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L Gai, Y Tong, B-Q Yan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic effect of procalcitonin level in serum for patients with sepsis due to different pathogenic causes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical data of 132 sepsis patients were analyzed. Those patients were admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Ningbo University from January 2014 to January 2017. According to the blood culture results before antimicrobial therapy, patients were divided into two groups: Gram-negative bacteria group (G- group) and Gram-positive bacteria group (G+ group)...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Mehdi Moghadampour, Aliakbar Rezaei, Jamshid Faghri
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) and the most common types of carbapenemases, metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among CRKP isolates in a tertiary hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Eighty non-repetitive clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were obtained from different clinical specimens. Antibiotic resistance pattern of isolates was determined by disk diffusion method and production of carbapenemases and MBLs was confirmed using modified Hodge test and E-test, respectively...
July 19, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Babita Aneja, Mudsser Azam, Shadab Alam, Ahmad Perwez, Ronan Maguire, Umesh Yadava, Kevin Kavanagh, Constantin G Daniliuc, M Moshahid A Rizvi, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul Haq, Mohammad Abid
Despite the vast availability of antibiotics, bacterial infections remain a leading cause of death worldwide. In an effort to enhance the armamentarium against resistant bacterial strains, 1,2,3-triazole ( 5a-x ) and sulfonate ( 7a-j ) analogues of natural bioactive precursors were designed and synthesized. Preliminary screening against two Gram-positive ( Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis ) and four Gram-negative bacterial strains ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella enterica , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Escherichia coli ) was performed to assess the potency of these analogues as antibacterial agents...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Christian Schnaars, Geir Kildahl-Andersen, Anthony Prandina, Roya Popal, Sylvie Large Radix, Marc Le Borgne, Tor Gjoen, Adriana Magalhães Santos Andresen, Adam Heikal, Ole Andreas Økstad, Christopher Fröhlich, Ørjan Samuelsen, Silje Lauksund, Lars Petter Jordheim, Pål Rongved, Ove Alexander Høgmoen Åstrand
The rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide and the increasing spread of multidrug resistant organisms expressing metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) require the development of efficient and clinically available MBL inhibitors. At present, no such inhibitor is available, and research is urgently needed to advance this field. We report herein the development, synthesis and biological evaluation of chemical compounds based on the selective zinc chelator tris-picolylamine (TPA) that can restore the bactericidal activity of meropenem (MEM) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae expressing the carbapenemases Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM-2) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), respectively...
July 19, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Sepideh Ahmadi, Hossein Kamaladini, Fatemeh Haddadi, Mohammad Reza Sharifmoghadam
In the last few years, gold nanoparticle biosensors have been developed for rapid, precise, easy and inexpensive with high specificity and sensitivity detection of human, plant and animal pathogens. Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K2 is one of the common gram-negative pathogens with high prevalence. Therefore, it is essential to provide the effective and exclusive method to detect the bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K2 strain ATCC9997 genomic DNA was applied to establish the detection protocol either with thiol-capped oligonucleotide probes and gold nanoparticles or polymerase chain reaction based on K2A gene sequence...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Fluorescence
Saket Siddharth, Ravishankar Rai Vittal
In the present study, marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp.S2A was isolated from the Gulf of Mannar, India. Identification was carried out by 16S rRNA analysis. Bioactive metabolites were extracted by solvent extraction method. The metabolites were assayed for antagonistic activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic activity against various cell lines. The actinobacterial extract showed significant antagonistic activity against four gram-positive and two gram-negative pathogens...
July 18, 2018: Microorganisms
Jing Wang, Zhen-Ling Zeng, Xin-Yi Huang, Zhen-Bao Ma, Ze-Wen Guo, Lu-Chao Lv, Ying-Bi Xia, Li Zeng, Qian-Hua Song, Jian-Hua Liu
To understand the underlying evolution process of F33:A-:B- plasmids among Enterobacteriaceae isolates of various origins in China, the complete sequences of 17 bla CTX-M -harboring F33:A-:B- plasmids obtained from Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from different sources (animals, animal-derived food, and human clinics) in China were determined. F33:A-:B- plasmids shared similar plasmid backbones comprising replication, leading, and conjugative transfer regions and differed by the numbers of repeats in yddA and traD and by the presence of group II intron, except that pHNAH9 lacked a large segment of the leading and transfer regions...
July 18, 2018: MSphere
Jaimie Mittal, Wendy A Szymczak, Yi Guo, Michael H Levi, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Paul F Riska, Priya Nori
We report a case of a complex orthopaedic infection in a patient returning to New York City from Bangladesh where he was involved in a serious motor vehicle accident. He developed extensive osteomyelitis with a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae The isolate was unique due to the coexistence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 and Oxacillinase type-181 carbapenemases, which are relatively uncommon in North America and were presumably acquired in Bangladesh. Herein, we explore challenges associated with management of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections, including limited available data on effective antimicrobial therapy...
July 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Li Cheng Zhu, Jun Wan Lu, Jian Wang, Teng Xu, Juan Hua Xu
In order to characterize the structure of the beta-lactamase gene and its corresponding mobile genetic elements in Klebsiella pneumoniae, the beta-lactamase genes from 240 clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were studied. blaCARB-2 , a newly characterized gene, was extensively investigated utilizing next-generation sequencing, PCR, molecular cloning, conjugation, and comparative genomics analysis. We identified 11 beta-lactamase genes among the 240 clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates; the blaCARB-2 gene exists only in one specific isolate (Klebsiella pneumoniae KP1276) (1/240, 0...
July 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Wen Wen Deng, Mei Long, Sheng Zhi Yang, Li Kou Zou
blaOKP genes are chromosomally encoded beta-lactamases that mediate several classes of antibiotics resistance. To investigate the evolution and flanking sequences of OKP beta-lactamase gene, the gene blaOKP and its flanking sequences from a newly isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae were studied using whole genome sequencing. The flanking sequences of different variant blaOKP genes and blaSHV, another plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase gene, were then compared. These studies show that the blaOKP and blaSHV genes evolve differently and belong to two different evolution branches...
July 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Yeon-Cheol Yu, Su-Jin Yum, Da-Young Jeon, Hee-Gon Jeong
Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) is a major ingredient used in many food recipes in South Korea.Lettuce samples were collected during their maximum production period between April and July in order to investigate the microbiota of lettuce during different seasons. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based sequencing was conducted using Illumina Miseq, and real time PCR was performed for quantification. The number of total bacterial was greater in lettuce collected in July than in that collected in April, albeit with reduced diversity...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Alan R Noel, Karen E Bowker, Marie Attwood, Alasdair P MacGowan
Objectives: To use a pre-clinical infection model to assess the antibacterial effect of human simulations of dosing with ceftolozane/tazobactam (with or without amikacin) or meropenem against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: An in vitro pharmacokinetic model was used to assess changes in bacterial load and profiles after exposure to mean human serum concentrations over 168 h. Changes in area under the bacterial kill curve (AUBKC; log cfu/mL·h) and growth on 4 × MIC recovery plates were the co-primary outcome measures...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ola Mashni, Lama Nazer, Jennifer Le
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical data on the effectiveness and safety of double carbapenem therapy (DCT) in patients infected with carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp). DATA SOURCES: A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed and EMBASE (from 1966 to May 2018); bibliographies of the retrieved articles were also searched. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Articles were included if they evaluated patients with infections caused by CP-Kp and were treated with DCT...
July 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Chen Chen, Xiaoping Zhang, Qiao Lin, Nathaniel Remlinger, Thomas W Gilbert, Y Peter Di
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of a complex mixture of structural and functional macromolecules that are important during growth, development, and wound repair. In this study, we seek to determine if an ECM derived from the porcine urinary bladder, specifically urinary bladder matrix (UBM), can act to prevent bacterial infection in the context of lung injury. Here, we examined a digested form of UBM, which prevented bacterial biofilm formed by both Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) such as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) in vitro...
July 18, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Stefano De Arcangeli, Cristina Esmeralda Di Francesco, Gianluca Todisco, Alessandro Montani, Francesca Profeta, Andrea Di Provvido, Giovanni Foschi, Tiziana Persiani, Fulvio Marsilio
Reproductive disorders are responsible for significant economic losses in canary aviculture due to embryo and newborn chick mortality. Most of the time, deaths are caused by bacterial pathogens, however little published data exist about the prevalence of bacterial isolates that are identified during diagnostic protocols. This study reports on data collected from previous investigations carried out on cloacal swabs (n 456), unhatched eggs (n 52), and dead newborn chicks (n 68) collected from canary aviaries with a history of reproductive disorders...
June 30, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Pablo Ivan Pereira Ramos, Darío Fernández Do Porto, Esteban Lanzarotti, Ezequiel J Sosa, Germán Burguener, Agustín M Pardo, Cecilia C Klein, Marie-France Sagot, Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos, Ana Cristina Gales, Marcelo Marti, Adrián G Turjanski, Marisa F Nicolás
Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is a globally disseminated opportunistic pathogen that can cause life-threatening infections. It has been found as the culprit of many infection outbreaks in hospital environments, being particularly aggressive towards newborns and adults under intensive care. Many Kp strains produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, enzymes that promote resistance against antibiotics used to fight these infections. The presence of other resistance determinants leading to multidrug-resistance also limit therapeutic options, and the use of 'last-resort' drugs, such as polymyxins, is not uncommon...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Mahbubul Hassan
Chitosan shows selective antimicrobial activity as a bioactive polymer. In this work, a quaternary ammonium derivative of chitosan was synthesized by graft-copolymerization of chitosan with poly[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride] or pATC by the redox polymerization method to enhance chitosan's antimicrobial activity. The structural characterizations of the quaternized chitosan were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and also by 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
F Lazaro-Perona, J C Ramos, A Sotillo, J Mingorance, J García-Rodriguez, G Ruiz-Carrascoso, J R Paño-Pardo, J R Arribas, R Herruzo, F Arnalich
To study intestinal colonisation by OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpO48) after hospital discharge, stool samples from twenty-two previously colonised subjects were collected. Time from discharge was 33 to 611 days, without readmissions. Eight subjects (36%) were identified as blaOXA-48 gene carriers. In all of them the hospital-acquired strain of KpO48 had been lost, and the gene was harboured by other strains of K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca and/or E. coli. Our findings show intestinal persistence for several months of a plasmid harboring the OXA-48 carbapenemase gene in a significant proportion of individuals in the absence of antibiotic treatment...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Suying Zhao, Shuyuan Cao, Lan Luo, Zhan Zhang, Gehui Yuan, Yanan Zhang, Yanting Yang, Weihui Guo, Li Wang, Feng Chen, Qian Wu, Lei Li
BACKGROUND: We determined metal element profiles (MEPs) by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the serum of patients with blood stream infection (BSI) and find out very important (VIP) metal elements in specific infections. METHODS: Sixty-eight metal elements were identified in both serum and the bacteria isolated from 14 BSI patients with Staphylococcus infection, 39 with Enterobacteriaceae infection, 5 with Enterococcus infection and 58 healthy subjects without infection by ICP-MS methods...
July 11, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Nubwa Medugu, Kenneth Iregbu, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Stephen Obaro
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes invasive infections in neonates and has been implicated as a cause of prelabour rupture of membranes, preterm delivery and stillbirths. The success of phase II trials of polyvalent polysaccharide GBS vaccines indicates that these infections are potentially preventable. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with one of the highest birth rates, one of the highest neonatal sepsis incidence rates and one of the highest mortality rates in the world...
2018: PloS One
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