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Yiting Xu, Xiaojing Ma, Xiaoping Pan, Xingxing He, Yufei Wang, Yuqian Bao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Serum adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) is closely correlated to metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a typical feature of IR in the liver. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum A-FABP levels and NAFLD. METHODS: The study enrolled 728 subjects with normal glucose tolerance from communities. Serum A-FABP levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
December 16, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Antonio Ciccone, Dolores Gabrieli, Rossella Cardinale, Mirko Di Ruscio, Filippo Vernia, Gianpiero Stefanelli, Stefano Necozione, Dina Melideo, Angelo Viscido, Giuseppe Frieri, Giovanni Latella
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many investigations have demonstrated that changes in body weight are frequent in patients with coeliac disease (CD) after a gluten-free diet (GFD); conversely data on the metabolic syndrome (MS) and hepatic steatosis (HS) are still rare. The aim is to evaluate the prevalence of MS and HS in patients with CD, before and after a GFD. METHODS: One hundred eighty-five coeliac adult patients were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis of MS was made according to the current international criteria including waist circumference (WC), hypertension, reduction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia...
December 14, 2018: Digestion
Noha Said Hussein, Azza S Helmy, Naglaa M Sherif, Hassan Z Ghanem, Nabaweya A Ibrahim, Abdel Nasser G El Gendy, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in western countries. The current study aimed to detect and evaluate lipidomic biomarkers for early detection of NAFLD as well as the potential efficiency of methanolic extract of Eclipta prostrata (E. prostrata) on disease management. In this study, Phytochemical screening of E. prostrata methanolic extract was performed using HPLC. NAFLD was induced in albino rats using a high-fat diet together with cholesterol and cholic acid. Comprehensive lipidomic analyses on sera from rats bearing NAFLD as well as normal healthy animals were carried out based on GCMS and multivariate data analysis...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Janaina Guimarães, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia Barbosa Aguila
We aimed to investigate the effects of medium-chain triglyceride oil on the high fructose diet-provoked hepatic abnormalities in mice. We used C57bl/6 mice of 3-months-old divided into four groups for 12 weeks: control (C), control with MCT (C-MCT), fructose (F), and fructose with MCT (F-MCT). We investigated food and water intake, body mass, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma and liver biochemistry, hepatic protein and gene expression. There were no changes in body mass, food intake and glucose tolerance among the groups...
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Chongye Fang, Xianbin Cai, Shuhei Hayashi, Shumei Hao, Haruhiko Sakiyama, Xuanjun Wang, Qin Yang, Shizuo Akira, Shuhei Nishiguchi, Noriko Fujiwara, Hiroko Tsutsui, Jun Sheng
Caffeine intake is associated with a reduced risk developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. We report here that caffeine markedly improved high fat diet-induced NAFLD in mice resulting in a 10-fold increase in circulating IL-6 levels, leading to STAT3 activation in the liver. Interestingly, the expression of IL-6 mRNA was not increased in the liver, but increased substantially in the muscles of caffeine-treated mice. Caffeine was found to stimulate IL-6 production in cultured myotubes but not in hepatocytes, adipocytes, or macrophages...
December 12, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
Saskia Reibe, Mark A Febbraio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Shinya Satoh, Daichi Onomura, Youki Ueda, Hiromichi Dansako, Masao Honda, Shuichi Kaneko, Nobuyuki Kato
Recently we demonstrated that the anti-viral drug ribavirin (RBV) had the ability to suppress lipogenesis through downregulation of retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) under control of the intracellular GTP-level and AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinases, especially microtubule affinity regulating kinase 4 (MARK4). RXRα-overexpression attenuated but did not abolish lipogenesis suppression by RBV, implying that additional factor(s) were involved in this suppressive effect. In this study, we found that the protein level, but not the mRNA level, of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) was downregulated by RBV in hepatic cells...
December 14, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Evelyn E Nash, Tara C Henning, Cau D Pham, Kevin Pettus, Samera Sharpe, Ellen N Kersh
Neisseria gonorrhoeae quickly develops drug resistance. Time-kill curves revealed that EDTA and TOL-463 inhibit growth similar to penicillin, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin. Furthermore, synergistic and additive antimicrobial interactions occurred when EDTA and TOL-463 were combined with penicillin or azithromycin, respectively, suggesting that further investigations into these unconventional antimicrobials may be advantageous.
November 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Renata Alfani, Edoardo Vassallo, Anna Giulia De Anseris, Lucia Nazzaro, Ida D'Acunzo, Carolina Porfito, Claudia Mandato, Pietro Vajro
Obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common cause of pediatric liver disease due to overweight/obesity large-scale epidemics. In clinical practice, diagnosis is usually based on clinical features, blood tests, and liver imaging. Here, we underline the need to make a correct differential diagnosis for a number of genetic, metabolic, gastrointestinal, nutritional, endocrine, muscular, and systemic disorders, and for iatrogenic/viral/autoimmune hepatitis as well. This is all the more important for patients who are not in the NAFLD classical age range and for those for whom a satisfactory response of liver test abnormalities to weight loss after dietary counseling and physical activity measures cannot be obtained or verified due to poor compliance...
December 13, 2018: Children
Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Annunziata, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Carolina Di Somma, Daniela Laudisio, Maria Maisto, Giulia de Alteriis, Gian Carlo Tenore, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
There is a mechanistic link between the gut-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and obesity-related diseases, suggesting that the TMAO pathway may also be linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI), a gender-specific indicator of adipose dysfunction, and the Fatty Liver Index (FLI), a predictor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are early predictors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigated TMAO levels in adults stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) and the association of TMAO with VAI and FLI...
December 13, 2018: Nutrients
Marina Valente Barroso, Adriane Graça-Reis, Isabella Cattani-Cavalieri, Lycia Brito Gitirana, Samuel Santos Valenca, Manuella Lanzetti
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is a worldwide health problem and can cause lipid accumulation in the liver. We evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of mate tea treatment in mice submitted to an HFD. C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD for 13 weeks with and without mate tea. A separate group of mice was treated with fenofibrate as a positive control (a regular drug for lipid disorders). Histological analyses, glucose tolerance tests (GTT), and quantification of mediators related to lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and blood biomarkers for lipid profile were performed...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Elham Karimi-Sales, Abbas Ebrahimi-Kalan, Mohammad Reza Alipour
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an inflammatory and progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, there are no FDA-approved drugs for this condition. Lipids accumulated in NASH have a direct role in the progression of this disease. Therefore, this study for the first time explored the preventive effect of trans-chalcone on NASH through the modulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, SREBP-2, hepatic fatty acid synthesis (FAS) enzyme, proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ2 levels, which are involved in hepatic lipid metabolism...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lee-Lee Lai, Wan Nur Illyana Wan Yusoff, Shireene Ratna Vethakkan, Nik Raihan Nik Mustapha, Sanjiv Mahadeva, Wah-Kheong Chan
BACKGROUND: The recommendation in regards to screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients differs in major guidelines. AIM: To study the prevalence of NALFD and advanced fibrosis among T2DM patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of consecutive adult T2DM patients attending the Diabetes Clinic of a university hospital. Significant hepatic steatosis and advanced fibrosis was diagnosed based on transient elastography if the controlled attenuation parameter was ≥263dB/m and the liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was ≥9...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Min Su, Xiaoliu Liang, Xiaoxiao Xu, Xinmou Wu, Bin Yang
Our previous studies show that vitamin C (VC) plays promising hepatoprotection in mice. Intrahepatic exposure of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can induce dose-dependent cytotoxicity. However, pharmacology-based assessment of VC on PFOS remains uninvestigated. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic benefits of VC on inhibiting PFOS-induced liver steatosis in mice, followed by representative biochemical analysis and immunoassay. As results, VC was beneficial for reduced PFOS-induced liver damages, as showed in reductions of serological levels of transaminases (ALT and AST), lipids (TG and TC), fasting glucose and insulin, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL6), while content of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in serum was increased...
December 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Maria Camila Perez-Matos, Bynvant Sandhu, Alan Bonder, Zhenghui Gordon Jiang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The liver is the central hub of lipoprotein metabolism. A complex relationship exists between dyslipidemia and chronic liver diseases (CLDs). Recent advances in the genetics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) exemplify the pivotal role of lipoprotein metabolism in the pathogenesis of CLD. We review these relationships in four quintessential forms of CLD: NAFLD, ALD, cholestatic liver disease and cirrhosis, with a focus on recent discoveries...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Elizabeth M Brunt, David E Kleiner, Laura A Wilson, Arun J Sanyal, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri
Hepatocellular injury and inflammation are believed to be the primary drivers of fibrogenesis that ultimately lead to cirrhosis in patients with NASH. AIM: This study sought associations between observed improvements in fibrosis with improvement in specific histologic features, NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) ≥ 2, diagnostic category, and primary histologically based outcomes of two adult NASH treatment trials. The primary outcome for the study was fibrosis improvement from baseline to end of treatment, defined as a 1 point or more improvement in fibrosis stage...
December 14, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Xiaoying Liu, Richard M Green
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common cause of abnormal liver chemistry tests in the United States and western world. The mechanisms underlying hepatic steatosis and the progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain incompletely understood. Multiple cellular stress pathways are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of fatty liver, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and its adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR). Numerous studies have demonstrated the important role of ER stress and UPR activation in a host of liver diseases including viral hepatitis, alcohol and drug hepatotoxicity, cholestatic liver disorders and genetic liver diseases...
December 14, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Anne M Burrows, Leanne T Nash, Adam Hartstone-Rose, Mary T Silcox, Sergi López-Torres, Keegan R Selig
Exudativory, the consumption of gums, is an obligate or a facultative dietary niche for some primates and marsupials. Exudativory has been cited as a dietary niche that may have been present in early primates, so finding a dental signature for exudativory is highly desirable. The present study combines exudativorous lorisoids (galagos and lorises) into one sample to compare to closely related, non-exudativorous lorisoids to search for a consistent dental signature of exudativory. Linear measurements were taken from the toothcomb, P2 , M3 , upper canine, and P2 from skulls of 295 adult galagids and lorisids...
December 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Ragab A Mahfouz, Mohammad Gouda, Islam Galal, Mohamed S Ghareb
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recently, a clear evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF). Yet, the underlying pathogenesis is speculative. Thereby, we aimed to investigate the hypothesis that, interatrial thickness (IAST) and left atrial stiffness (LASt) might have mechanistic links between NAFLD and AF. METHODS: Echocardiography and speckle-tracking assessment of left atrial function, transient elastography (TE) of the liver, basal ECG, and Holter monitoring were performed in 180 patients with (NAFLD) and 80 subjects without NAFLD...
December 12, 2018: Echocardiography
Jean-Philippe Bastard, Soraya Fellahi, Étienne Audureau, Richard Layese, Françoise Roudot-Thoraval, Carole Cagnot, Valérie Mahuas-Bourcier, Angela Sutton, Marianne Ziol, Jacqueline Capeau, Pierre Nahon
An obesity-related altered adipose tissue secretion is suggested as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis. However, no prospective study has yet examined the predictive value of circulating adipokines and immuno-inflammatory biomarkers regarding this risk. This was a case-control study nested in a prospective French national cohort of HCV-infected patients with biopsy-proven compensated cirrhosis. We selected 56 HCV1-infected patients who subsequently developed HCC (cases), and 96 controls matched for age, gender and diabetes, not developing HCC after a similar period...
September 1, 2018: European Cytokine Network
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