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hidden population

T P Jenkins, P J Brindley, R B Gasser, C Cantacessi
There is increasing attention on the complex interactions occurring between gastrointestinal parasitic helminths and the microbial flora (microbiota) inhabiting the host gut. However, little is known about the occurrence, structure, and function of microbial populations residing within parasite organs and tissues. In this article, we argue that an in-depth understanding of the interplay between parasites and their microbiomes may significantly enhance current knowledge of parasite biology and physiology, and may lead to the discovery of entirely novel, anthelmintic-independent interventions against parasites and parasitic diseases...
November 28, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Stephen Mahony, Rachunliu G Kamei, Emma C Teeling, S D Biju
The Megophrys major species group (MMSG) is composed of typically medium to large sized frogs. Within the genus, it is the most geographically widespread clade ranging from the western Himalayas to southern Indochina. In this study, we examined in detail the extent of cryptic diversity within the MMSG-Indian populations based on molecular data (up to ten genes) using multigene concatenation and coalescent-based phylogenetic techniques, species delimitation analyses and extensive morphological data.Molecular evidence suggests a high level of hidden cryptic diversity within the MMSG, particularly within the M...
November 18, 2018: Zootaxa
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
To infer the causes of its sensations, the brain must call on a generative (predictive) model. This necessitates passing local messages between populations of neurons to update beliefs about hidden variables in the world beyond its sensory samples. It also entails inferences about how we will act. Active inference is a principled framework that frames perception and action as approximate Bayesian inference. This has been successful in accounting for a wide range of physiological and behavioral phenomena. Recently, a process theory has emerged that attempts to relate inferences to their neurobiological substrates...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Colleen Pappas, Brent J Small, Ross Andel, Jan Laczó, Martina Parizkova, Lerch Ondrej, Jakub Hort
BACKGROUND: Identifying protective factors that promote healthy cognitive aging is of importance due to the growing older adult population. Preventing chronic hyperglycemia may be one such way to preserve cognitive abilities, as high blood glucose levels have been associated with cognitive impairment and decline. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of blood glucose levels on cognition among older adults using common neuropsychological tests and a spatial navigation task...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Shilpa Tyagi, Gerald Choon-Huat Koh, Luo Nan, Kelvin Bryan Tan, Helen Hoenig, David B Matchar, Joanne Yoong, Eric A Finkelstein, Kim En Lee, N Venketasubramanian, Edward Menon, Kin Ming Chan, Deidre Anne De Silva, Philip Yap, Boon Yeow Tan, Effie Chew, Sherry H Young, Yee Sien Ng, Tian Ming Tu, Yan Hoon Ang, Keng Hee Kong, Rajinder Singh, Reshma A Merchant, Hui Meng Chang, Tseng Tsai Yeo, Chou Ning, Angela Cheong, Yu Li Ng, Chuen Seng Tan
BACKGROUND: It is essential to study post-stroke healthcare utilization trajectories from a stroke patient caregiver dyadic perspective to improve healthcare delivery, practices and eventually improve long-term outcomes for stroke patients. However, literature addressing this area is currently limited. Addressing this gap, our study described the trajectory of healthcare service utilization by stroke patients and associated costs over 1-year post-stroke and examined the association with caregiver identity and clinical stroke factors...
November 22, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Mohamed A Daw, Lutfi A Buktir Ali, Amina M Daw, Nadia E M Sifennasr, Aghnyia A Dau, Mohamed M Agnan, Abdallah El-Bouzedi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C Virus infection has been considered an important hidden pandemic in developing countries, particularly in Africa. It varies greatly from one region to another and even within districts of the same region. Macroscopic geospatial analysis has become an important scientific tool for identifying the density and clustering of HCV infection and provides epidemiological information for planning interventions and control strategies. The application of these parameters provides a better knowledge of the hepatitis C virus infection prevalence at the national level and can help to implement pertinent strategies to address the HCV-related burdens...
November 22, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
María Muñoz, Riccardo Bozzi, Fabián García, Yolanda Núñez, Claudia Geraci, Alessandro Crovetti, Juan García-Casco, Estefania Alves, Martin Škrlep, Rui Charneca, Jose M Martins, Raquel Quintanilla, Joan Tibau, Goran Kušec, Ivona Djurkin-Kušec, Marie J Mercat, Juliette Riquet, Jordi Estellé, Christoph Zimmer, Violeta Razmaite, Jose P Araujo, Čedomir Radović, Radomir Savić, Danijel Karolyi, Maurizio Gallo, Marjeta Čandek-Potokar, Luca Fontanesi, Ana I Fernández, Cristina Óvilo
The aim of this work was to analyse the distribution of causal and candidate mutations associated to relevant productive traits in twenty local European pig breeds. Also, the potential of the SNP panel employed for elucidating the genetic structure and relationships among breeds was evaluated. Most relevant genes and mutations associated with pig morphological, productive, meat quality, reproductive and disease resistance traits were prioritized and analyzed in a maximum of 47 blood samples from each of the breeds (Alentejana, Apulo-Calabrese, Basque, Bísara, Majorcan Black, Black Slavonian (Crna slavonska), Casertana, Cinta Senese, Gascon, Iberian, Krškopolje (Krškopoljski), Lithuanian indigenous wattle, Lithuanian White Old Type, Mora Romagnola, Moravka, Nero Siciliano, Sarda, Schwäbisch-Hällisches Schwein (Swabian Hall pig), Swallow-Bellied Mangalitsa and Turopolje)...
2018: PloS One
Gonzalo Agüero, Viviana Medina, Gabriel Obradovich, Enrique Berner
INTRODUCTION: Self-injurious behaviors, such as cutting, are quickly spread and transmitted among adolescents, although it is not clear how. Our objective was to describe and analyze the social interactions occurring in relation to these behaviors. POPULATION AND METHODS: Descriptive, qualitative, and cross-sectional design. Population: adolescents with self-injuries detected at the Department of Adolescence between June 2015 and May 2016. Sampling was purposive and randomized until reaching information redundancy...
December 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Li Liu, Richard J Caselli
Introduction: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele is a major genetic risk factor of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, its interaction with two other canonical risk factors, age and sex, is not clear. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on its differential effects in men and women, its association with young-onset AD before the age of 65 years, and its significance in genetic admixture populations. In these studies, the hazard of the e4 allele was assumed to be constant during aging...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Antonio Carapelli, Abir Soltani, Chiara Leo, Matteo Vitale, Moez Amri, Jouda Mediouni-Ben Jemâa
Leafminer insects of the genus Liriomyza are small flies whose larvae feed on the internal tissue of some of the most important crop plants for the human diet. Several of these pest species are highly uniform from the morphological point of view, meaning molecular data represents the only reliable taxonomic tool useful to define cryptic boundaries. In this study, both mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers have been applied to investigate the population genetics of some Tunisian populations of the polyphagous species Liriomyza cicerina , one of the most important pest of chickpea cultivars in the whole Mediterranean region...
November 15, 2018: Genes
Negar Piri, Parisa Taheri, Soheila Khodakarim, Koorosh Etemad
Objectives: Elderly people often are abused in many ways with serious and pasting consequences. Elder abuse remains one of the most hidden forms of family conflict and it is anticipated that it is rising in many countries which are rapidly experiencing population aging. The purpose of study is to investigate the status of domestic elder abuse in elderly women and their related factors in Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 on 260 women aged 60 and older, selected through multistage random sampling...
November 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Philippa Borrill, Sophie A Harrington, Cristobal Uauy
Improving traits in wheat has historically been challenging due to its large and polyploid genome, limited genetic diversity, and in-field phenotyping constraints. However, within recent years many of these barriers have been lowered. The availability of a chromosome-level assembly of the wheat genome now facilitates a step-change in wheat genetics and provides a common platform for resources including variation data, gene expression data, and genetic markers. The development of sequenced mutant populations and gene-editing techniques now enable the rapid assessment of gene function in wheat directly...
November 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Michael J Koss, Laura Blecha, Phillip Bernhard, Chao-Ling Hung, Jessica R Lu, Benny Trakthenbrot, Ezequiel Treister, Anna Weigel, Lia F Sartori, Richard Mushotzky, Kevin Schawinski, Claudio Ricci, Sylvain Veilleux, David B Sanders
Major galaxy mergers are thought to play an important part in fuelling the growth of supermassive black holes1 . However, observational support for this hypothesis is mixed, with some studies showing a correlation between merging galaxies and luminous quasars2,3 and others showing no such association4,5 . Recent observations have shown that a black hole is likely to become heavily obscured behind merger-driven gas and dust, even in the early stages of the merger, when the galaxies are well separated6-8 (5 to 40 kiloparsecs)...
November 2018: Nature
Luis Amador, Andrés Parada, Guillermo D'Elía, Juan M Guayasamin
The glassfrog Centrolene buckleyi has been recognized as a species complex. Herein, using coalescence-based species delimitation methods, we evaluate the specific diversity within this taxon. Four coalescence approaches (generalized mixed Yule coalescents, Bayesian general mixed Yule-coalescent, Poisson tree processes, and Bayesian Poisson tree processes) were consistent with the delimitation results, identifying four lineages within what is currently recognized as C. buckleyi . We propose three new candidate species that should be tested with nuclear markers, morphological, and behavioral data...
2018: PeerJ
Jazlyn A Mooney, Christian D Huber, Susan Service, Jae Hoon Sul, Clare D Marsden, Zhongyang Zhang, Chiara Sabatti, Andrés Ruiz-Linares, Gabriel Bedoya, Nelson Freimer, Kirk E Lohmueller
Most population isolates examined to date were founded from a single ancestral population. Consequently, there is limited knowledge about the demographic history of admixed population isolates. Here we investigate genomic diversity of recently admixed population isolates from Costa Rica and Colombia and compare their diversity to a benchmark population isolate, the Finnish. These Latin American isolates originated during the 16th century from admixture between a few hundred European males and Amerindian females, with a limited contribution from African founders...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Jemma L Geoghegan, Francesca Di Giallonardo, Kate Cousins, Mang Shi, Jane E Williamson, Edward C Holmes
Aquaculture is the fastest growing industry worldwide. Aquatic diseases have had enormous economic and environmental impacts in the recent past and the emergence of new aquatic pathogens, particularly viruses, poses a continuous threat. Nevertheless, little is known about the diversity, abundance and evolution of fish viruses. We used a meta-transcriptomic approach to help determine the virome of seemingly healthy fish sold at a market in Sydney, Australia. Specifically, by identifying and quantifying virus transcripts we aimed to determine (i) the abundance of viruses in market fish, (ii) test a key component of epidemiological theory that large and dense host populations harbour a greater number of viruses compared to their more solitary counterparts and (iii) reveal the relative roles of virus-host co-divergence and cross-species transmission in the evolution of fish viruses...
July 2018: Virus Evolution
Radhakrishna Sahu, Satyajit B Kale, Jess Vergis, Pankaj Dhaka, Manesh Kumar, Mamta Choudhary, Lata Jain, Binod Kumar Choudhary, Deepak B Rawool, Sandeep P Chaudhari, Nitin V Kurkure, S V S Malik, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe
Coxiella burnetii is one of the most contagious pathogen associated with Q fever in humans, while, ruminants act as important source of infection for humans. In the present cross sectional study, a total of 464 samples were collected from 218 goats comprising of 218 sera, 218 blood and 28 milk from various parts of Chhattisgarh and Odisha region, India. Besides, environmental (33; soil- 4, faecal- 10, feed-6, drainage water- 6, drinking water- 7) and rodent (38) samples were also collected from the premises of the animals...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Ulla Møller Hansen, Bryan Cleal, Ingrid Willaing, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen
For people with type 1 diabetes, extensive tasks involved in diabetes self-management have a significant impact on overall care and quality of life. Members of the working population with type 1 diabetes spend one third of their time at work, yet little attention has been paid to challenges specific to balancing diabetes management and work life. Diabetes is associated with increased absenteeism and presenteeism, as well as disability retirement and lower lifetime income. These quantitative outcomes are corroborated by qualitative studies highlighting some of the challenges of reconciling diabetes self-management with work life...
December 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Tyler S Vanderhoof, Tamara V Gurvits, Julie E Baker-Nolan, David Borsook, Igor Elman
Neurological soft signs (NSSs) are highly prevalent among patients with schizophrenia, but their pathophysiological significance remains unclear. The present study employed perceptual-motor and visuospatial processing tests that have not yet been attempted in this patient population. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder ( n = 42) and mentally healthy subjects ( n = 10) were administered Copy Figure Test, Detection and Recognition of an Object Test and Road Map Test. As compared to controls, schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients displayed significantly poorer ability to copy three-dimensional figures (namely, Necker- and hidden line elimination cubes) and to orient in space on a road-map test; group differences in copying two-dimensional figures and on objects' recognition against a background noise were not apparent...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Andrew S Huhn, Eric C Strain, D Andrew Tompkins, Kelly E Dunn
BACKGROUND: Older adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) are a medically complex population. The current study evaluated trends in older adults seeking treatment for OUD, with a focus on primary heroin versus prescription opioid use. This study also compared older adults with OUD to the younger OUD population on demographics and drug use behaviors. METHODS: Publicly available data from state-certified addiction treatment centers were collected via the Treatment Episode Data Set - Admissions (TEDS-A) between 2004-2015...
December 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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