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Gamete donation

Hane Htut Maung
Assisted reproduction using donor gametes is a procedure that allows those who are unable to produce their own gametes to achieve gestational parenthood. Where conception is achieved using donor sperm, the child lacks a genetic link to the intended father. Where it is achieved using a donor egg, the child lacks a genetic link to the intended mother. To address this lack of genetic kinship, some fertility clinics engage in the practice of matching the ethnicity of the gamete donor to that of the recipient parent...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Elle C Roberson, Elizabeth Ann L Enninga
One of the first steps towards a successful pregnancy is fertilization, where sperm and oocyte come together to form a zygote. In mammals, this process can occur in vitro, allowing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to alleviate certain infertilities. ART - which includes in vitro fertilization and gamete donation - accounted for 1.7% of all US births in the US in 2015 (Sunderam et al. 2018). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 5, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Alexander M Quaas, Guido Pennings
Two major breakthroughs in the field of assisted reproduction-oocyte donation and oocyte vitrification-have joined forces to create the rapidly emerging phenomenon of commercial egg banks (CEBs). In this review, we examine the history of this concept, the operational models, the geographical variations, and the benefits and pitfalls of CEBs, including the ethical and legal dilemmas arising from gamete mobility. We highlight future directions in the brave new world of third-party reproduction.
December 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Jason Hanna
According to the causal theory of parenthood, people incur parental obligations by causing children to exist. Proponents of the causal theory often argue that gamete donors have special obligations to their genetic offspring. In response, many defenders of current gamete donation practices would reject the causal theory. In particular, they may invoke the 'too many parents problem': many people who causally contribute to the existence of children - for instance, fertility doctors - do not thereby incur parental obligations...
November 27, 2018: Bioethics
Roy Homburg, Fatima Husain, Anil Gudi, Mark Brincat, Amit Shah
Religious teachings encourage fertility. The rapid progress of reproductive science has proved a challenge to interpret and adapt to assisted reproductive techniques which were not even dreamed of in ancient scriptures. The clash between religion and science has produced separate laws for each religion and reproductive practitioners are often at a loss to understand and accept them. Four lay members of different religions have set out the thinking of their religion regarding assisted reproductive techniques, concentrating in particular on gamete donation...
December 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Inmaculada de Melo-Martín, Lisa R Rubin, Ina N Cholst
BACKGROUND: Anonymity remains the more common practice in gamete donations, but legislation prohibiting anonymity with a goal of protecting donor-conceived children's right to know their genetic origins is becoming more common. However, given the dearth of research investigating the function of anonymity for donors and recipients, it is unclear whether these policies will accomplish their goals. The aim of this study was to explore experiences with anonymity among oocyte donors and recipients who participated in an anonymous donor oocyte program and to understand the ways in which anonymity functions for them...
November 6, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
Drauzio Oppenheimer, Agatha Ramos Oppenheimer, Sthefano Teixeira de Vilhena, Augusto Castelli Von Atzingen
OBJECTIVE:  Assisted reproduction combines innovative technologies and new forms of procreation through gamete donation; however, it also leads to moral and ethical issues and to the wide application of referential bioethics. The objective of the present study was to understand the bioethical context of shared oocyte donation. METHODS:  The present qualitative study used the Collective Subject Discourse methodology to interview donors and recipients in Brazil...
September 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Carol Coughlan
Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is very distressing for couples and frustrating for their clinicians who seek to find a solution. RIF is defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy following the transfer of at least four good-quality embryos in a minimum of three fresh or frozen cycles in a woman of age below 40 years. An agreed local protocol regarding how couples with RIF should be further investigated and managed should be in place. Ovarian function should be assessed by measuring antral follicle count, FSH, and AMH...
August 2, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Taisiia Yurchuk, Maryna Petrushko, Barry Fuller
The modern successes of reproductive medicine are based on the achievements in the fields of artificial fertilization and cryobiology over the last 50years. Cryopreservation of oocytes makes it possible to preserve their reproductive potential after surgical interventions, treatment of cancer, for delayed pregnancy and to use cells for donation. Cryopreservation of embryos allows not only to reduce the multiple pregnancies rate and to increase the cumulative pregnancy rate as a result of embryo transfer in the following favorable cycles of the patient, but is also a necessary procedure in case of genetic diagnosis or in the case of contraindications for embryo transfer in the stimulated cycle due to possible complications...
November 2018: Early Human Development
Anna Blazquez, Désirée García, Rita Vassena, Francesc Figueras, Amelia Rodriguez
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancies after gamete donation are at higher risk of developing pre-eclampsia (PE) than those achieved by IVF with patient's own gametes. We aim to assess whether pregnancies achieved with both oocyte and sperm donation (double donation, DD) are at an increased risk of developing PE and gestational hypertension (GH) compared to those achieved by oocyte donation alone (OD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 433 patients who reached the 20th week of gestation with either DD (n = 81) or OD (n = 352) between March 2013 and April 2016 at a fertility clinic...
July 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Kaberi Banerjee, Bhavana Singla
Context: The reduction or loss of natural fertility is deeply painful in couples that are considering the use of donor gametes or donor embryos. This is the first study to assess the acceptability of donor gametes or embryos in Indian population. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the attitude toward egg, sperm, and embryo donation among Indian the infertile couples. Settings: This study was conducted at infertility outpatient clinic New Delhi...
April 2018: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
Richard A Williams, Laura L Machin
OBJECTIVE: Despite poor clinic communication and staff treatment being reported by donors, high rates of overall satisfaction are still reported in surveys. This study will evaluate the importance of communication and interaction between donors and fertility clinic staff in gamete donor care. METHODS: We report on 120 egg and sperm donors' responses to a UK-wide online satisfaction survey. The survey focused on donors' interactions with fertility clinic staff pre-, during, and post- donation...
2018: PloS One
Michal Fishel Bartal, Baha M Sibai, Yossi Bart, Avi Shina, Shali Mazaki-Tovi, Irit Schushan Eisen, Israel Hendler, Micha Baum, Eyal Schiff
OBJECTIVE:  The aim of this study was to evaluate obstetric outcomes in relation to the extent of donor sperm exposure with and without egg donation. METHODS:  This is a retrospective cohort study in a single tertiary care center. All women with a singleton pregnancy who conceived following sperm donation (SD) were included. Obstetrics and neonatal outcomes for pregnancies following single SD were compared with pregnancies following repeat SD from the same donor...
July 21, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Mari Sälevaara, Raija-Leena Punamäki, Leila Unkila-Kallio, Mervi Vänskä, Maija Tulppala, Aila Tiitinen
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the mental health problems between parents after oocyte donation treatment, after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) with own gametes and after naturally conceiving (NC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective, longitudinal questionnaire study. The study group consisted of 26 oocyte donation mothers and their matched IVF/ICSI (n = 52) and NC (n = 52) controls. Matching was performed according to mother's age, parity, type of pregnancy, and number of returned questionnaires...
December 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
L Zakarin Safier, A Gumer, M Kline, D Egli, M V Sauer
PURPOSE: Human oocytes are arguably one of the most important cell types in humans, yet they are one of the least investigated cells. Because oocytes are limited in number, the use of high-quality oocytes is almost entirely in reproduction. Furthermore, regulatory hurdles for research on gametes and regulations on funding related to research on gametes present significant obstacles to research and the advancement of reproductive treatments. Here we report the outcomes of the largest compensated oocyte donation program for research in the USA to date, and probably worldwide...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Imogen Goold
In 'Egg Freezing and Egg Banking: Empowerment and Alienation in Assisted Reproduction', John A Robertson responds to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine's statement that oocyte preservation should no longer be considered an experimental treatment. He explores the implications of this development, focusing on the potentially empowering impact of oocyte preservation as a means for women to preserve their fertility. He also engages with concerns about the possibility that such a development may raise issues of alienation...
December 2017: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
N Kalampalikis, M Doumergue, S Zadeh
Gamete donation in Europe is not regulated by a common legal framework. Different laws regarding donor anonymity and remuneration exist in different countries. In France, gamete donation is characterized by a stable legal framework - the existing system of anonymous and non-remunerated donation remained unchanged following a period of public and parliamentary debate in 2011 - but little evidence is available concerning recipients' views and experiences of gamete donation. This article describes findings from a questionnaire completed individually by 714 heterosexual couple members undergoing a donor conception procedure at one of 20 national fertility centres in France...
April 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
Marilyn A Crawshaw, Eric D Blyth, Julia Feast
Current birth registration systems fail to serve adequately the interests of those born as a result of gamete and embryo donation and surrogacy. In the UK, changes to the birth registration system have been piecemeal, reactive and situation-specific and no information is recorded about gamete donors. Birth registration has thereby become a statement of legal parentage and citizenship only, without debate as to whether it should serve any wider functions. This sits uneasily with the increasingly accepted human right to know one's genetic and gestational as well as legal parents, and the duty of the State to facilitate that right...
June 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
Guido Pennings, Célia Ravel, Jean-Maxime Girard, Mathilde Domin-Bernhard, Veerle Provoost
OBJECTIVE: Finding out whether patients would be motivated by reciprocity when considering donating oocytes to others. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective monocentric study in the CECOS of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Rennes (France) on the opinion of patients regarding reciprocity. Couples who had a child with donor sperm were asked whether they would consider oocyte donation as a way of giving something back. RESULTS: Twenty six couples and one man answered the questionnaire...
June 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu, George U Eleje, Chukwuemeka A Iyoke, Sunday G Mba, Henry C Nnaji, Chukwunonso I Enechukwu, Peter O Nkwo
Objective: Anonymous sperm donation is a common practice in Nigeria with its associated legal and ethical challenges. This study aimed to investigate infertile couples' opinions about issues of sperm donor anonymity and to determine factors that might influence their preferences. Methods: A cross-sectional, multicentered, questionnaire-based study was conducted among infertile couples attending infertility clinics in three tertiary hospitals in the south-eastern region of Nigeria over a period of 6 months...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
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