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Md Ashrafuzzaman, Zahidul Haque, Basharat Ali, Boby Mathew, Peng Yu, Frank Hochholdinger, Joao Braga de Abreu Neto, Max R McGillen, Hans-Jürgen Ensikat, William J Manning, Michael Frei
Monitoring of ozone damage to crops plays an increasingly important role for the food security of many developing countries. Ethylenediurea (EDU) could be a tool to assess ozone damage to vegetation on field scale, but its physiological mode of action remains unclear. This study investigated mechanisms underlying the ozone-protection effect of EDU in controlled chamber experiments. Ozone sensitive and tolerant rice genotypes were exposed to ozone (108 ppb, 7 h day-1 ) and control conditions. EDU alleviated ozone effects on plant morphology, foliar symptoms, lipid peroxidation and photosynthetic parameters in sensitive genotypes...
August 14, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Eva Asselmann, Johannes Hertel, Carsten-Oliver Schmidt, Georg Homuth, Matthias Nauck, Christiane A Pané-Farré, Beesdo-Baum Katja, Hans-Jörgen Grabe
BACKGROUND: It remains unresolved whether childhood adversities interact with genetic variation in regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) rs4606 in predicting various anxiety and depressive disorders and whether diagnostic specificity exists in these interactions. METHODS: The genotype of RGS2 rs4606 was determined for N = 2,263 adults with European ancestry from the Study of Health in Pomerania. Lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, were assessed with the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DIA-X/M-CIDI)...
August 14, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
William Eggleston, Ross W Sullivan, Lauren Pacelli, Christine Podolak, Michael Keenan, Susan Wojcik
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Expanded access to naloxone has been identified as a key intervention for reducing opioid related morbidity and mortality. It is not known which naloxone device will result in rapid, successful administration when administered by community members. The aims of this study were to estimate and compare 1) the rate of successful administration and 2) time to successful administration for single step nasal spray, multi-step atomized nasal spray, and intramuscular simulated naloxone by community members...
August 14, 2018: Addiction
Tuncay Küme, Ferzane Mercan, Hatice Topsakal, Çiğdem Karakükcü, Mehmet Şeneş, Aslı Pınar, Mukaddes Gürler, Hakan Kalafat, Belgin Ünal, Alain G Verstraete, Yeşim Hamurtekin, Ahmet Aydınlı, Yasemin Şenol, Muhammed Ertuğrul Eğin, Alper Cihan, Elif Güler Kazancı, Eyüp Gümüş
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the results of inspections in the last 3 years on drug abuse testing in medical laboratories according to the last regulations in Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The on-site inspections of medical laboratories for drugs abuse testing performed in Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment Centers in 2014-2016 are described, and laboratory processes and performance were evaluated. The performance of 35 laboratories in 2014, 62 laboratories in 2015, 94 laboratories in 2016 were scored as the sum of the scores for all answers in the inspection form...
August 14, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Mariah Hawes, Igor Galynker, Shira Barzilay, Zimri S Yaseen
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia-impairment related to the experience of pleasure-has been identified as a potential risk factor for suicide, with some mixed findings. The current study sought to clarify the role of acuity of anhedonia in the relationship between anhedonia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors by comparing acutely and chronically anhedonic subjects on severity of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA) history. METHODS: Psychiatric outpatients (N = 395) were administered the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation and a modified version of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHPS); SI measures were readministered at a 1-month follow-up (N = 289, 73%)...
August 14, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Sajad Moshkelgosha, Giulia Masetti, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Hedda Luise Verhasselt, Mareike Horstmann, Salvador Diaz-Cano, Alistair Noble, Barbel Edelman, Danila Covelli, Sue Plummer, Julian R Marchesi, Marian Ludgate, Filippo Biscarini, Anja Eckstein, J Paul Banga
Experimental models of hyperthyroid Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) are efficiently developed by genetic immunisation by electroporation with human thyrotropin hormone receptor (hTSHR) A-subunit plasmid in female BALB/c (H-2d) mice. We investigated susceptibility in C57BL/6 J (H-2b) animals to allow studies on disease mechanisms in transgenic and immune response gene knock-out mice. Higher numbers of female C57BL/6 J were positive for pathogenic thyroid stimulating antibodies, but induced hyperthyroidism remained at a low frequency compared to BALB/c animals...
August 14, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Sasidharanpillai Sabeena, Kiran Chandrabharani, Nagaraja Ravishankar, Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
Background: The WHO dengue classification 1997 was revised in 2009 and the revised classification system has now been in use for the past decade. This study was carried out to compare the 1997 and revised classifications in assessing the severity of dengue infection among all age groups during a dengue outbreak in southwest India. Methodology: This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out including serologically confirmed dengue cases. A total of 1033 dengue cases were classified on the basis of the 1997 WHO classification and 2009 revised classification...
August 11, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Christian Núñez, Christian Stephan-Otto, Judith Usall, Miquel Bioque, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Laura Pina-Camacho, Eduard Vieta, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Roberto Rodriguez-Jimenez, Anna Butjosa, Joost Janssen, Bibiana Cabrera, Mara Parellada, Miquel Bernardo
Although there is recent evidence that cells from the peripheral immune system can gain access to the central nervous system in certain conditions such as multiple sclerosis, their role has not been assessed in psychosis. Here, we aimed to explore whether blood cell count was associated with brain volume and/or clinical symptomatology. A total of 218 participants (137 first-episode psychosis patients [FEP] and 81 healthy controls [HC]) were included in the study. For each participant, a T1 structural image was acquired, from which brain tissue volumes were calculated...
August 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Thomas G Beach, Geidy E Serrano, Thomas Kremer, Marta Canamero, Sebastian Dziadek, Hadassah Sade, Pascal Derkinderen, Anne-Gaëlle Corbillé, Franck Letournel, David G Munoz, Charles L White, Julie Schneider, John F Crary, Lucia I Sue, Charles H Adler, Michael J Glass, Anthony J Intorcia, Jessica E Walker, Tatiana Foroud, Christopher S Coffey, Dixie Ecklund, Holly Riss, Jennifer Goßmann, Fatima König, Catherine M Kopil, Vanessa Arnedo, Lindsey Riley, Carly Linder, Kuldip D Dave, Danna Jennings, John Seibyl, Brit Mollenhauer, Lana Chahine
Immunohistochemical (IHC) α-synuclein (Asyn) pathology in peripheral biopsies may be a biomarker of Parkinson disease (PD). The multi-center Systemic Synuclein Sampling Study (S4) is evaluating IHC Asyn pathology within skin, colon and submandibular gland biopsies from 60 PD and 20 control subjects. Asyn pathology is being evaluated by a blinded panel of specially trained neuropathologists. Preliminary work assessed 2 candidate immunoperoxidase methods using a set of PD and control autopsy-derived sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of the 3 tissues...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Andrew Tomita, Jennifer I Manuel
Introduction: As a leading global disease risk factor, cigarette smoking has declined in some developed countries, but its health consequences are not well established in sub-Saharan Africa. This is particularly evident in South Africa, where few investigations have quantified the dually-neglected challenges of cigarette smoking and depression, despite decades of research from developed countries. We investigated the association between cigarette smoking and incident depression, with the hypothesis that adolescents are particularly vulnerable...
August 9, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Miguel Angel Tejada Neyra, Ulf Neuberger, Annekathrin Reinhardt, Gianluca Brugnara, David Bonekamp, Martin Sill, Antje Wick, David T W Jones, Alexander Radbruch, Andreas Unterberg, Jürgen Debus, Sabine Heiland, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Christel Herold-Mende, Stefan Pfister, Andreas von Deimling, Wolfgang Wick, David Capper, Martin Bendszus, Philipp Kickingereder
Background: This study aims to evaluate the impact of tumor location on key molecular alterations on a single voxel level in patients with newly-diagnosed glioma. Methods: A consecutive series of n=237 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and n=131 patients with lower-grade glioma was analyzed. Volumetric tumor segmentation was performed on preoperative MRI with a semi-automated approach and images were registered to the standard Montreal Neurological Institute-152 space...
August 9, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Michael J Cook, Eftychia Bellou, John Bowes, Jamie C Sergeant, Terence W O'Neill, Anne Barton, Suzanne M M Verstappen
Objectives: To compare the prevalence and incidence of chronic co-morbidities in people with inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (iRMDs), and to determine whether the prevalent co-morbidities are associated with physical activity levels in people with iRMDs and in those without iRMDs. Methods: Participants were recruited to the UK Biobank; a population-based cohort. Data were collected about demographics, physical activity, iRMDs (RA, PsA, AS, SLE) and other chronic conditions, including angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, pulmonary disease, diabetes and depression...
August 9, 2018: Rheumatology
Sam Norton, Benjamin Ellis, Beatriz Santana Suárez, Samana Schwank, Ray Fitzpatrick, Andrew Price, James Galloway
Objectives: The Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire (MSK-HQ) is a recently developed Patient Reported Outcome Measure for use across patients with musculoskeletal conditions. This study provides a validation of the MSK-HQ examining construct validity and reliability in inflammatory arthritis. Methods: 287 adults with inflammatory arthritis completed the MSK-HQ and other Patient Reported Outcome Measures at baseline and after 3 months. Construct validity was assessed using item response theory methods...
August 10, 2018: Rheumatology
Yuko Sato, Mitsunori Miyashita, Kazuki Sato, Kenji Fujimori, Koichi Benjamin Ishikawa, Hiromasa Horiguchi, Kiyohide Fushimi, Chikashi Ishioka
Background: End-of-life (EOL) cancer care in Japanese acute care hospitals has not been well described. Methods: We aimed to assess the aggressiveness of EOL care and examine common treatments administered to cancer patients using a health administrative database. Subjects are adult cancer patients who died at acute care hospitals between April 2011 and March 2014. Data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database were analysed to measure the aggressiveness of care (chemotherapy, intensive care unit [ICU] admission and cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR]) and describe procedures and prescriptions administered in the last 14 and 30 days of life, disaggregated by hospital case volume: high, intermediate and low volumes...
August 13, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Ron Flatau, Michal Segoli, Irina Khokhlova, Hadas Hawlena
Endosymbionts-microbes that live within and engage in prolonged and intimate associations with their hosts-are gaining recognition for their direct impact on plant and animal reproduction. Here we used the overlooked Wolbachia-flea system to explore the possibility that endosymbionts may also play a role as mediators in shaping the reproductive success of their hosts. We simultaneously quantified the Wolbachia density in field- and laboratory-originated fleas that fed and mated on rodents for either five or ten days and assessed their body size and current reproductive success...
August 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Abhishek Zanwar, Sanat Phatak, Amita Aggarwal
Objective: To measure disease activity in children with enthesitis-related arthritis the Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Disease Activity Index (JSpADA) was developed and retrospectively validated. We prospectively validated JSpADA and also assessed performance of adult SpA scores. Methods: Children with enthesitis-related arthritis (ILAR criteria) less than 18 years of age were enrolled. Baseline characteristics and different disease activity measures (JSpADA, BASDAI, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score-ESR, juvenile arthritis DAS-10 joints), and Childhood HAQ, physician global assessment and patient global assessment were recorded at baseline...
August 9, 2018: Rheumatology
Marie Gallé-Tessonneau, Kamel Gana
Objective: School refusal (SR) is considered as a clinical form of emotionally based school absenteeism related to the experience of strong negative emotions when attending school. However, there are no psychometrically sound measures specifically designed to assess SR. The aim of the present research was to develop and validate a multidimensional self-report measure of SR: the SChool REfusal EvaluatioN Scale (SCREEN) for adolescents. Methods: Two studies were performed to develop this scale...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Robert J Noonan
Background: The study aims were to: (i) examine associations between deprivation at age 7 and health outcomes at age 7 and 14, (ii) determine whether a deprivation gradient to health outcomes exists at age 7 and 14, and (iii) assess the extent to which health outcomes at age 7 are associated with health outcomes at age 14. Methods: Data were from wave four and six of the Millennium Cohort Study. Health outcome measures were weight status, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire measured mental health problems...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Coraline Stormacq, Stephan Van den Broucke, Jacqueline Wosinski
While socioeconomic disparities are among the most fundamental causes of health disparities, socioeconomic status (SES) does not impact health directly. One of the potential mediating factors that link SES and health is health literacy (HL). Yet although HL can be considered a modifiable risk factor of socioeconomic disparities in health, the relationship between SES, HL and health disparities is not well understood. This study reviewed the evidence regarding the mediating role of HL in the relationship between socioeconomic and health disparities...
August 9, 2018: Health Promotion International
Felicity C Fitzgerald, Edouard Lhomme, Kathryn Harris, Julia Kenny, Ronan Doyle, Cissy Kityo, Liam B Shaw, George Abongomera, Victor Musiime, Adrian Cook, Julianne R Brown, Anthony Brooks, Ellen Owen-Powell, Diana M Gibb, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Rodolphe Thiebaut, Nigel Klein
Objective: Immune activation is associated with morbidity/mortality in HIV-infection despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated whether microbial translocation drives immune activation in HIV-infected Ugandan children. Methods: Nineteen markers of immune activation/inflammation were measured over 96 weeks in HIV-infected Ugandan children in CHAPAS-3 (ISRCTN69078957) and HIV-uninfected age-matched controls. Microbial translocation was assessed using molecular techniques including next-generation sequencing...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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