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hidden population

Alexander R Green, Claudia Rosu, Tiffany Kenison, Chijioke Nze
Background: Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) are a growing population in the United States at risk for disparities in quality and safety of care. Medical student competency to care for patients with LEP is impacted by a hidden curriculum (HC) that undermines the learning experience; yet to date, there is no way to measure it. Thus, we designed an instrument to assess this HC. Methods: Based on findings from previous qualitative work and input from medical students and experts in LEP and psychometrics, we developed a 23-item survey with four domains...
January 2018: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
Christine A Hackett, Linda Milne, Kay Smith, Pete Hedley, Jenny Morris, Craig G Simpson, Katharine Preedy, Julie Graham
BACKGROUND: The changing climate is altering timing of key fruit ripening processes and increasing the occurrence of fruit defects. To improve our understanding of the genetic control of raspberry fruit development an enhanced genetic linkage map was developed and used to examine ripening phenotypic data. RESULTS: In this study we developed an enhanced genetic linkage map for the raspberry cvs. Glen Moy x Latham reference mapping population using genotyping by sequencing (GbS)...
August 15, 2018: BMC Genetics
Mark A Ditmer, Ron A Moen, Steve K Windels, James D Forester, Thomas E Ness, Tara R Harris
Populations inhabiting the bioclimatic edges of a species' geographic range face an increasing amount of stress from alterations to their environment associated with climate change. Moose Alces alces are large-bodied ungulates that are sensitive to heat stress and have exhibited population declines and range contractions along their southern geographic extent. Using a hidden Markov model to analyze movement and accelerometer data, we assigned behaviors (rest, forage, or travel) to all locations of global positioning system-collared moose ( n =  13, moose-years = 19) living near the southern edge of the species' range in and around Voyageurs National Park, MN, USA...
August 2018: Current Zoology
Lucia Brambilla, Giovanni Genovese, Athanasia Tourlaki, Silvia Della Bella
The relationship between Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and psoriasis is still controversial. To analyse the association between KS and psoriasis, address the hypothesis of a reciprocal influence between the two conditions relative to clinical presentation and evolution, and consider the best therapeutic approach to be used for the treatment of psoriasis in KS patients in order to avoid the typical induction or worsening of KS during immunosuppression. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records of 37 patients with KS and psoriasis...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Jennifer McIntyre, Kim Hamer, Alison A Morrison, David J Bartley, Neil Sargison, Eileen Devaney, Roz Laing
Ovine parasitic gastroenteritis is a complex disease routinely treated using anthelmintics. Although many different strongyle species may contribute to parasitic gastroenteritis, not all are equally pathogenic: in temperate regions, the primary pathogen is Teladorsagia circumcincta. In this study we investigated benzimidazole and ivermectin resistance on a commercial sheep farm in southeast Scotland. We assessed the impact of species diversity on the diagnosis of resistance using the faecal egg count reduction test and in vitro bioassays, and correlated the results with the frequency of benzimidazole resistance-associated genotypes measured in the T...
July 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Mtakai Ngara, Mia Palmkvist, Sven Sagasser, Daisy Hjelmqvist, Åsa K Björklund, Mats Wahlgren, Johan Ankarklev, Rickard Sandberg
The malaria parasite has a complex lifecycle, including several events of differentiation and stage progression, while actively evading immunity in both its mosquito and human hosts. Important parasite gene expression and regulation during these events remain hidden in rare populations of cells. Here, we combine a capillary-based platform for cell isolation with single-cell RNA-sequencing to transcriptionally profile 165 single infected red blood cells (iRBCs) during the intra-erythrocyte developmental cycle (IDC)...
August 7, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Riccardo Orlandi, Nicole Cianci, Pietro Invernizzi, Giancarlo Cesana, Michele Augusto Riva
Hepatocentrism was a medical doctrine that considered the liver the center of the whole human being. It originated in ancient populations (Mesopotamic civilization) and persisted in Western countries until the seventeenth century. Hidden references to hepatocentrism may be found in artistic representations and literary works, from the myth of Prometheus in the Greco-Roman world to the crucifixion iconography throughout the Middle Ages. In the mid-1600s, fundamental discoveries irrefutably demonstrated the central role of the heart in human physiology, which laid the foundations for creating cardiocentrism, shifting the life's center from the liver to the heart...
August 2018: Hepatology Communications
Aisha A AlJanahi, Mark Danielsen, Cynthia E Dunbar
The recent development of single-cell RNA sequencing has deepened our understanding of the cell as a functional unit, providing new insights based on gene expression profiles of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of individual cells, and revealing new populations of cells with distinct gene expression profiles previously hidden within analyses of gene expression performed on bulk cell populations. However, appropriate analysis and utilization of the massive amounts of data generated from single-cell RNA sequencing experiments are challenging and require an understanding of the experimental and computational pathways taken between preparation of input cells and output of interpretable data...
September 21, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Mauro Carrara, Eleonora Massari, Alessandro Cicchetti, Tommaso Giandini, Barbara Avuzzi, Federica Palorini, Claudio Stucchi, Giovanni Fellin, Pietro Gabriele, Vittorio Vavassori, Claudio Degli Esposti, Cesare Cozzarini, Emanuele Pignoli, Claudio Fiorino, Tiziana Rancati, Riccardo Valdagni
OBJECTIVES: To apply artificial neural network (ANN) classification methods for the prediction of late fecal incontinence (LFI) following high-dose prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT) and to develop a "ready to use" graphical-tool. MATERIAL & METHODS: 598 men recruited in two national multicentre trials were analyzed. Information was recorded on comorbidity, previous abdominal surgery, use of drugs and dose distribution. Fecal incontinence was prospectively evaluated through self-reported questionnaires...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Álvaro Gómez-Losada, José Carlos M Pires, Rafael Pino-Mejías
Background pollution represents the lowest levels of ambient air pollution to which the population is chronically exposed, but few studies have focused on thoroughly characterizing this regime. This study uses clustering statistical techniques as a modelling approach to characterize this pollution regime while deriving reliable information to be used as estimates of exposure in epidemiological studies. The background levels of four key pollutants in five urban areas of Andalusia (Spain) were characterized over an 11-year period (2005-2015) using four widely-known clustering methods...
August 2018: Environmental Modelling & Software: with Environment Data News
Matthew E Hirschtritt, Emily F Dauria, Brandon D L Marshall, Marina Tolou-Shams
PURPOSE: We sought to compare the demographic characteristics, drug and alcohol use, sexual behaviors, delinquency, and mental health indicators of sexual minority and nonsexual minority first-time offending, court-involved, nonincarcerated adolescents. METHODS: Using adolescent- and caregiver-reported baseline data from the Epidemiologic Study Involving Children in the Court, a prospective cohort study of 423 adolescent-caregiver dyads recruited from a Northeastern family court system, we compared demographic and behavioral health characteristics of sexual minority and nonsexual minority first-time offending, court-involved, nonincarcerated adolescents...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Christopher A Griffiths, Toby A Patterson, Julia L Blanchard, David A Righton, Serena R Wright, Jon W Pitchford, Paul G Blackwell
Understanding how, where, and when animals move is a central problem in marine ecology and conservation. Key to improving our knowledge about what drives animal movement is the rising deployment of telemetry devices on a range of free-roaming species. An increasingly popular way of gaining meaningful inference from an animal's recorded movements is the application of hidden Markov models (HMMs), which allow for the identification of latent behavioral states in the movement paths of individuals. However, the use of HMMs to explore the population-level consequences of movement is often limited by model complexity and insufficient sample sizes...
July 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ru-Jia Yu, Yi-Lun Ying, Rui Gao, Yi-Tao Long
Nanopipette provides a promising confined space, which exhibits advances in electrochemical, optical and mass spectrometric measurements at the nanoscale. It has been employed to reveal the hidden population properties and dynamics of single molecules and single particles. Moreover, new detection mechanisms developed on nanopipette lead to the discovery of detailed single cell information at high spatial and high temporal resolution. Herein, we focus on the fabrication and characterization of nanopipettes, summarize their wide applications for single entity analysis, and conclude with an outlook for advanced practical sensing...
July 31, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Sean T Allen, Katherine H A Footer, Noya Galai, Ju Nyeong Park, Bradley Silberzahn, Susan G Sherman
Globally, HIV prevention interventions have proven efficacious among street-based female sex workers (FSWs); yet, there is a dearth of US-based HIV prevention research among this group. The lack of research among FSWs in the USA is partially driven by challenges in recruiting members of this population. The purpose of this research is to describe how targeted sampling was employed to recruit a cohort of street-based FSWs for a study that examined the role of police in shaping the HIV risk environments of street-based FSWs in Baltimore, MD...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Mazen Amatoury, Ann M Maguire, Jake Olivier, Belinda Barton, Melissa Gabriel, Luciano Dalla-Pozza, Katharine S Steinbeck, Robert A Battisti
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of anxiety may arise from fear of cancer recurrence and memories of traumatic experiences during treatment. This study aimed to identify changes in mental health and cortisol, a biological marker of stress, associated with oncology surveillance clinic attendance. METHODS: Adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer (aged 12-30 years, N = 46) attending a survivorship clinic were recruited. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, an anxiety self-rating and open answer question, and salivary cortisol collections were completed two weeks before and one day before clinic, on clinic day and two weeks after...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sung Hoon Kim, Ju Suk Lee
PURPOSE: The establishment of a definitive association between smoking and hypertension has been controversial in previous studies, many of which were based on self-reported smoking status and urine cotinine-verified smoking status. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between hypertension and smoking considering the effects of all kinds of smoker types, including hidden smokers, using new variables and a population-based sample. METHODS: Data were acquired from 25,150 men and women aged older than 29 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)...
July 30, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Jeffrey P Spence, Matthias Steinrücken, Jonathan Terhorst, Yun S Song
Studying how diverse human populations are related is of historical and anthropological interest, in addition to providing a realistic null model for testing for signatures of natural selection or disease associations. Furthermore, understanding the demographic histories of other species is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetics. A number of statistical methods have been developed to infer population demographic histories using whole-genome sequence data, with recent advances focusing on allowing for more flexible modeling choices, scaling to larger data sets, and increasing statistical power...
July 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Nora von Thenen, Erman Ayday, A Ercument Cicek
Motivation: Genomic data-sharing beacons aim to provide a secure, easy to implement, and standardized interface for data sharing by only allowing yes/no queries on the presence of specific alleles in the dataset. Previously deemed secure against re-identification attacks, beacons were shown to be vulnerable despite their stringent policy. Recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to determine whether the victim is in the dataset, by repeatedly querying the beacon for his/her SNPs...
July 20, 2018: Bioinformatics
Massimo Pagani, Roberto Sala, Mara Malacarne, Daniela Lucini
Since the seminal studies by Sayers (Ergonomics 16:17-32, 1973) and Akselrod et al. (Science 213:220-222, 1981) a few decades ago, it became clear that beat-by-beat oscillations in RR interval length (i.e. heart-rate variability [HRV]) contain information on underlying neural-control mechanisms based on the instantaneous balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. Over the years, the number of studies addressing HRV has increased markedly and now outnumbers 23,000. Despite such a large interest, there is still a continuing debate about interpretation of indices produced by computer analysis of HRV...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Raazesh Sainudiin, Amandine Véber
We develop a novel importance sampler to compute the full likelihood function of a demographic or structural scenario given the site frequency spectrum (SFS) at a locus free of intra-locus recombination. This sampler, instead of representing the hidden genealogy of a sample of individuals by a labelled binary tree, uses the minimal level of information about such a tree that is needed for the likelihood of the SFS and thus takes advantage of the huge reduction in the size of the state space that needs to be integrated...
July 23, 2018: Theoretical Population Biology
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