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sex workers

Nur Adibah Mohidem, Zailina Hashim, Malina Osman, Rafiza Shaharudin, Farrah Melissa Muharam, Punitha Makeswaran
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is making a comeback and has remained one of the main causes of mortality among the list of infectious diseases in Malaysia. Objective To evaluate the burden and demographic, socio-economic and behavior as risk factors of TB among communities in Malaysia. Method A comprehensive search of Scopus, Sciencedirect, PubMed, DOAJ, CINAHL Plus, MyJournal, BIREME, BMC Public Health, Medline, CAB, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica dataBASE), and Web of Science (WoS) was undertaken from the articles published from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2017 using medical subject heading (MeSH) key terms...
October 16, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Carole Treibich, Aurélia Lépine
Social desirability bias, which is the tendency to underreport socially undesirable health behaviours, significantly distorts information on sensitive behaviours gained from self-reports. We applied the list randomisation method to indirectly elicit condom use among female sex workers and tested it among 651 female sex workers in Senegal, a country where sex workers face high social stigma and where the AIDS epidemic is mainly concentrated among this population. On the basis of our list randomisation, we found that the condom use rate in the last sexual intercourse with a client was 78%, which is significantly lower than the 97% obtained when asked directly in the survey...
October 15, 2018: Health Economics
Aaron Ziegler, Edie R Hapner
PURPOSE: Older patients with age-related voice changes (presbyphonia) are considered vocal under-doers due to a reportedly low a amount and intensity of voice use (ie, low vocal dose). This low voice use may be consequential to negative effects of presbyphonia like throat discomfort, as well as anxiety and frustration from difficulty communicating. Causally speaking, vocal fold atrophy (presbylaryngis) may indicate inadequate intrinsic laryngeal muscle loading with low voice use, though research is lacking...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Rosie Campbell, Teela Sanders, Jane Scoular, Jane Pitcher, Stewart Cunningham
It has been well established that those working in the sex industry are at various risks of violence and crime depending on where they sell sex and the environments in which they work. What sociological research has failed to address is how crime and safety have been affected by the dynamic changing nature of sex work given the dominance of the internet and digital technologies, including the development of new markets such as webcamming. This paper reports the most comprehensive findings on the internet-based sex market in the UK demonstrating types of crimes experienced by internet-based sex workers and the strategies of risk management that sex workers adopt, building on our article in the British Journal of Sociology in 2007...
October 14, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
Whitney P Mantooth, Ranjana K Mehta, Joohyun Rhee, Lora A Cavuoto
The purpose of this study was to examine task and sex differences in forearm muscle oxygenation, measured using near infrared spectroscopy, during sustained submaximal handgrip exercises. Forty-eight adults (50% males) performed fatiguing handgrip exercises at 20, 40, 60 and 80% of their maximum handgrip strength. While males and females exhibited similar levels of relative fatigability, forearm oxygenation was found to be task (i.e. contraction intensity and phase of fatigue development) and sex dependent...
October 14, 2018: Ergonomics
Eitaro Ito, Akihiro Takai, Yoshinori Imai, Hiromi Otani, Yoshihiro Onishi, Yosuke Yamamoto, Kohei Ogawa, Taiji Tohyama, Shunichi Fukuhara, Yasutsugu Takada
BACKGROUND: Controversy continues as to whether single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with the somewhat larger incision at the umbilicus, may lead to a worse postoperative quality of life and more pain compared with the more classic 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to compare single-incision and 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the perspective of quality of life. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, parallel-group, open-label, randomized clinical trial...
October 9, 2018: Surgery
Kimi Sawada, Yukari Takemi, Nobuko Murayama, Hiromi Ishida
Increasing obesity rates have driven research into dietary support for body weight control, but previous studies have only assessed changes in body weight of ± 3 kg. We investigated the relationships between white or brown/multigrain rice consumption and one-year body weight gain ≥ 3 kg in Japanese factory workers (n = 437). Routine medical check-up data from a one-year nutrition and lifestyle cohort study were analysed. Participants were divided into white rice and brown/multigrain rice consumption groups and further classified by tertile of rice consumption...
October 12, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Marica Baldoni, Gabriele Scorrano, Angelo Gismondi, Alessia D'Agostino, Michelle Alexander, Luca Gaspari, Fabrizio Vallelonga, Antonella Canini, Olga Rickards, Cristina Martínez-Labarga
This research presents an in-depth study of the skeletal remains collected from the archaeological site of Allumiere (15th-16th centuries CE; Rome, Italy). A multidisciplinary approach was used, combining skeletal biology, molecular anthropology and archaeobotany with the aim of reconstructing the osteobiography of the alum miners buried at the site. Since 1460, the area of the Tolfa Mountains was significant for the exploitation of alum which was used for a wide range of purposes in the Middle Ages, ranging from woven production to medical practice...
2018: PloS One
Tamara V Azizova, Nobuyuki Hamada, Evgeniya S Grigoryeva, Evgeny V Bragin
This study is the first to report cataract type specific risks in a cohort of Russian Mayak Production Association workers following chronic occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. In this retrospective cohort study, 22,377 workers (females 25.4%) first employed in 1948-1982 were followed up till the end of 2008. All cataract subtypes were significantly dependent on sex, attained age, diabetes mellitus, myopia and glaucoma. For each of posterior subcapsular (PSC), cortical and nuclear cataracts, the risk of cataract incidence significantly linearly increased with increasing radiation dose...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Matthew M Kavanagh, Stefan D Baral, Maureen Milanga, Jeremy Sugarman
Widespread public health surveillance efforts focused on key populations (men who have sex with men, sex workers, people who inject drugs, and others) gather data on population sizes, HIV prevalence, and other information for planning and resource allocation. Biometric identification might improve this data gathering. However, in the context of extensive criminalisation of these populations, the use of biometrics such as fingerprints raises concerns that are insufficiently addressed in current policies. These concerns include infringing privacy, exposing participants to risks of legal action or violence, biasing surveillance results, and undermining trust in the health system...
October 5, 2018: Lancet HIV
Manithong Vonglokham, Sengchanh Kounnavong, Vanphanom Sychareun, Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a major and fast-growing public health problem in Southeast Asia. We determined the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes and assessed the levels of awareness, treatment and control in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). METHODS: A national cross-sectional study based on a stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in 2013. The sample comprised 2,492 individuals aged 18-64 years (59.3% females; mean age 38.7 years, SD = 12.8) from Lao PDR...
October 10, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Vikas Choudhry, Radhika Dayal, Divya Pillai, Ameeta S Kalokhe, Klaus Beier, Vikram Patel
OBJECTIVE: Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) is a pressing human right issue and public health concern. We conducted a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies published in the past decade on CSA in India to examine the distribution of the prevalence estimates for both genders, to improve understanding of the determinants and consequences of CSA and identify gaps in the current state of research. METHODS: For this systematic review, we searched electronic literature databases (PubMed, POPLINE, and PsycINFO) for articles published in English on Child Sexual Abuse in India between January 1, 2006 and January 1, 2016 using 55 search terms...
2018: PloS One
M de Laroche, G Pelissier, S Noël, E Rouveix
The transmission of an infectious disease can occur through exposure to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids, particularly in the event of skin-puncture injuries for healthcare workers, and during sexual intercourse. These situations are known as accidental blood exposures and sexual exposures respectively. Combined actions carried out have allowed to significantly reduce risks, either to healthcare professionals (by standard precautions, provision of safety devices, Hepatitis B vaccination made compulsory in the 1990s, antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis that should be initiated as soon as possible after exposure), or to people engaging in unprotected sex (by prevention messages, condom promotion, and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis)...
October 5, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Melissa W Mobley, Robert J Gegear
Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in the rapid global decline of bumblebees over recent years, particularly in agricultural and urban areas. While there is much known about neonicotinoid toxicity effects at the colony stage of the bumblebee annual cycle, far less is known about such effects at other stages critical for the maintenance of wild populations. In the present work, individual-based feeding assays were used to show that chronic consumption of the widely used neonicotinoid clothianidin at a field-realistic average rate of 3...
2018: PloS One
Kati Karhula, Paula Salo, Aki Koskinen, Anneli Ojajärvi, Tuula Oksanen, Sampsa Puttonen, Mika Kivimäki, Mikko Härmä
We aimed to study the association of perceived control over scheduling of shifts with objectively measured working hour characteristics in shift workers. The participants were 5128 hospital employees (91% women, 85% nursing personnel, average age 43 years) in period-based work (114:45h/3 weeks) from the 2015 Finnish Public Sector study. Survey responses to a measure of control over scheduling of shifts were linked to payroll data on working hour characteristics during the 91 days preceding the survey. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess differences in dichotomized proportion of working hour characteristics (being full-time worker, number of work shifts, long work weeks (>40h and >48h/week), long work shifts (>12-h), evening and night shifts, quick returns (<11h shift interval), single days off, weekend work, >4 consecutive work shifts, and variability of shift length with cut points at 10% or 25% between employees with high, intermediate, or low control over scheduling of shifts...
October 8, 2018: Chronobiology International
Janardhana Navaneetham, Manjula Basavarju, Mutharaju Arelingiah
Background: Devadasi practice is still prevalent in some parts of North Karnataka; most of the Devadasis get into sex work for their survival. During sex work, devadasis would get close to their customer, as they feel secure and emotionally satisfied. Objectives: The present study aims at understanding the Devadasi sex worker (DSW) and their intimate partners' (IPs) relationship and knowing the reasons for continuing the relationship even though they experience violence and abuse from their IP...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Asami Matsumoto, Yuka Yamagishi, Kentaro Miyamoto, Kentaro Oka, Motomichi Takahashi, Hiroshige Mikamo
The composition of vaginal microbiota changes throughout life in response to health status, sexual activity, and pregnancy. Here the constitution of the vaginal microbiota among non-pregnant women, pregnant woman, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Japan were compared. Vaginal samples were obtained from 54 women between January 2014 and February 2015 and the microbiota of each was analyzed by 16S metagenomics as well as cluster and diversity analyses to identify differences. In addition, vaginal Lactobacillus spp...
October 3, 2018: Anaerobe
Lars Nielsen, Arthur Sweetman
Understanding physician remuneration and its growth is extremely complex, much more so than for a typical worker. Highlighting one narrow aspect of this issue, this paper focuses on governments' increased incentives for physicians to incorporate and the ensuing physician response in the period 1996-2011. Nationally, incorporation rates increased for both general practitioners and specialists between 1996 and 2011. We observe that the largest changes in provincial regulation were in Ontario, and incorporation increased from 18% in 2001 to 54% five years later...
April 2018: HealthcarePapers
Nazmiye Koyuncu, Özgür Karcioglu
The objective of this study is to investigate musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) in healthcare workers (HCWs) in 3 community hospital-based departments [internal medicine (IM), general surgery (GS), and emergency department (ED)] and its effects on the quality of work life (QWL) of hospital HCW.This prospective cross-sectional study was performed in the 700-bed community training hospital. All HCW staffed in 3 departments (IM, GS, ED) of the hospital were asked to respond to items in the study data sheet. Enrolled personnel were inquired about their demographic data, work history and schedule, and medical history...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tamara V Azizova, Maria V Bannikova, Evgeniya S Grigoryeva, Valentina L Rybkina
Recently an increasing trend in skin cancer rates has been observed in various populations including those exposed to different radiation types. Risk and dose-response following prolonged radiation exposure remain unclear. The present study was aimed to assess skin melanoma (SM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) incidence risks in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation at low dose rates over prolonged periods. The study cohort included workers of a Russian nuclear production facility, Mayak Production Association (PA), who were first employed in 1948-1982 and followed up till the end of 2013 (the total of 22,377 individuals with 25% of females)...
2018: PloS One
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