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Blood flow occlusion

Yukiko Karita, Yuka Kimura, Shizuka Sasaki, Taisuke Nitobe, Eiichi Tsuda, Yasuyuki Ishibashi
INTRODUCTION: Axillary artery and brachial plexus injuries have been reported to be associated with proximal humeral fractures. In this report, we present two cases of axillary artery and brachial plexus injury secondary to proximal humeral fracture. PRESENTATION OF CASES: Case 1: An 88-year-old woman with cognitive impairment slipped and fell at home. The diagnosis was left proximal humeral fracture. The second day, paralysis of left upper arm due to left axillary artery occlusion appeared...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Annelise L Meneses, Michael C Y Nam, Tom G Bailey, Rebecca Magee, Jonathan Golledge, Ylva Hellsten, Michelle A Keske, Kim Greaves, Christopher D Askew
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by stenosis and occlusion of the lower limb arteries. While leg blood flow is limited in PAD, it remains unclear whether skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion is affected. We compared whole-leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion following cuff occlusion and submaximal leg exercise between PAD patients (n=12, 69{plus minus}9 years) and healthy age-matched control participants (n=12, 68{plus minus}7 years). Microvascular blood flow (microvascular volume x flow velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was measured before and immediately after: 1) 5 min of thigh-cuff occlusion; and 2) a 5-min bout of intermittent isometric plantar-flexion exercise (400N) using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU)...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Seyed Mohammad Owji, Elahe Nikeghbal, Seyed Mostafa Shid Moosavi
NEW FINDINGS: What is central question of this study? Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients is usually due to renal artery hypoperfusion or occasionally vein thrombosis, but murine model of ischemic AKI is mostly induced via pedicle-clamping. Hence, the traditional renal pedicle-clamping model was compared with models of occluding renal artery or vein alone in rats. What is main finding and its importance? During renal venous occlusion, transmission of high arterial pressure into renal capillaries likely caused rupture of their walls and occurrence of hemorrhagic congestion that led to higher kidney tissue damage and dysfunction than pedicle and artery clamping...
August 9, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Bao-Shuai Shan, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Hui-Yu Bai, Harumi Kan-No, Akinori Higaki, Li-Juan Min, Masatsugu Horiuchi
The brain renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in ischemic stroke. It is known that stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2 ) receptor protects against ischemic brain injury. We recently demonstrated that AT2 receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21), a direct AT2 receptor agonist, inhibited vascular intimal proliferation with activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ). However, whether direct AT2 receptor stimulation protects against ischemic brain injury via PPAR-γ activation is still unknown...
August 8, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Shinichi Goto, Takayuki Morikawa, Akiko Kubo, Keiyo Takubo, Keiichi Fukuda, Mayumi Kajimura, Makoto Suematsu
Carbon monoxide-generating heme oxygenase-2 is expressed in neurons and plays a crucial role for regulating hypoxic vasodilation through mechanisms unlocking carbon monoxide-dependent inhibition of H2 S-generating cystathionine β-synthase expressed in astrocytes. This study aims to examine whether heme oxygenase-2 plays a protective role in mice against stroke. Focal ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Regional differences in metabolites among ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres were analysed by quantitative imaging mass spectrometry equipped with an image-processing platform to optimize comparison of local metabolite contents among different animals...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Victoria Young, Shankar Rajeswaran
Interventional radiology's role in the management of portal hypertension in the pediatric population differs from the management of adult portal hypertension. In the pediatric population, portal hypertension is frequently secondary to thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the extrahepatic portion of the portal vein. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt can be utilized to manage portal hypertension in children with intrinsic liver disease that results in cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and is often used as a bridge to transplant...
August 2018: Seminars in Interventional Radiology
Shi Jie Dai, Jie Ying Zhang, Yu Ting Bao, Xiao Jie Zhou, Lu Ning Lin, Yun Bo Fu, Yu Jia Zhang, Chang Yu Li, Yuan Xiao Yang
Numerous experimental studies and clinical observations suggest that cerebral ischemia may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two-vessel occlusion caused cerebral ischemia model is often used in the study of vascular dementia (VaD). But how cerebral ischemia works on AD rat model which induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 remains unclear. In the following study, we investigated the characteristics of rat model caused by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 or two-vessel occlusion (2-VO) only and by both of the two operations...
July 25, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Maher Saqqur, Khurshid Khan, Carol Derksen, Andrei Alexandrov, Ashfaq Shuaib
In an acute stroke setting, transcranial Doppler (TCD) and transcranial color-coded duplex (TCCD) have an important diagnostic utility in the monitoring of an arterial occlusion and microemboli detection. In addition, TCD has proven to be a very useful tool in the detection and progression of cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. TCD/TCCD may have an important role in defining collateral blood flow (CF) in stroke patients. It is a noninvasive technique and can be utilized repeatedly allowing for changes in the blood flow dynamics as treatment is delivered...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Shu Zhu, Bradley A Herbig, Xinren Yu, Jason Chen, Scott L Diamond
Microfluidic thrombosis assays allow the control of anticoagulation, hemodynamics, pharmacology, and procoagulant surfaces containing collagen ± tissue factor (TF). With corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) ranging from low (1-4 μg/mL) to high levels (40-60 μg/mL), the function of Factor XIIa (FXIIa) can be modulated in the presence of low or high surface TF. With high CTI and no collagen/TF in the assay, no thrombin is generated during 15-min microfluidic perfusion. At low CTI (no TF), the generation of FXIa leads to fibrin polymerization at ~300 s after the initiation of flow over collagen, an onset time shortened at zero CTI and prolonged at high CTI...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Mathieu F Bakhoum, K Bailey Freund, Rosa Dolz-Marco, Belinda Cs Leong, Caroline R Baumal, Jay S Duker, David Sarraf
PURPOSE: To analyze the spectrum of ischemia associated with paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) in eyes with acute retinal vascular occlusion and to describe an ischemic cascade. DESIGN: A retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Patients presenting with PAMM secondary to acute retinal vascular occlusion were identified. Analysis of multimodal imaging was performed at baseline and at follow up visits to elucidate the patterns and progression of ischemia within the retinal layers...
August 3, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Kensuke Takada, Yoshinori Maki, Masanori Kinosada, Ryota Ishibashi, Masaki Chin, Sen Yamagata
Metronidazole induced encephalopathy (MIE), an encephalopathy brought by an antibiotic, is characterized with cerebellar dysfunction, altered mental status and extrapyramidal symptoms. MIE can result in an acute manifestation, but MIE has not been reported as a stroke mimic. An 86-year-old patient undergoing metronidazole therapy for Clostridium difficile enteritis presented to our hospital with sudden disoriented status and motor weakness of the left extremities. Computed tomography (CT) was unrevealing of intracranial hemorrhagic change, and CT angiography did not show any apparent major occlusion or stenosis of the intracranial vessels...
August 3, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Katherine A Maki, Decebal S Griza, Shane A Phillips, Beata M Wolska, Mladen I Vidovich
BACKGROUND: There is concern about potential detrimental effects of transradial access (TRA) on radial artery structure, endothelial and hand function. This thermography study evaluated TRA impact on hand microvascular perfusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively measured hand thermography, radial and ulnar artery size and blood flow velocities in both catheterization and non-catheterization hands at baseline and 30-days after TRA in 158 patients. There were no differences in radial or ulnar arterial diameters or velocities pre- and post-TRA in catheterization and non-catheterization hands (p = NS)...
July 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Brian Day
Personalized (based on a percentage of a patient's limb occlusion pressure) blood flow restriction is emerging as a potential advancement in orthopaedic surgery. Safe application of the technology requires the use of medical devices capable of customizing the pressures applied to individual patients. In those circumstances, it is a low risk and noninvasive technique. By limiting muscle atrophy and aiding in the recovery of strength and function, it has the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity from limb trauma and surgery, and aid in achieving a substantially earlier return to full activity...
August 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Jasdeep Kaur, Abhinav C Krishnan, Danielle Senador, Alberto Alvarez, Hanna W Hanna, Donal S O'Leary
Two powerful reflexes controlling cardiovascular function during exercise are the muscle metaboreflex and arterial baroreflex. In heart failure (HF), the strength and mechanisms of both these reflexes are altered. Muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) in normal individuals increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) primarily via increases in cardiac output (CO) whereas in HF, the mechanism shifts to peripheral vasoconstriction. Baroreceptor unloading increases MAP via peripheral vasoconstriction and this pressor response is blunted in HF...
August 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
John D Horn, Duncan J Maitland, Jonathan Hartman, Jason M Ortega
Cardiovascular implantable devices alter the biofluid dynamics and biochemistry of the blood in which they are placed. These perturbations can lead to thrombus formation which may or may not be desired, depending on the application. In this work, a computational model is developed that couples biofluid dynamics and biochemistry to predict the clotting response of blood to such devices. The model consists of 28 advection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations to track proteins in the blood involved in clotting and utilizes boundary flux terms to model the initiation of the intrinsic clotting pathway at thrombogenic device surfaces...
August 3, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Atsuhito Uneda, Koji Hirashita, Satoru Yabuno, Takahiro Kanda, Kenta Suzuki, Atsushi Matsumoto, Masatoshi Yunoki, Kimihiro Yoshino
BACKGROUND: In surgical treatment of acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), neurosurgeons frequently encounter bleeding from cortical arteries, which is usually controlled with bipolar coagulation. However, bipolar coagulation is associated with a risk of sacrificing the cortical artery, which may affect the prognosis of neurological symptoms when these cortical arteries supply critical areas. In this article, we describe microsurgical repair of damaged cortical arteries using a 10-0 nylon micro-suture in patients with arterial-origin ASDH...
July 31, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Yuansheng Xu, Qinkai Yu, Jianmin Yang, Fang Yuan, Yigang Zhong, Zhanlin Zhou, Ningfu Wang
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the acute hemodynamic effects of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) on coronary perfusion pressure and coronary collateral blood flow. Methods: A total of 17 patients with coronary heart disease with severe (70%-85%) stenosis in one or two vessels confirmed by angiography were enrolled into this study. They were randomly divided into the RIPC group (9 patients) and the control group (8 patients). Distal pressure of coronary artery stenosis before balloon dilation (non-occlusive pressure, Pn-occl ) and distal coronary artery occlusive pressure (Poccl ) during balloon dilation occlusion were measured in all patients...
July 2018: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
Solveig Jandke, Cornelia Garz, Daniel Schwanke, Michael Sendtner, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Roxana O Carare, Stefanie Schreiber
We aimed to test the hypothesis that in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHRSP) rats, non-amyloid cerebral small vessel disease/hypertensive arteriopathy (HA) results in vessel wall injury that may promote cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Our study comprised 21 male SHRSP (age 17-44 weeks) and 10 age- and sex-matched Wistar control rats, that underwent two-photon (2PM) imaging of the arterioles in the parietal cortex using Methoxy-X04, Dextran and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. Our data suggests that HA in SHRSP progresses in a temporal and age-dependent manner, starting from small vessel wall damage (stage 1A), proceeding to CBF reduction (stage 1B), non-occlusive (stage 2) and finally occlusive thrombi (stage 3)...
July 30, 2018: Brain Pathology
Tim M Curtis, Declan McLaughlin, Michael O'Hare, Joanna Kur, Peter Barabas, Gordon Revolta, C Norman Scholfield, J Graham McGeown, Mary K McGahon
The retina is a highly metabolically active tissue that requires a substantial blood supply. The retinal circulation supports the inner retina, while the choroidal vessels supply the photoreceptors. Alterations in retinal perfusion contribute to numerous sight-threatening disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and retinal branch vein occlusions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of blood flow through the retina and how these are altered during ocular disease could lead to the identification of new targets for the treatment of these conditions...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ying Su, Xueqing Deng, Ruishuang Ma, Zengxiang Dong, Feng Wang, Jialan Shi
The pathogenesis of hypercoagulability in retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is largely unknown. Whether the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) and microparticle (MPs) release will affect procoagulant activity (PCA) in RVO needs to be investigated. Objectives . To evaluate PS expression, circulating MPs, and the corresponding PCA in RVO patients. Twenty-five RVO patients were compared with 25 controls. PS-positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. Cell-specific MPs were measured by lactadherin for PS and relevant CD antibody...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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