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Paul K Abram, Jacques Brodeur, Alberto Urbaneja, Alejandro Tena
The main modes of action of insect parasitoids are considered to be killing their hosts with egg laying followed by offspring development (reproductive mortality), and adults feeding on hosts directly (host feeding). However, parasitoids can also negatively affect their hosts in ways that do not contribute to current or future parasitoid reproduction (nonreproductive effects). Outcomes of nonreproductive effects for hosts can include death, altered behavior, altered reproduction, and altered development. On the basis of these outcomes and the variety of associated mechanisms, we categorize nonreproductive effects into (a) nonconsumptive effects, (b) mutilation, (c) pseudoparasitism, (d) immune defense costs, and (e) aborted parasitism...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Philippa J Karoly, Levin Kuhlmann, Daniel Soudry, David B Grayden, Mark J Cook, Dean R Freestone
We present the results of a model inversion algorithm for electrocorticography (ECoG) data recorded during epileptic seizures. The states and parameters of neural mass models were tracked during a total of over 3000 seizures from twelve patients with focal epilepsy. These models provide an estimate of the effective connectivity within intracortical circuits over the time course of seizures. Observing the dynamics of effective connectivity provides insight into mechanisms of seizures. Estimation of patients seizure dynamics revealed: 1) a highly stereotyped pattern of evolution for each patient, 2) distinct sub-groups of onset mechanisms amongst patients, and 3) different offset mechanisms for long and short seizures...
October 11, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Lane F Donnelly, Grace M Lee, Paul J Sharek
With the movement toward at-risk population health management-related payment models, a core factor for the success and survival of health care organizations has become understanding and decreasing costs. In medical specialties such as radiology, understanding models for procedure-based costing will become increasingly important. Using bottom-up models for procedure-based costing, such as time-driven activity-based costing, is more advantageous than using the inaccurate ratio of costs to charges approach; however, these approaches are more resource intensive when compared to top-down approaches...
October 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Ehab I Mohamed, Radwa A Meshref, Samir M Abdel-Mageed, Moustafa H Moustafa, Mohamed I Badawi, Samy H Darwish
One of the best methods for diagnosing bone disease in humans is site-specific and total bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) machines. The basic disadvantage of this technology is inconsistent BMD measurements among different DXA machines from different manufacturers due to different image analysis algorithms. The objective of the present study was to apply artificial neural networks (ANNs) to estimate total BMD for diagnosing a population of Egyptians with and without pathology, using extracted features from DXA-DICOM images based on the Histogram and Binary algorithms as compared to reference BMD measurements by DXA machine...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Elisia D Tichy, Foteini Mourkioti
Little is known about skeletal stem cell populations in vivo. Recently in Cell, Chan et al. (2018) identified a human skeletal stem cell population that can be isolated from multiple human bone locations and is capable of self-renewal and differentiation into bone, cartilage, and stroma, but not fat.
October 4, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Steven Canfield, Michael J Kemeter, Phillip G Febbo, John Hornberger
Randomized, controlled trials can provide high-quality, unbiased evidence for therapeutic interventions but are not always a practical or viable study design for certain healthcare decisions, such as those involving prognostic or predictive testing. Studies using large, real-world databases may be more appropriate and more generalizable to the intended target population of physicians and patients to answer these questions but carry potential for hidden bias. We illustrate several emerging methods of analyzing observational studies using propensity score matching (PSM) and coarsened exact matching (CEM)...
2018: Reviews in Urology
Francisca Nordfalk, Claus Thorn Ekstrøm
Each year millions of newborns are part of a newborn disease-screening program in which, after initial screening, the newborn dried blood spot (NDBS) samples can be stored and used as a population-based research resource. However, very little knowledge exists about how these samples are used for secondary purposes. Our objective is to estimate and describe the usage of a NDBS-based national population biobank for secondary research purposes. We therefore conducted a scoping study with a literature search for all published articles using samples from the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank...
October 4, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Alexander Kay, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Anna Maria Mandalakas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The detrimental synergy of colliding HIV and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics is most devastating among children and adolescents living with HIV (CALWH) who shoulder a disproportionate burden of all child TB mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: CALWH benefit less from Bacille-Calmette Guerin vaccination than HIV-uninfected children and are not receiving TB preventive therapy despite global recommendations. Further, the predictive utility of most diagnostic tools is reduced in CALWH...
November 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Dao Nguyen Vinh, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Nguyen Thi Hanh, Guy Thwaites, Maciej F Boni, Hannah E Clapham, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong
BACKGROUND: The depletion of CD4 cell is the underlying reason for TB hyper-susceptibility among people with HIV. Consequently, the trend of TB dynamics is usually hidden by the HIV outbreak. METHODS: Here, we aim to evaluate the trend of TB dynamics quantitatively by a simple mathematical model using the known prevalence of hyper-susceptible individuals in the population. In order to estimate the parameters governing transmission we fit this model in a maximum likelihood framework to both reported TB cases and data from samples tested with Interferon Gamma Assay from Ho Chi Minh City - a city with high TB transmission and strong synchronization between HIV/AIDS and TB dynamics...
October 1, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jaroslav Klápšte, Mari Suontama, Heidi S Dungey, Emily J Telfer, Natalie J Graham, Charlie B Low, Grahame T Stovold
Open-pollinated (OP) mating is frequently used in forest tree breeding due to the relative temporal and financial efficiency of the approach. The trade-off is the lower precision of the estimated genetic parameters. Pedigree/sib-ship reconstruction has been proven as a tool to correct and complete pedigree information and to improve the precision of genetic parameter estimates. Our study analyzed an advanced generation Eucalyptus population from an OP breeding program using single-step genetic evaluation. The relationship matrix inferred from sib-ship reconstruction was used to rescale the marker-based relationship matrix (G matrix)...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Yongsheng Liang, Zhigang Ren, Xianghua Yao, Zuren Feng, An Chen, Wenhua Guo
As a typical model-based evolutionary algorithm, estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) possesses unique characteristics and has been widely applied in global optimization. However, the commonly used Gaussian EDA (GEDA) usually suffers from premature convergence, which severely limits its search efficiency. This paper first systematically analyzes the reasons for the deficiency of traditional GEDA, then tries to enhance its performance by exploiting the evolution direction, and finally develops a new GEDA variant named EDA²...
September 27, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Peter J Kennedy, Scott M Ford, Juliette Poidatz, Denis Thiéry, Juliet L Osborne
Asian hornets ( Vespa velutina ) are voracious predators of bees, and are the latest emerging threat to managed and wild pollinator populations in Europe. To prevent establishment or reduce the rate of spread of V. velutina , early detection and destruction of nests is considered the only option. Detection is difficult as their nests are well hidden and flying hornets are difficult to follow over long distances. We address this challenge by tracking individual V. velutina workers flying back to their nests using radio telemetry for the first time, finding five previously undiscovered nests, up to 1...
2018: Communications biology
Jolanda Sarno, Kara L Davis
Improved insight into cancer cell populations responsible for treatment failure will lead to better outcomes for patients. We herein highlight a single-cell study of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) at diagnosis that revealed hidden developmentally dependent cell signaling states uniquely associated with relapse.
2018: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Julienne Ng, Stacey D Smith
Traits that have arisen multiple times yet still remain rare present a curious paradox. A number of these rare traits show a distinct tippy pattern, where they appear widely dispersed across a phylogeny, are associated with short branches, and differ between recently diverged sister species. This phylogenetic pattern has classically been attributed to the trait being an evolutionary dead end, where the trait arises due to some short-term evolutionary advantage, but it ultimately leads species to extinction...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Alfonso Deichler, Denisse Carrasco, Cristian Gonzalez-Cabrera, Juan Carlos Letelier, Gonzalo Marín, Jorge Mpodozis
A defining feature of the amniote tecto-fugal visual pathway is a massive bilateral projection to the thalamus originating from a distinct neuronal population, tectal ganglion cells (TGCs), of the optic tectum/superior colliculus (TeO/SC). In sauropsids, the thalamic target of the tecto-fugal pathway is the nucleus rotundus thalami (Rt). TGCs axons collateralize en route to Rt to target the nucleus pretectalis principalis (PT), which in turn gives rise to bilateral projection to the TeO. In rodents, the thalamic target of these TGCs afferents is the caudal division of the pulvinar complex (PulC)...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Douglas Arneson, Guanglin Zhang, Zhe Ying, Yumei Zhuang, Hyae Ran Byun, In Sook Ahn, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla, Xia Yang
The complex neuropathology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is difficult to dissect, given the convoluted cytoarchitecture of affected brain regions such as the hippocampus. Hippocampal dysfunction during TBI results in cognitive decline that may escalate to other neurological disorders, the molecular basis of which is hidden in the genomic programs of individual cells. Using the unbiased single cell sequencing method Drop-seq, we report that concussive TBI affects previously undefined cell populations, in addition to classical hippocampal cell types...
September 25, 2018: Nature Communications
Niko Lietzén, Janne Pitkäniemi, Sirpa Heinävaara, Pauliina Ilmonen
Finding new etiological components is of great interest in disease epidemiology. We consider time series version of invariant coordinate selection (tICS) as an exploratory tool in the search of hidden structures in the analysis of population-based registry data. Increasing cancer burden inspired us to consider a case study of age-stratified cervical cancer incidence in Finland between the years 1953 and 2014. The latent components, which we uncover using tICS, show that the etiology of cervical cancer is age dependent...
January 2018: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
Niosha Saberi, Maryam Akhgari, Leila Bahmanabadi, Elham Bazmi, Zahra Mousavi
BACKGROUND: Nowadays with the growing popularity of herbal remedies across the world, large sections of population rely on herbal drug practitioners for their primary care. Therefore there is a need to ensure about the safety of herbal drugs and to detect adulteration with undeclared active pharmaceutical ingredients. Herbal drugs are used as first-line drug therapy in some instances. Unfortunately even if there are claims as to be natural, undeclared active pharmaceutical ingredients have been detected in these supplements...
September 21, 2018: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Leif Friberg
AIM: The aim of the study was to assess and compare the safety of antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) in an unselected real-world population of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a study of all patients with diagnosed AF in the Swedish Patient register who filled a prescription for sotalol, amiodarone, dronedarone, flecainide or disopyramide during 2010 to 2015. The main end point consisted of arrhythmic death, successful resuscitation, new diagnosis of sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or implantation of ICD...
August 25, 2018: American Heart Journal
Shantanu K Kar, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Vijayalaxmi V Mogasale, Jyotsnamayee Sabat, Vittal Mogasale, Thomas F Wierzba
Up to 25% of hepatitis E virus (HEV)-infected pregnant women in their third trimester die. Despite HEV being an important cause of viral hepatitis, no robust surveillance exists in India. We reviewed jaundice outbreaks records and hospital records from jaundiced individuals seeking treatment and linked those records to laboratory results (HEV immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for January 2012 to September 2013 in Odisha state. A total of 14 HEV confirmed outbreaks were identified, of which 33% of 139 jaundiced cases were HEV positive...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
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