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Non-alcoholic fatty liver

Li Zhang, Hui-Xia Li, Wu-Si Pan, Farhan Ullah Khan, Cheng Qian, Feng-Rong Qi-Li, Xiaojun Xu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is characterized by steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. We aim to characterize the hepatoprotective effects of Leonurine hydrochloride (LH) and the possible pathway in a cell and rodent model of diet-induced steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: For in vitro studies, Palmitic acid (PA) and free fatty acid (FFA) induced HepG2 and HL7702 steatosis cell models were used...
December 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
David J Orlicky, Andrew E Libby, Elise S Bales, Rachel H McMahan, Jenifer Monks, Francisco G La Rosa, James L McManaman
KEY POINTS: Wild type mice as well as mice with hepatocyte-specific or whole-body deletions of perilipin-2 (Plin2) were used to define hepatocyte and extra-hepatocyte effects of altered cellular lipid storage on obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathophysiology in a western-diet (WD) model of these disorders. Extra-hepatocyte actions of Plin2 are responsible for obesity, adipose inflammation, and glucose clearance abnormalities in WD-fed mice. Hepatocyte and extra-hepatic actions of Plin2 mediate fatty liver formation in WD-fed mice through distinct mechanisms...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Fabian Lanuza, Jorge Sapunar, Edmundo Hofmann
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFDL) includes fatty liver or simple steatosis, characterized by lipid deposits in hepatocytes and more advanced stages such as steatohepatitis (NASH) and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Physical inactivity, hypercaloric and unbalanced diet together with aging play a key role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and are strongly associated with metabolic and physical activity continue to be major components in prevention and first-line treatment to attenuate or reverse NAFLD. Dietary patterns, their composition and weight reduction would be the most relevant nutritional aspects in NAFDL treatment...
August 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Barbara J Turner, Chen-Pin Wang, Trisha V Melhado, Raudel Bobadilla, Mamta K Jain, Amit G Singal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Advanced liver disease, which includes fibrosis and cirrhosis, has been reported to be more prevalent in Hispanics patients at the time of diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection than non-Hispanic black or non-Hispanic white patients. We performed a propensity score-matched analysis to determine whether metabolic risk factors contribute to this disparity. METHODS: We collected data from persons with 748 HCV infection (22% Hispanic, 53% non-Hispanic black, and 26% non-Hispanic while; 23% with advanced liver disease), born from 1945 through 1965, diagnosed at 6 healthcare systems in Texas...
December 6, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jian-Wen Jiang, Xin-Hua Chen, Zhi-Gang Ren, Shu-Sen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Gut microbiota has been demonstrated to play a critical role in liver inflammation, chronic fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and HCC development through the gut-liver axis. DATA SOURCES: Recently there have been several innovative studies investigating gut microbial dysbiosis-mediated enhancement of HCC through the gut-liver axis. Literatures from January 1998 to January 2018 were searched in the PubMed database using the keywords "gut microbiota" and "hepatocellular carcinoma" or "liver cancer", and the results of experimental and clinical studies were analyzed...
November 22, 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Harshul Pandit, Joseph P Tinney, Yan Li, Guozhen Cui, Suping Li, Bradley B Keller, Robert C G Martin
We developed a protocol to investigate and optimize the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to non-invasive diagnosis of progressing fatty liver disease in mouse models. Eighteen 4-wk-old male C57 L/J mice were randomly assigned to one of the three groups and placed on a control diet, high-fat diet or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis diet for the next 10 wk. After 14 wk, B-mode imaging and CEUS imaging using a VisualSonics Vevo2100 system were performed. CEUS imaging and data analysis using three different parameters-peak enhancement, wash-in rate and wash-in perfusion index-revealed a significant decrease in representative blood flow in the high-fat diet group versus controls and a further significant decrease in the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis group (p < 0...
December 6, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Mengting Chen, Suocheng Hui, Hedong Lang, Min Zhou, Yong Zhang, Chao Kang, Xianglong Zeng, Qianyong Zhang, Long Yi, Mantian Mi
SCOPE: Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) plays a protective role against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by improving hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction. Gut microbiota imbalance contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD, yet the underlying mechanism linking SIRT3 with gut microbiota in NAFLD progression remains obscure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wild-type 129 mice and SIRT3 knockout (SIRT3KO) mice were under a chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD) treatment for 18-weeks. HFD resulted in a significantly increased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, which were exacerbated in SIRT3KO mice...
December 7, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Jiaofeng Huang, Haoyang Zhang, Shiying Liu, Mingfang Wang, Bo Wan, Bharat Velani, Yueyong Zhu, Su Lin
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection might be associated with fatty liver disease. However, the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and T. gondii infection has not been investigated in a large population. We aimed to study the relationship between those two diseases using a population-based dataset from the United States. METHODS: The data were collected from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) between 1988 and 1994...
December 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Youlian Zhou, Tiying Zheng, Huiting Chen, Yongqiang Li, Hongli Huang, Wenji Chen, Yanlei Du, Jie He, Yuyuan Li, Jie Cao, Yuqiang Nie, Yongjian Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Emerging evidence suggests a close link between gut microbiota and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gut microbiota and the DNA methylation of adiponectin (an adipocyte-specific adipocytokine) in rats, following diet-induced NAFLD. METHODS: 50 male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups with or without a high fat diet (HFD), antibiotics, and probiotics, in order to establish an imbalanced gut microbiota and probiotic treatment model in NAFLD rats...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ziqi Chen, Fang Liu, Nanxin Zheng, Meng Guo, Leilei Bao, Yangyang Zhan, Mingjian Zhang, Yuanyu Zhao, Wenyuan Guo, Guoshan Ding
OBJECTIVE: Wuzhi (WZ) capsule contains an ethanol extract of Schisandra sphenanthera. The efficacy of WZ in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not yet been elucidated. The present study assessed the effects of WZ on NAFLD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A C57BL/6 male mouse model of NAFLD was established by feeding the animals a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet. Mice fed the basal diet were used as controls. Both groups were randomly administered WZ or vehicle by gavage for 5 weeks...
December 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Michele Alves-Bezerra, Yingxia Li, Mariana Acuña, Anna A Ivanova, Kathleen E Corey, Eric A Ortlund, David E Cohen
In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), triglycerides accumulate within the liver because the rates of fatty acid accrual by uptake from plasma and de novo synthesis exceed elimination by mitochondrial oxidation and secretion as VLDL-triglycerides. Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2) is an acyl-CoA thioesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoAs into free fatty acids plus CoASH. Them2 is highly expressed in the liver, as well as other oxidative tissues. Mice globally lacking Them2 are resistant to diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis, and exhibit improved glucose homeostasis...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Brett McGettigan, Rachel McMahan, David Orlicky, Matthew Burchill, Thomas Danhorn, Prashanth Francis, Lin Ling Cheng, Lucy Golden-Mason, Claudia Jakubzick, Hugo Rosen
A crucial component of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis is lipid stress, which may contribute to hepatic inflammation and activation of innate immunity in the liver. However, little is known regarding how dietary lipids, including fat and cholesterol, may facilitate innate immune activation in vivo. We hypothesized that dietary fat and cholesterol drive NAFLD progression to steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis by altering the transcription and phenotype of hepatic macrophages METHODS: This hypothesis was tested by using RNA-seq methods to characterize and analyze sort-purified hepatic macrophage populations that were isolated from mice fed diets with varying amounts of fat and cholesterol RESULTS: The addition of cholesterol to a high fat diet triggered hepatic pathology reminiscent of advanced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans characterized by signs of cholesterol dysregulation, generation of oxidized LDL, increased recruitment of hepatic macrophages, and significant fibrosis...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jörn M Schattenberg, Und Rohit Loomba
The epidemic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has created a large demand for diagnostic tools to identify patients at risk of disease progression including the development of end-stage liver disease. The prevalence of NAFLD is rising worldwide and it is estimated that approximately 1 billion individuals may be afflicted with NAFLD globally (1). Currently, the gold standard to diagnose advanced fibrosis and therefore the reference for all non-invasive technology is liver histology and it's assessment by an experienced liver-histopathologist...
December 4, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Elena Palma, Ewald Jan Doornebal, Shilpa Chokshi
Human precision-cut liver slices represent a robust and versatile ex vivo model which retains the complex and multi-cellular histoarchitecture of the hepatic environment. As such, they represent an ideal model to investigate the mechanisms of liver injury and for the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Schematic overview to highlight the utility of precision-cut liver slices as a relevant and versatile ex-vivo model of liver disease. Top panel; Precision cut liver slices (PCLS) exposed to ethanol develop mega-mitochondria, a classical hallmark of Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD)...
December 4, 2018: Hepatology International
Zong Jie Koh, Hrishikesh Pandurang Salgaonkar, Wei Jie Jonathan Lee, Guo Wei Kim, Chun Hai Tan, Anton Cheng, Davide Lomanto, Jimmy Bok Yan So, Yock Young Dan, Asim Shabbir
PURPOSE: Incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is on the rise and is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are considered the most significant risk factors. Bariatric surgery is the only treatment modality in morbid obesity which allows long-term weight loss with improvement in associated co-morbid conditions. However, the effects of bariatric surgery on NAFLD are not well established. NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) is a validated non-invasive scoring system used to assess advanced fibrosis...
December 4, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Hussam Alamri, Nathan Heath Patterson, Ethan Yang, Pablo Zoroquiain, Anthoula Lazaris, Pierre Chaurand, Peter Metrakos
Hepatic lipid accumulation, mainly in the form of triglycerides (TGs), is the hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To date, the spatial distribution of individual lipids in NAFLD-affected livers is not well characterized. This study aims to map the triglyceride distribution in normal human liver samples and livers with NAFLD and cirrhosis with imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS). Specifically, whether individual triglyceride species differing by fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation correlate with the histopathological features of NAFLD as identified with classical H&E...
December 5, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Feng Wang, Liuzhuo Zhang, Suyang Wu, Wentao Li, Miaomiao Sun, Wenting Feng, Ding Ding, Samuel Yeung-Shan Wong, Peng Zhu, Greg J Evans, Yun Kwok Wing, Jihui Zhang, Jelle J Vlaanderen, Roel C H Vermeulen, Yanfang Zhang, Emily Ying-Yang Chan, Zhimin Li, Lap Ah Tse
OBJECTIVES: Accumulated evidence implies that night shift work may trigger liver dysfunction. Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is suggested to be a necessary mediator in this process. This study aimed to examine the relationship between night shift work and elevated level of alanine transaminase (e-ALT) of workers and investigate the potential mediation effect of NAFL. METHODS: This study included all male workers from the baseline survey of a cohort of night shift workers...
December 4, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Roy Chris Skinner, Derek C Warren, Soofia N Lateef, Vagner A Benedito, Janet C Tou
Apple pomace, which is a waste byproduct of processing, is rich in several nutrients, particularly dietary fiber, indicating potential benefits for diseases that are attributed to poor diets, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD affects over 25% of United States population and is increasing in children. Increasing fruit consumption can influence NAFLD. The study objective was to replace calories in standard or Western diets with apple pomace to determine the effects on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and on risk of NAFLD...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Lauren E Mellor-Crummey, Jordan E Lake, Holly Wilhalme, Chi-Hong Tseng, Philip M Grant, Kristine M Erlandson, Jennifer C Price, Frank J Palella, Larry A Kingsley, Matthew Budoff, Wendy S Post, Todd T Brown
Background and Aim: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common among HIV-infected (HIV+) adults. The Liver Fat Score (LFS) is a non-invasive, rapid, inexpensive diagnostic tool that uses routine clinical data and is validated against biopsy in HIV-uninfected (HIV-) persons. CT liver-to-spleen (L/S) attenuation ratio is another validated method to diagnose NAFLD. We compared NAFLD prevalence using the LFS versus L/S ratio among Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants to assess the LFS's performance in HIV+vs...
2018: Journal of clinical gastroenterology and hepatology
Da Zhou, Yuan-Wen Chen, Ze-Hua Zhao, Rui-Xu Yang, Feng-Zhi Xin, Xiao-Lin Liu, Qin Pan, Huiping Zhou, Jian-Gao Fan
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has a broad spectrum of biological activity by regulating metabolic processes via both the direct activation of the class B family of G protein-coupled receptors and indirect nonreceptor-mediated pathways. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have significant therapeutic effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) in animal models. However, clinical studies indicated that GLP-1 treatment had little effect on hepatic steatosis in some NAFLD patients, suggesting that GLP-1 resistance may occur in these patients...
December 3, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
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