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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150371/emergence-of-polymyxin-b-resistance-in-a-polymyxin-b-susceptible-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-bloodstream-infection-in-a-neutropenic-patient-during-polymyxin-b-therapy
#1
Alexandre P Zavascki, Raquel Girardello, Cibele M Magagnin, Laura C Antochevis, Rafael A Maciel, Jussara K Palmeiro, Ana C Gales
The emergence of resistance to polymyxins in KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates has been a major clinical problem. This study evaluated the molecular mechanisms associated with polymyxin B (PMB) resistance that emerged in a previously PMB-susceptible KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae during PMB therapy for a bloodstream infection in a neutropenic patient. The first isolate (PMB-susceptible) was obtained while the patient was receiving meropenem and other isolates were recovered from 2 sets of blood cultures in different dates while the patient was receiving PMB therapy (4 of 6 blood cultures bottles yielded isolates with full PMB resistance)...
October 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150336/urinary-tract-infections-in-neonates-with-unexplained-pathological-indirect-hyperbilirubinemia-prevalence-and-significance
#2
Elif Bahat Ozdogan, Mehmet Mutlu, Secil Arslansoyu Camlar, Gülcin Bayramoglu, Sebnem Kader, Yakup Aslan
BACKGROUND: It is controversial to test for urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with unexplained indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first 2 weeks of life. We aimed to study the prevalence and significance of UTIs in such neonates who were requiring phototherapy. METHODS: Subjects were 2- to 14-day-old neonates with indirect bilirubin levels above phototherapy limit with no other abnormality in their bilirubinaemia-related etiologic workup. UTI was diagnosed by 2 consecutive positive cultures obtained by catheterisation, documenting growth of >10,000 colonies of the same microorganism with consistent antibiograms...
October 28, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149965/comparision-of-ureteral-stent-colonization-between-deceased-and-live-donor-renal-transplant-recipients
#3
M Sarier, D Seyman, S Tekin, I Duman, B Uygun, M Demir, E Kukul, A H Yavuz
BACKGROUND: The use of a ureteral stent can cause a urinary tract infection (UTI), although it reduces urologic complications. UTIs are associated with a higher rate of ureteral stent colonization (USC). The aim of this study was to compare USC in living and deceased donor renal transplant recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 48 patients who underwent renal transplantation between January and December 2016. The stents were removed aseptically, the inner surface of proximal and distal ends of stents were irrigated with liquid culture medium, and then they were vortexed for bacteriological investigation...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149329/polymyxin-derivatives-nab739-and-nab815-are-more-effective-than-polymyxin-b-in-murine-escherichia-coli-pyelonephritis
#4
Martti Vaara, Timo Vaara, Carina Vingsbo Lundberg
Objectives: Extremely multiresistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae, such as those of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are emerging and spreading at a worrisome speed. Polymyxins (polymyxin B, colistin) are used as last-line therapy against such strains, in spite of their notable nephrotoxicity that may even require discontinuation of the therapy. We have previously developed polymyxin derivatives NAB739 and NAB815 that are better tolerated in cynomolgus monkeys than polymyxin B and are, in contrast to polymyxin B, excreted in the cynomolgus urine to a very significant degree...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149294/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-systemically-administered-polymyxin-b-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-mouse-thigh-and-lung-infection-models
#5
Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Jiping Wang, Veronika Wirth, Ke Chen, Keith S Kaye, Brian T Tsuji, Jian Li, Roger L Nation
Background: The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship for polymyxin B against Klebsiella pneumoniae infections is not known. Methods: Dose-fractionation studies with subcutaneous polymyxin B were conducted in neutropenic mice in which infection with three strains of K. pneumoniae had been produced in thighs or lungs. Dosing (thigh infection 0.5-120 mg/kg/day; lung infection 5-120 mg/kg/day) commenced 2 h after inoculation, and bacterial burden was measured 24 h later...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149242/long-term-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-the-general-population-in-the-netherlands
#6
Engeline van Duijkeren, Cornelia C H Wielders, Cindy M Dierikx, Angela H A M van Hoek, Paul Hengeveld, Christiaan Veenman, Alice Florijn, Aniek Lotterman, Lidwien A M Smit, Jaap T van Dissel, Catharina B M Maassen, Sabine C de Greeff
Background: This longitudinal study aimed to investigate (risk factors for) persistence of carriage and molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum and pAmpC β-lactamase-producing (ESBL/pAmpC) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-E/K) in adults in the Dutch community. Methods: Following a cross-sectional study (ESBL-E/K prevalence 4.5%), a subset of ESBL-E/K positive (n=76) and negative (n=249) individuals volunteered to provide five monthly faecal samples and questionnaires...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148919/bacterial-flora-analysis-of-coliforms-in-sewage-river-water-and-ground-water-using-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#7
Yoshihiro Suzuki, Kouki Niina, Tomonori Matsuwaki, Kei Nukazawa, Atsushi Iguchi
The aim of this study was to rapidly and effectively analyze coliforms, which are the most fundamental indicators of water quality for fecal pollution, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Coliform bacteria were isolated from municipal sewage, river water, and groundwater. For each sample, 100 isolates were determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, these same 100 isolates were also identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained MALDI-TOF MS data were compared with the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the validity of MALDI-TOF MS for classification of coliform bacteria was examined...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148380/high-rate-of-mcr-1-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-among-pigs-portugal
#8
Nicolas Kieffer, Marta Aires-de-Sousa, Patrice Nordmann, Laurent Poirel
The mcr-1 (mobile colistin resistance 1) gene, which encodes phosphoethanolamine transferase, has been recently identified as a source of acquired resistance to polymyxins in Escherichia coli. Using the SuperPolymyxin selective medium, we prospectively screened 100 pigs at 2 farms in Portugal for polymyxin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and recovered 98 plasmid-mediated MCR-1-producing isolates. Most isolates corresponded to nonclonally related E. coli belonging to many sequence types; we also found 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence types...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147933/aerobic-bacteriological-studies-on-the-respiratory-tracts-of-apparently-healthy-and-pneumonic-camels-camelus-dromedaries-in-selected-districts-of-afar-region-ethiopia
#9
Mu'uz Gebru, Genene Tefera, Fufa Dawo, Tesfaye Sisay Tessema
A cross-sectional study was conducted to isolate and identify bacterial species from the respiratory tract of apparently healthy and pneumonic camels in Asayita and Dubti woredas in the Afar Region, Ethiopia. From a total of 74 lung tissue and 74 tracheal swab samples Staphylococcus aureus, 16.3%, Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, 13.0%, and Pasteurella multocida, 10.9%, were dominant isolates from pneumonic lungs; Escherichia coli, 12.7%, Proteus species, 10.9%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, 9.1%, were the majority in the normal lungs...
November 16, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146257/klebsiella-sp-confers-enhanced-tolerance-to-salinity-and-plant-growth-promotion-in-oat-seedlings-avena-sativa
#10
Swapnil Sapre, Iti Gontia-Mishra, Sharad Tiwari
Plant growth and yield is adversely affected by soil salinity. Salt tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain IG 3 was isolated from rhizosphere of wheat plants. The isolate IG 3 was able to grow in presence of NaCl ranging from 0 to 20% in Luria Bertani medium. The present study was planned to evaluate the role of inoculation of PGPR strain IG 3 and its efficacy in augmenting salt tolerance in oat (Avena sativa) under NaCl stress (100mM). The physiological parameter such as shoot length, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and relative water content (RWC) were remarkably higher in IG 3 inoculated plants in comparison to un-inoculated plants under NaCl stress...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146039/clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-bacteraemia-due-to-oxa-48-like-carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#11
Ana Madueño, Jonathan González-García, María Del Mar Alonso Socas, María Antonia Miguel Gómez, María Lecuona
INTRODUCTION: Limited therapeutic options and high mortality make the management of OXA-48-like carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPOXA-48) bacteraemia complicated. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics of KPOXA-48 bacteraemia between October 2013 and December 2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The variables to analyse were retrospectively collected from medical records. Carbapenemase production was confirmed by phenotypic and molecular methods...
November 13, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144965/role-of-serum-1-3%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-in-early-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#12
Abd Elazeez Shabaan, Lobna Mahmoud Elbaz, Wafaa M El-Emshaty, Basma Shouman
OBJECTIVES: To study the microbiological pattern of late onset neonatal sepsis cultures and to assess the diagnostic performance of serum (1,3)-β-d-glucan level for early diagnosis of invasive fungemia in high-risk infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: A prospective multicenter clinical trial conducted on infants at high risk for invasive fungal infections, with suspected late onset sepsis, admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit at Mansoura University Children's Hospital and Mansoura General Hospital between March 2014 and February 2016...
November 13, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144958/isolation-of-blandm-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-public-hospital-in-salvador-bahia-brazil
#13
Maria Goreth Barberino, Silvia de Araujo Cruvinel, Célio Faria, Marco Aurélio Salvino, Márcio Oliveira
Carbapenemases have great importance in the global epidemiological scenario since infections with carbapenemase-producing bacteria are associated with high mortality, especially in hospitalized patients in intensive care units. This study describes two microorganisms producers of the New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase (NDM), Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii, from two patients admitted to a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia. These are the first clinical cases of NDM described in microorganisms in the north and northeast Brazil...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143727/characterization-of-clinically-isolated-thymidine-dependent-small-colony-variants-of-escherichia-coli-producing-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase
#14
Tatsuya Negishi, Takehisa Matsumoto, Kazuki Horiuchi, Eriko Kasuga, Tatsuya Natori, Mina Matsuoka, Naoko Ogiwara, Mitsutoshi Sugano, Takeshi Uehara, Noriyuki Nagano, Takayuki Honda
PURPOSE: Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) are difficult to detect or test for antimicrobial susceptibility. We investigated the characteristics of clonal TD-SCVs of Escherichia coli, both with and without blaCTX-M-3, isolated from a patient. METHODOLOGY: Mutation in the thyA gene was analysed by sequencing, and morphological abnormalities in the colonies and cells of the isolates were examined. Additionally, conjugational transfer experiments were performed to prove the horizontal transferability of plasmids harbouring resistance genes...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142521/fatal-infections-in-older-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-on-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy
#15
Way-Seah Lee, Najib Azmi, Ruey-Terng Ng, Sik-Yong Ong, Sasheela Sri La Ponnampalavanar, Sanjiv Mahadeva, Ida Hilmi
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years). All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy...
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142211/the-microbiota-protects-against-respiratory-infection-via-gm-csf-signaling
#16
Rebecca L Brown, Richard P Sequeira, Thomas B Clarke
The microbiota promotes resistance to respiratory infection, but the mechanistic basis for this is poorly defined. Here, we identify members of the microbiota that protect against respiratory infection by the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We show that the microbiota enhances respiratory defenses via granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, which stimulates pathogen killing and clearance by alveolar macrophages through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141402/-epidemiology-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-spread-in-a-community-acute-hospital-and-a-non-acute-rehabilitation-hospital-in-madrid
#17
M López-Dosil, C Bischofberge, D Sáez, C García-Picazo
OBJECTIVE: In Spain, the overall prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is increasing. We describe the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics features of patients with colonization or infection due to CRE in two hospitals in the north-west of Madrid during two years. One hospital was a community acute hospital and the second one was a non-acute rehabilitation hospital. METHODS: A total of 197 CPE isolates were detected during 2013-2014...
November 14, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141051/molecular-and-epidemiological-characterization-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-norway-2007-to-2014
#18
Ørjan Samuelsen, Søren Overballe-Petersen, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt, Sylvain Brisse, Michel Doumith, Neil Woodford, Katie L Hopkins, Bettina Aasnæs, Bjørg Haldorsen, Arnfinn Sundsfjord
The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is increasing worldwide. Here we present associated patient data and molecular, epidemiological and phenotypic characteristics of all CPE isolates in Norway from 2007 to 2014 confirmed at the Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance. All confirmed CPE isolates were characterized pheno- and genotypically, including by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Patient data were reviewed retrospectively. In total 59 CPE isolates were identified from 53 patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140240/case-report-strongyloides-stercoralis-hyperinfection-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#19
Richelle Guerrero-Wooley, Ernesto Aranda-Aguirre, Wencheng Li, Aimee Wilkin, Elizabeth Palavecino
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can cause disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host. It is most commonly acquired in developing countries. It was previously a common infection in many parts of the United States, particularly in the Appalachian region, but is rarely identified currently. Here, we describe a patient born and raised in Appalachia, with no history of travel outside the United States, who presented with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and S. stercoralis hyperinfection characterized by acute respiratory failure, altered mental status, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138665/-epidemiological-profile-of-uropathogenic-enterobacteria-producing-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases
#20
Mohammed Sbiti, Khalid Lahmadi, Lhoussaine Louzi
Urinary tract infections due to enterobacteria producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL-E) constitute a infectious risk, a major therapeutic challenge and can even lead, in some cases, to a deadlock beacuse of their multi-resistance to antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological profile of uropathogenic ESBL-E and to describe their current level of resistance to antibiotics for a better patient management according to local data. We conducted a retrospective study of all ESBL-E strains isolated from all cytobacteriogical testing of urine (CBEU) treated in the Microbiology Laboratory at the Military Hospital of Moulay Ismail, Meknes over a period of three years (from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
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