activities from prevention to survivorship, including organizational and community capacity-building and as cancer control intervention strategies. METHODS: Based upon a review of published CCC research as well as public health communication best practices, this article describes lessons learned to assist CCC coalitions and programs with systematic implementation of communication efforts as key strategies in cancer control...
December 10, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Fuxing Chen, Pengwei Hu, Wang Chang, Chulin Chen, Tianyuan Ding, Xiaorong Liu
Introduction: The military is a risk environment for cigarette smoking. This study determined the prevalence of, cessation attempts, knowledge, and attitudes regarding smoking, and factors related to it in the Chinese navy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of military personnel on active duty in the Chinese navy, Guangdong province. Data were collected using a standard structured questionnaire and analyzed through SPSS. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with smoking...
December 7, 2018: Military Medicine
Joanna M Blodgett, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, Daniel H J Davis, Rachel Cooper
Background: Cognitive processing plays a crucial role in the integration of sensory input and motor output that facilitates balance. However, whether balance ability in adulthood is influenced by cognitive pathways established in childhood is unclear, especially as no study has examined if these relationships change with age. We aimed to investigate associations between childhood cognition and age-related change in standing balance between mid and later life. Methods: Data on 2380 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development were included in analyses...
December 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Andrea Ottolenghi, Klaus Trott, Giorgio Baiocco, Vere Smyth
The success of any research programme is dependent on a continuing influx of new expertise, and continuing education to ensure the newest technologies and methods are exploited. In the past decade, a strategic approach has been used to build up the research expertise in the area of radiation protection and risk estimation. The High Level Expert Group (HLEG, in their 2009 report on European low-dose research asserted that education and training were key components in the development and maintenance of expertise for research into the risks from low-levels of ionising radiation...
December 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Fanny Vallet, Nathalie Mella, Andreas Ihle, Marine Beaudoin, Delphine Fagot, Nicola Ballhausen, Marie Baeriswyl, Morgane Schlemmer, Michel Oris, Matthias Kliegel, Olivier Desrichard
Objectives: Interindividual differences in cognitive aging may be explained by differences in cognitive reserve (CR) that are built-up across the lifespan. A plausible but under-researched mechanism for these differences is that CR helps compensating cognitive decline by enhancing motivation to cope with challenging cognitive situations. Theories of motivation on cognition suggest that perceived capacity and intrinsic motivation may be key mediators in this respect. Method: In 506 older adults, we assessed CR proxies (education, occupation, leisure activities), motivation (perceived capacity, intrinsic motivation), and a global measure of cognitive functioning...
December 7, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Maichou Lor, Theresa A Koleck, Suzanne Bakken
Objective: To systematically synthesize the literature on information visualizations of symptoms included as National Institute of Nursing Research common data elements and designed for use by patients and/or healthcare providers. Methods: We searched CINAHL, Engineering Village, PsycINFO, PubMed, ACM Digital Library, and IEEE Explore Digital Library to identify peer-reviewed studies published between 2007 and 2017. We evaluated the studies using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) and a visualization quality score, and organized evaluation findings according to the Health Information Technology Usability Evaluation Model...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Abolfazl Abouie, Reza Majdzadeh, Roghayeh Khabiri, Soudabeh Hamedi-Shahraki, Seyed Hasan Emami Razavi, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad
Health equity has become a progressively popular research topic in recent years. Therefore, this study was made to identify the contributions made by socioeconomic determinants in order to quantify their roles to healthcare utilization inequity and to show their status especially after the recent reform in Iran, i.e. Health Transformation Plan, which one of its main goals is providing access to healthcare for all people. This study is a cross-sectional study conducted on a national level in Iran in 2015. For the sampling frame, three-stage cluster sampling was used...
December 7, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Elke Grimminger-Seidensticker, Monica Aceti, Sandrine Knobé, Gilles Vieille Marchiset
As health concepts develop through exposure to, and experience with particular contexts, and as health concepts influence health behaviour, it is important for actors in health promotion programmes to understand an individual's health concepts. This study focussed on health concepts among socially disadvantaged children in France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland-a hitherto less researched population group. We conducted focus groups with a total of 167 children aged 7-11 years (mean=8.76 years, SD=0.68). The aim of this study was to explore if the life situation across four different countries leads to similar health concepts, and how the particular, national health discourses are reflected in the children's health concepts...
December 6, 2018: Health Promotion International
Joseph K Maddry, Eric M Ball, Daniel B Cox, Kathleen M Flarity, Vikhyat S Bebarta
Introduction: The U.S. Air Force utilizes specialized Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT) for transporting "stabilized" patients. Given the drawdown of military forces from various areas of operation, recent CCATT operations have increasingly involved the evacuation of unstable and incompletely resuscitated patients from far forward, austere locations. This brief report describes unique cases representative of the evolving CCATT mission and provides future direction for changes in doctrine and educational requirements in preparation for en route combat casualty care...
December 7, 2018: Military Medicine
Sonia Santos-Lasaosa, Elena Bellosta-Diago, Alba López-Bravo, Alejandro Viloria-Alebesque, Alberto Garrrido-Fernández, María Pilar Navarro-Pérez
Cluster headache is one of the most disabling of all headache conditions. Although some studies have investigated the psychological profile of patients with cluster headache, research on its impact on cognitive function in patients with episodic cluster headache outside the cluster bout is scant. Cross-sectional study to evaluate various aspects of neuropsychological assessment and cognitive function including working memory, selective attention, verbal fluency, and executive function in 40 patients with episodic cluster headache...
December 7, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Balázs G Madas, Paul N Schofield
The importance of datasharing is of increasing concern to funding bodies and institutions. With some prescience, the radiobiology community has established datasharing infrastructures over the last two decades, including STORE; however, the utilization of these databases is disappointing. The aim of the present study was to identify the current state of datasharing amongst researchers in radiation protection, and to identify barriers to effective sharing. An electronic survey was prepared, including questions on post-publication data provision, institutional, funding agency, and journal policies, awareness of datasharing infrastructures, attitudinal barriers and technical support...
December 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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