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Educational research

Xin Wang, Bhramar Mukherjee, Sung Kyun Park
BACKGROUND: Some heavy metals (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury) have been associated with obesity and obesity comorbidities. The analytical approach for those associations has typically focused on individual metals. There is a growing interest in evaluating the health effects of cumulative exposure to metal mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We utilized our Environmental Risk Score (ERS), a summary measure to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research, to evaluate the associations of cumulative exposure to a mixture of correlated heavy metals with obesity and its comorbidities including hypertension, and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) while accounting for high degree correlations and interactions among metal mixtures components...
October 10, 2018: Environment International
J Jay Miller, Kalea Benner, Jessica Donohue-Dioh, Melissa Segress
Despite the proliferation, of on-campus academic support programs for foster youth and alumni (e.g., those formerly in foster care), few conceptual frameworks for developing these programs exist. This study employed Group Concept Mapping (GCM) methodology to delineate a conceptual framework, from the perspective of foster youth and alumni (N = 51), for the development of on-campus support initiatives. GCM is an integrated mixed-method research method that uses non-metric multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses, to analyze qualitative data (e...
October 5, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Dimitrios Chytas
PURPOSE: Although anatomy is a significant part of medical education, there is controversy surrounding the appropriate method of anatomy teaching. Although social media is used in medical teaching, it has not been clarified if social platforms could significantly influence anatomy education. The purpose of this narrative review was to investigate to what extent the existing literature supports that social media could play a significant role in anatomy education. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, ERIC and CINAHL plus were searched for studies with a purpose to investigate the correlation between social media and anatomy education...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Amy E Vinson, Constance S Houck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding the impact of the exposure to anesthetic and sedative agents on neurodevelopment during the period of rapid brain growth in the first 3 years of life. Though much of the definitive data demonstrating anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity has come from studies in young animals, the focus of this review is on emerging human data. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2016, the first prospective trials investigating the neurodevelopmental impact of early anesthetic exposure (GAS and PANDA studies) were published, both showing no significant impact on IQ from a single brief anesthetic...
October 13, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
S M Yasir Arafat, Bithika Mali, Hasina Akter
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major, however under attended public health problem in Bangladesh. There is dearth of research regarding how newspapers communicate it to the mass population. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the quality of online newspapers reporting of suicidal behaviors in Bangladesh against World Health Organization suicide reporting guidelines. METHODS: We searched and scrutinized published contents of 8 Bangla online news portals against the World Health Organization suicide reporting guidelines retrospectively...
October 5, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Pearl L H Mok, Sussie Antonsen, Carsten B Pedersen, Matthew J Carr, Nav Kapur, James Nazroo, Roger T Webb
BACKGROUND: Childhood poverty is associated with elevated later risks for self-directed and externalised violence, but how risks are modified by parental socioeconomic mobility remains unclear. We investigated parental income trajectories during childhood and subsequent risks of self-harm and violent criminality in young adulthood. METHODS: Using Danish national registers, we delineated a nested case-control study of Danish citizens born from Jan 1, 1982, to Dec 31, 2000, with first hospital-treated self-harm episodes and first violent crime convictions at ages 15-33 years...
October 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh
Several researchers have raised the concern that the cross-sectional association of retrospectively reported childhood adversity with self-reported onset of asthma and chronic bronchitis in adulthood may be confounded, as well as mediated by an individual's mental health. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of retrospectively reported childhood adversity on self-reported onset of asthma and chronic bronchitis in adulthood, independent of potential confounding and mediating variables (including respondent's mental health)...
November 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Anna Słomian, Patryk Łakuta, Beata Bergler-Czop, Ligia Brzezińska-Wcisło
OBJECTIVE: In psoriasis, taking steps to improve emotional health is important to bring lasting benefits to patients' physical health and overall well-being. We aimed to identify factors that relate to anxiety in psoriasis and are potentially modifiable and that thus qualify as targets for future planned interventions for improving mental health. In this study, the importance of coping strategies and self-esteem as potential targets were tested. METHODS: A total of 102 patients diagnosed with psoriasis, aged 26-65 years (M = 43...
November 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Ettie Rosenberg, Hoai-An Truong, Shih-Ying Hsu, Reza Taheri
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To describe implementation and lessons learned from use of a mock trial as a teaching-learning and assessment activity in a required evidence-based practice course. This innovative self-directed learning strategy reinforced evidence-based skills and affective domain competencies in Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education (CAPE) 2013 Outcomes and Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards 2016. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: During spring semesters 2015 and 2016, first professional year (P1) cohorts were divided into teams and assigned controversial topics to research and debate in mock trials...
August 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Isha Patel, Jason W Guy, Yun Han, Jett Paraoan, Wallace Marsh, Mark S Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Fellowship opportunities are seen by pharmacy students and graduates as an option to assist in furthering pharmacy knowledge in a specific field or area of interest. Pharmaceutical industry fellowships are the most common pharmacy fellowship available to students. There has been little research on what motivates students to pursue a fellowship and what student characteristics may help predict interest in a fellowship. METHODS: A survey was distributed to P1, P2, and P3 students...
August 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Jesús de la Fuente, Israel Mañas, Clemente Franco, Adolfo J Cangas, Encarnación Soriano
The purpose of this research was to verify, in a group of psychology students, whether mindfulness training in conjunction with the individual's level of self-regulation behavior would produce a change in the use of coping strategies. A total of 38 students participated in this study, with one experimental group and one control group, in a randomized controlled trial. Observation of the experimental group revealed a significant decrease in specific emotion-focused, negative coping strategies (preparing for the worst, resigned acceptance, emotional venting, and isolation), and a significant increase in specific problem-focused, positive coping (positive reappraisal and firmness, self-talk, help for action), in combination with students' existing low-medium-high level of self-regulation...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Doris M Rubio, Colleen A Mayowski, Marie K Norman
The biomedical workforce continues to lack diversity, despite growing evidence demonstrating the advantages of diverse teams in workplaces for creativity and innovation. At the University of Pittsburgh Institute for Clinical Research Education, we have taken a multi-pronged, collaborative approach to enhance the diversity of our trainees and scholars. We started by implementing a program for postdoctoral fellows and junior faculty, the Career Education and Enhancement for Health Care Research Diversity (CEED) program...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yi-Jing Sheen, Pei-Tseng Kung, Wei-Yin Kuo, Li-Ting Chiu, Wen-Chen Tsai
Patients with diabetes are at a high risk of lower extremity amputations and may have a reduced life expectancy. Taiwan has implemented a diabetes pay-for-performance (P4P) program providing team care to improve the control of disease and avoid subsequent complications. Few studies investigated the effects of adopting a nationalized policy to decrease amputation risk in diabetes previously. Our study aimed to analyze the impact of the P4P programs on the incidence of lower extremity amputations in Taiwanese patients with diabetes...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dana J Lukin, Garrett Lawlor, David P Hudesman, Laura Durbin, Jordan E Axelrad, Monica Passi, Kimberly Cavaliere, Elliot Coburn, Michelle Loftus, Henry Jen, Alexandra Feathers, Melissa H Rosen, Lisa B Malter, Arun Swaminath
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), often leading to diagnostic confusion and delays in IBD therapy escalation. This study sought to assess outcomes after CDI in IBD patients exposed to new or escalated immunosuppressive therapy. Methods: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included IBD patients with documented CDI at 4 academic medical centers. Data were abstracted from clinical databases at each institution...
October 12, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Peter Barglow
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Outcome intervention data from Medicare, veteran, prison, and United States' public populations can identify best practices to decrease opioid misuse. Prescription policies for treating pain in the United States and other countries are relevant to preventing overdose. METHODS: Three strategies are considered: (1) Demand Reduction counsels and educates patients and current or potential opioid users about risks and treatment options to reduce motivation to consume opioids...
October 12, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Stephanie L McManimen, Damani McClellan, Jamie Stoothoff, Leonard A Jason
Prior research has found a heightened risk of suicide in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). It is possible that a number of factors including stigma, unsupportive social interactions, and severe symptoms could lead to the development of depression, suicidal ideation, and heightened risk of suicide in this patient population. Prior studies have indicated that patients often report the legitimacy of their illness being questioned by family, friends, and even their physicians...
November 2018: Journal of Community Psychology
Gill Brook
AIMS: To discuss the role of physiotherapy in the management of women who have suffered an obstetric fistula, referring to research findings when appropriate and available, and the experiences of clinical specialists in the field. METHODS: The experiences of physiotherapists who have worked in countries where obstetric fistula is prevalent, and the limited literature available, were considered in producing this consensus document on behalf of the ICS Physiotherapy Committee...
October 12, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Jean E Klig, Andrea Fang, Sean M Fox, Jeffrey Hom, Ashley Strobel, Sonny Tat, Jessica J Wall, Rahul Bhat, Eric Weinberg, Kurt R Deninghoff, Paul Ishmine, Maybelle Kou
Successful Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM) education research and scholarship can alter the varied landscape of care that is delivered outside of children's hospitals in the U.S. It is well established that most pediatric emergency care occurs in general emergency departments and urgent care centers by a diverse group of providers, whose core training and experience in treating acutely ill or injured children can be quite limited.1 Beyond gaps in fundamental PEM education, there are no systems, processes, or even standards that fully assure an ongoing communication of best practices between tertiary pediatric institutions and general (non-children's) hospital emergency departments...
October 12, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
M S Barreto, C Garcia-Vivar, M Mitchell, S S Marcon
AIM: The study explored the views and attitudes of nurses and physicians on family presence during resuscitation in emergency departments in Brazil. BACKGROUND: International emergency associations endorse family presence during resuscitation; however, the extent to which it is practiced remains unclear, particularly in the Brazilian context. Research of emergency staff views and attitudes towards this practice is desirable so that actions can be identified to support families at the bedside...
October 12, 2018: International Nursing Review
Rosalie Schultz, Tammy Abbott, Jessica Yamaguchi, Sheree Cairney
Many Indigenous Australians hold cultural, ecological and language knowledge, but common representations of Indigenous Australians focus on social disadvantage and poor comparisons with other Australians in education, employment and health. Indigenous Land Management works with Indigenous people's cultural, ecological and language expertise, employing Indigenous people in activities contributing to biodiversity conservation. The Interplay research surveyed 841 Indigenous people in remote communities. Those employed in land management reported greater participation in cultural activities, language knowledge, and belief that their land was looked after...
October 11, 2018: EcoHealth
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