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sex workers

Aliakbar Haghdoost, Milad Ahmadi Gohari, Ali Mirzazadeh, Farzaneh Zolala, Mohammad Reza Baneshi
Purpose: Network Scale Up (NSU) is an indirect size estimation method, where participants are questioned on sensitive behaviors of their social network members. Therefore the visibility of the behavior affects the replies and estimates. Many attempts to estimate the visibility are made. The aims of this manuscript are to review main methods to address the visibility, and to provide a summary of reported Visibility Factor (VF) across populations. Methods: We systematically searched relevant data bases and Google...
August 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Jessie K Edwards, Sarah Hileman, Yeycy Donastorg, Sabrina Zadrozny, Stefan Baral, James R Hargreaves, Elizabeth Fearon, Jinkou Zhao, Abhirup Datta, Sharon S Weir
BACKGROUND: National estimates of the sizes of key populations, including female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and transgender women are critical to inform national and international responses to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. However, epidemiologic studies typically provide size estimates for only limited high priority geographic areas. This paper illustrates a two-stage approach to obtain a national key population size estimate in the Dominican Republic using available estimates and publicly available contextual information...
August 16, 2018: Epidemiology
Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Homeira Sajjadi, Yahya Salimi, Carl Latkin, Tom A B Snijders
BACKGROUND: Social network characteristics have an important role in understanding HIV transmission among female sex workers. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize and critically appraise the existing studies on the social network characteristics and HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers. METHOD: A systematic review was performed using predefined eligibility criteria through searching electronic databases. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of studies...
August 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Torie Grant, Jennifer Dantzer, Corinne Keet, Roger Peng, Beverly J Paigen, Mary Krevans, Karol Hagberg, Jean Curtin-Brosnan, Wayne Shreffler, Elizabeth C Matsui
BACKGROUND: The disrupted skin barrier in eczema has been associated with an increased risk of immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization in childhood. However, it is unclear whether eczema, independent of atopy, is a risk factor for the development of allergic sensitization in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To determine if skin barrier dysfunction, independent of atopy, is a risk factor for incident sensitization in adult workers at a mouse production and research facility. METHODS: New employees at The Jackson Laboratory enrolled in a cohort study and underwent skin-prick testing (SPT) at baseline and every 6 months to mouse and to a panel of aeroallergens (net wheal ≥3 mm indicated a positive SPT result)...
July 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Yuan Fang, Yuzhou Zhang, Zixin Wang, Mary Ip, Jinghua Li, Joseph T F Lau
Male client of female sex workers (MCFSW) is a sizable population transmitting HIV from high-risk population to female general population in China. This study was to investigate the prevalence of taking up any forms of HIV testing in lifetime and in the past year among MCFSW in Hong Kong. Factors associated with uptake of any forms HIV testing in the past year were also investigated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Participants were Hong Kong Chinese males aged ≥18 years, and self-reported had patronized at least one female sex workers (FSW) in the last six months...
August 15, 2018: AIDS Care
Elizabeth A Kelvin, Gavin George, Eva Mwai, Samuel Kinyanjui, Matthew L Romo, Jacob O Odhiambo, Faith Oruko, Eston Nyaga, Kaymarlin Govender, Joanne E Mantell
We assessed whether informing female sex workers about the availability of HIV self-testing at clinics in Kenya using text messages would increase HIV testing rates. We selected a sample of 2196 female sex workers registered in an electronic health record system who were irregular HIV testers and randomized them to be sent a text message announcing the availability of (1) HIV self-test kits sent three times (intervention), (2) general HIV testing sent three times (enhanced standard of care [SOC]), or (3) general HIV testing sent one time (traditional SOC)...
August 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Ali ElBakri, Lazarus Mogane, Sinda Ezzedine, Natasha Potgieter, Pascal Bessong, Raed AbuOdeh, Amidou Samie
Background: Epidemiological data on Cryptosporidium infections in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is scarce. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species among a community of expatriates in Sharjah, UAE working in different sectors, including the food industry, house maids and other domestic occupations. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty four stool samples were collected from asymptomatic individuals presenting to the Sharjah Municipality Public Health Clinic (SMPHC) for screening of intestinal parasites for work permission purposes between 2009 and 2011...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Heather A Pines, Shirley J Semple, Steffanie A Strathdee, Craig W Hendrix, Alicia Harvey-Vera, Pamina M Gorbach, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Gustavo Martinez, Thomas L Patterson
BACKGROUND: To assess the potential acceptability and inform the development of behaviorally-congruent vaginal douche- or gel-based HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) products, we examined vaginal washing and lubrication practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two northern Mexico cities bordering the United States (US). METHODS: Two hundred and ninety-five HIV-negative FSWs (145 Tijuana; 150 Ciudad Juarez) enrolled in a behavioral HIV prevention intervention trial completed surveys assessing vaginal washing and lubrication practices, as well as motivators and barriers to performing each practice...
August 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
J Daniel Kelly, Nicole A Hoff, D'Andre Spencer, Kamy Musene, Matthew S Bramble, David McIlwain, Daniel Okitundu, Travis C Porco, George W Rutherford, M Maria Glymour, Zach Bjornson, Patrick Mukadi, Emile Okitolonda-Wemakoy, Garry P Nolan, Jean Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Anne W Rimoin
Background: Clinical sequelae of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have not been described more than three years post-outbreak. We examined survivors and close contacts from the 1995 Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and determined prevalence of abnormal neurological, cognitive, and psychological findings and their association with EVD survivorship. Methods: From August to September 2017, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Kikwit, DRC. Over two decades after the EVD outbreak, we recruited EVD survivors and close contacts from the outbreak to undergo physical examination and culturally adapted versions of the Folstein mini-mental status exam (MMSE) and Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS)...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
S G Badman, B Willie, R Narokobi, J Gabuzzi, S Pekon, A Amos-Kuma, A J Hakim, D Weikum, J Gare, S Silim, R J Guy, B Donovan, P Cunningham, J M Kaldor, A J Vallely, D Whiley, A Kelly-Hanku
OBJECTIVES: Papua New Guinea (PNG) has among the highest prevalences of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) globally with no services able to accurately test for anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections. Here we prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of a molecular CT/NG assay used at the point-of-care (POC) with the aim of enhancing anorectal STI screening and same day treatment. METHODS: Men who have sex with men (MSM), Transgender women (TGW) and female sex workers (FSW) taking part in PNG's first large-scale biobehavioural study were enrolled and asked to provide a self-collected anorectal swab for POC GeneXpert CT/NG testing...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Héctor Fabio Mueses-Marín, Inés Constanza Tello-Bolívar, María Isabel Galindo-Orrego, Jaime Galindo-Quintero
Introduction: In Colombia, 20%-54% of the population with sexual practices at higher risk for HIV infection (men who have sex with men, transgender women, women sex workers) has sometime been tested. Objective: To describe perceptions of sexual risk, HIV and HIV testing in people with risky sexual practices and people who identify themselves as heterosexual. Methods: Between 2012 and 2014, it was carried a descriptive study using HIV screening out in Cali-Colombia with the voluntary participation of 940 people aged over 18 years...
June 30, 2018: Colombia Médica: CM
Zahra Hasan, Sharaf Shah, Rumina Hasan, Shoaib Rao, Manzoor Ahmed, Mars Stone, Michael Busch
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevalence in Pakistan has been increasing in high-risk groups, including people who inject drugs (PWID) and transgender hijra sex workers (TG-HSWs) nationwide. Effective control of HIV requires early diagnosis of the infection. We investigated recency of HIV infections in newly-diagnosed cases in PWID and TG-HSWs. This was an observational study with convenience sampling. Overall, 210 HIV-positive subjects comprising an equal number of PWID and TG-HSWs were included...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Elvis Enowbeyang Tarkang, Lilian Belole Pencille
Introduction: A significant proportion of road construction workers are migrants and prone to HIV infection. This study investigated the psychosocial predictors of consistent condom use among migrant road construction workers in the South-west region of Cameroon using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as the theoretical framework. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a stratified sample of 254 road construction workers was conducted at construction sites along the Kumba-Mamfe road in the South-west region of Cameroon in December 2015...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Laura Kervezee, Ari Shechter, Diane B Boivin
Women who do shift work are a sizable part of the workforce. Shift workers experience circadian misalignment due to shifted sleep periods, with potentially far-reaching health consequences, including elevated risk of sleep disturbances, metabolic disorders, and cancer. This review provides an overview of the circadian timing system and presents the sex differences that can be observed in the functioning of this system, which may account for the lower tolerance to shift work for women compared with men. Recent epidemiologic findings on female-specific health consequences of shift work are discussed...
September 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
Christopher Imokhuede Esezobor, Patricia Akintan, Uche Nwaogazie, Edna Akinwunmi, Edamisan Temiye, Adebola Akinsulie, Rasheed Gbadegesin
BACKGROUND: No large studies have examined the prevalence of enuresis, its various forms and risk factors in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in Sub-Saharan Africa using standardised definitions. We determined age and gender-specific prevalence of enuresis and compared the nature of enuresis in children with and without SCA. We also identified predictors of enuresis in children with SCA. METHODS: Caregivers of children with SCA attending a tertiary centre haematology clinic in Nigeria were interviewed using a questionnaire...
2018: PloS One
Thomas A Massaquoi, Rachael M Burke, Guang Yang, Suliaman Lakoh, Stephen Sevalie, Bo Li, Hongjun Jia, Lei Huang, Gibrilla F Deen, Fenella Beynon, Foday Sahr
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem across sub-Saharan Africa. Sierra Leone has no national hepatitis B strategy plan or high quality estimates of prevalence. Healthcare workers are perceived as an at-risk group for hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B among healthcare workers at two hospital sites in Freetown, Sierra Leone. METHODS: In October 2017, healthcare workers were offered voluntary testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) using rapid lateral flow assay for all samples, followed by Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay to confirm positive results...
2018: PloS One
Michael A Grasso, Albert E Manyuchi, Maria Sibanyoni, Alex Marr, Tom Osmand, Zachary Isdahl, Helen Struthers, James A McIntyre, Francois Venter, Helen V Rees, Tim Lane
BACKGROUND: Robust population size estimates of female sex workers and other key populations in South Africa face multiple methodological limitations, including inconsistencies in surveillance and programmatic indicators. This has, consequently, challenged the appropriate allocation of resources and benchmark-setting necessary to an effective HIV response. A 2013-2014 integrated biological and behavioral surveillance (IBBS) survey from South Africa showed alarmingly high HIV prevalence among female sex workers in South Africa's three largest cities of Johannesburg (71...
August 7, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Björg Helgadóttir, Pia Svedberg, Lisa Mather, Petra Lindfors, Gunnar Bergström, Victoria Blom
Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored. Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013...
August 2, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Ruth Pinedo González, Andrés Palacios Picos, Myriam de la Iglesia Gutiérrez
Sex workers are particularly vulnerable to violence, isolation, and stigmatization. This study uses the theory of loneliness to explore the relations among violence, self-esteem, loneliness, health, and drug use. Specifically, this study tested a model in which loneliness mediates the relationship between situational (violence) and characterological (self-esteem) loneliness factors and physical and psychological health and drug abuse. The study sample consisted of 146 sex workers from one region of Spain, recruited through the purposive sampling method...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Anatole S Menon-Johansson
The ongoing rise of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) poses a global public health challenge and the risk of acquiring one of these infections depends upon sexual practices, the number of sexual encounters and the location of that individual within the sexual network. Commercial sex workers (CSWs) have potentially a pivotal role in the transmission of STIs; however, a new study presented in this journal describes markers of risk but no increase in infections amongst men who pay for sex (MPS). This commentary highlights some of the growing evidence regarding STI prevention and the value of using these tools to protect CSWs, their clients and by extension the sexual partners of MPS...
August 6, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
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