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Sensor array

Frank Meyer, John Humm, Yuvaraj Purushothaman, Rémy Willinger, Frank A Pintar, Narayan Yoganandan
Experiments have been conducted using isolated tissues of the spine such as ligaments, functional units, and subaxial cervical spine columns. Forces and or moments under external loading can be obtained at the ends of these isolated/segmented preparations; however, these models require fixations at the end(s). To understand the response of the entire cervical spine without the artificial boundary/end conditions, it is necessary to use the whole body human cadaver in the experimental model. This model can be used to obtain the overall kinematics of the head and neck...
October 2, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Liron Boyman, George S B Williams, Andrew P Wescott, Jennie B Leach, Joseph P Y Kao, W Jonathan Lederer
Single-cell metabolic investigations are hampered by the absence of flexible tools to measure local partial pressure of O2 (pO2 ) at high spatial-temporal resolution. To this end, we developed an optical sensor capable of measuring local pericellular pO2 for subcellular resolution measurements with confocal imaging while simultaneously carrying out electrophysiological and/or chemo-mechanical single cell experiments. Here we present the OxySplot optrode, a ratiometric fluorescent O2 -micro-sensor created by adsorbing O2 -sensitive and O2 -insensitive fluorophores onto micro-particles of silica...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Olja Simoska, Marta Sans, Mignon D Fitzpatrick, Christopher M Crittenden, Livia S Eberlin, Jason B Shear, Keith J Stevenson
Here, we use a recently developed electrochemical sensing platform of transparent carbon ultramicroelectrode arrays (T-CUAs) for the in vitro detection of phenazine metabolites from the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Specifically, redox-active metabolites pyocyanin (PYO), 5-methylphenazine-1-carboxylic acid (5-MCA) and 1-hydroxyphenazine (OHPHZ) are produced by P. aeruginosa, which is commonly found in chronic wound infections and in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. As highly diffusible chemicals, PYO and other metabolites are extremely toxic to surrounding host cells and other competing microorganisms, thus their detection is of great importance as it could provide insights regarding P...
December 10, 2018: ACS Sensors
Seung-Ryong Kwon, Kaiyu Fu, Donghoon Han, Paul W Bohn
Redox cycling electrochemistry in arrays of individually-encapsulated, attoliter-volume (V ~ 10 aL) nanopores is investigated and reported here. These nanopore electrode array (NEA) structures exhibit distinctive electrochemical behaviors not observed in open NEAs, which allow free diffusion of redox couples between the nanopore interior and bulk solution. Confined nanopore environments, generated by sealing NEAs with a layer of poly(dimethylsiloxane), are characterized by enhanced currents - up to 250-fold compared with open NEAs - owing to effective trapping of the redox couple inside the nanopores and to enhanced mass transport effects...
December 10, 2018: ACS Nano
Gitae Namgung, Qui T H Ta, Woochul Yang, Jin-Seo Noh
A crystal-damage-free nano-doping method, which utilized the vacuum drive-in diffusion of Al into ZnO nanorods, was developed. In this method, vertical ZnO nanorod arrays that were grown by chemical bath deposition beforehand were deposited with Al thin film and subsequently heat-treated under a high vacuum. At an optimum condition, the surface Al atoms were completely diffused into ZnO nanorods, resulting in Al-doped ZnO nanorods. Stretchable gas sensors were fabricated by sequentially drop-casting Al-doped ZnO nanorods and silver nanowires on PDMS substrate...
December 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Simon McNamee, Devan Wagner, Elisabetta Fiordaliso, Dave Novog, Ray R LaPierre
A betavoltaic device is reported that directly converts beta energy from a 63Ni radioisotope into electrical energy by impact ionization in a GaP nanowire array. The GaP nanowires are grown in a periodic array by molecular beam epitaxy on silicon using the self-assisted vapor-liquid-solid method. By growing GaP nanowires with large packing fraction and length on the order of the maximum beta range, the nanowires can efficiently capture the betas with high energy conversion efficiency while using inexpensive Si substrates...
November 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ryan Kisslinger, Abdelrahman Mostafa Askar, Ujwal Kumar Thakur, Saralyn Riddell, Darren Dahunsi, Yun Zhang, Sheng Zeng, Ankur Goswami, Karthik Shankar
Anodically formed TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) constitute an optoelectronic platform that is being studied for use as a photoanode in photoelectrocatalytic cells, as an electron transport layer (ETL) in solar cells and photodetectors, and as an active layer for chemiresistive and microwave sensors. For optimal transport of charge carriers in these one-dimensional polycrystalline ordered structures, it is desirable to introduce a preferential texture with the grains constituting the nanotube walls aligned along the transport direction...
October 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Aunnasha Sengupta, Chumin Zhao, Anastasios C Konstantinidis, Jerzy Kanicki
Medical imaging systems like full field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) commonly use amorphous selenium (a-Se) based passive pixel sensor (PPS) direct conversion x-ray detectors. On one hand, direct conversion detectors inherently offer better resolution characteristics in terms of a higher modulation transfer function (MTF), in comparison to the indirect CsI:Tl PPS x-ray imager. On the other hand, especially at lower doses, this superior performance of the direct imager is seldom retained in its detective quantum efficiency (DQE) curves...
December 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Perry Naughton, Philippe Roux, Curt Schurgers, Ryan Kastner, Jules S Jaffe, Paul L D Roberts
Groups of coordinated underwater vehicles or sensors are powerful tools for monitoring the ocean. A requirement of many coordinated surveys is to determine a spatial reference between each node in a swarm. This work considers the self-localization of a swarm of independently moving vehicles using acoustic noise from a dominating incoherent source recorded by a single hydrophone onboard each vehicle. This method provides an inexpensive and infrastructure-free spatial reference between vehicles. Movement between the vehicles changes the swarm geometry and a self-localization estimate must be generated from data collected on short time scales...
November 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Santosh Nannuru, Ali Koochakzadeh, Kay L Gemba, Piya Pal, Peter Gerstoft
Sparse linear arrays such as co-prime and nested arrays can resolve more sources than the number of sensors. In contrast, uniform linear arrays (ULA) cannot resolve more sources than the number of sensors. This paper demonstrates this using Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) and co-array MUSIC for single frequency beamforming. For approximately the same number of sensors, co-prime and nested arrays are shown to outperform ULA in root mean squared error. This paper shows that multi-frequency SBL can significantly reduce spatial aliasing...
November 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Xiuzhong Wang, Biwu Liu, Juewen Liu
Chemical reactions without an obvious optical signal change, such as fluorescence or color, are difficult to monitor. Often, more advanced analytical techniques such as HPLC and mass spectroscopy are needed. It would be useful to convert such reactions to changes in optical signals. In this work, we demonstrate that fluorescently labeled DNA oligonucleotides adsorbed on nanomaterials can probe such reactions, and oxidation of phosphorus containing species was used as an example. Various metal oxides were tested and CeO2 nanoparticles were found to be the most efficient for this purpose...
December 5, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Michela Zuffo, Xiao Xie, Anton Granzhan
High-throughput assessment of secondary structures adopted by DNA oligonucleotides is currently hampered by the lack of suitable biophysical methods. Fluorescent sensors hold great potential in this respect; however, the moderate selectivity that they display for one DNA conformation over the others constitutes a major drawback to the development of accurate assays. Moreover, the use of single sensors impedes a comprehensive classification of the tested sequences. Herein, we propose to overcome these limitations through the development of a fluorescence sensor array constituted by easily accessible, commercial dyes...
December 5, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jingjing Liu, Ying Cui, Yizhou Chen, Wei Wang, Yuanyuan Tang, Hong Men
In this study, to obtain a texture perception that is closer to the human sense, we designed eight bionic tongue indenters based on the law of the physiology of mandibular movements and tongue movements features, set up a bionic tongue distributed mechanical testing device, performed in vitro simulations to obtain the distributed mechanical information over the tongue surface, and preliminarily constructed a food fineness perception evaluation model. By capturing a large number of tongue movements during chewing, we analyzed and simulated four representative tongue movement states including the tiled state, sunken state, raised state, and overturned state of the tongue...
December 3, 2018: Sensors
Jin Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Xianqi Lin, Yong Fan, Gert Frølund Pedersen
This paper proposes a 3D radiation pattern reconfigurable antenna (RPRA) and a reconfigurable phased array (RPA) for 5G mobile communication. The antenna and array are working at 28 GHz, which is selected as a 5G communication band in many countries. The proposed phased array will be applied as sensors to find out the optimal transmitting⁻receiving angle in a randomly changed cellular wireless scenarios. The RPRA and RPA are fed by Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) and have three switchable radiation modes: Broadside 1, Broadside 2 and Endfire...
November 30, 2018: Sensors
Zhiyang Li, Chuqing Liu, Victor Sarpong, Zhiyong Gu
Antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline drugs are widely used in food animals to treat, control, and prevent diseases, and penicillin is approved for use to improve growth rates in pigs and poultry. However, due to the overuse of antibiotics in food and medical industry, the antimicrobial resistance is starting to show up in some developing countries. The antibiotic abuse may cause allergic reactions, resistance in microorganisms and general lowering of immunity in consumers of meat and dairy products...
October 17, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Wei Huang, Markus Bender, Kai Seehafer, Irene Wacker, Rasmus R Schröder, Uwe H F Bunz
Four tetraphenylethylene (TPE)-based aryleneethynylene polymers with amino or nitro groups are reported. They display strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE). The functional groups trigger acidochromic changes in the emission behavior of these polymers. Amino-substituted P1-P3 exhibit pH response through protonation of the amino groups. The position of the amino groups (on TPE or the side chains) influences the fluorescence intensity or emission wavelength as a response to different pH values. Nitro-P4 is solvatochromic due to its donor-acceptor structure...
December 3, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Ying Lia Li, P F Barker
An accelerometer utilising the optomechanical coupling between an optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonance and the motion of the WGM cavity itself was prototyped and field-tested on a vehicle. We describe the assembly of this portable, battery operated sensor and the field-programmable gate array automation. Pre-trial testing using an electrodynamic shaker demonstrated linear scale-factors with <0.3% standard deviation ( ± 6 g range where g = 9.81 ms - 2 ), and a strong normalised cross-correlation coefficient (NCCC) of r ICP / WGM = 0...
November 29, 2018: Sensors
Henrik Ronellenfitsch, Jörn Dunkel, Michael Wilczek
Natural and artificial networks, from the cerebral cortex to large-scale power grids, face the challenge of converting noisy inputs into robust signals. The input fluctuations often exhibit complex yet statistically reproducible correlations that reflect underlying internal or environmental processes such as synaptic noise or atmospheric turbulence. This raises the practically and biophysically relevant question of whether and how noise filtering can be hard wired directly into a network's architecture. By considering generic phase oscillator arrays under cost constraints, we explore here analytically and numerically the design, efficiency, and topology of noise-canceling networks...
November 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Puja Saha, Deepanjan Panda, Jyotirmayee Dash
The Cu(i)-catalyzed azide and alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC), commonly known as the "click reaction", has emerged as a powerful and versatile synthetic tool that finds a broad spectrum of applications in chemistry, biology and materials science. The efficiency, selectivity and versatility of the CuAAC reactions have enabled the preparation of vast arrays of triazole compounds with biological and pharmaceutical applications. In this feature article, we outline the applications and future prospects of click chemistry in the synthesis and development of small molecules that target G-quadruplex nucleic acids and show promising biological activities...
November 29, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Zoltan Szittner, Arthur E H Bentlage, Eric van der Donk, Peter C Ligthart, Suzanne Lissenberg-Thunnissen, C Ellen van der Schoot, Gestur Vidarsson
BACKGROUND: Blood-group typing of donors and patients is essential to avoid incompatible transfusions. Transfusion of incompatible RBCs may result in alloimmunization complicating future transfusions or in the presence of antibodies in adverse reactions. With more than 300 blood group antigens identified, it is difficult to provide fully compatible blood. Currently, standard practice is to match for the most immunogenic antigens. While the current agglutination-based RBC-typing methods are reliable for testing a selected number of antigens, they are not easily adaptable for high-throughput multiplex blood typing beyond the current standard...
November 29, 2018: Transfusion
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