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Q Ye, F Liu, X Wang, T Han, Y M Qi, F M Wang
Objective: To study the nutritional status and energy metabolic characteristics of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to provide evidence for clinical evaluation and intervention. Methods: A total of 359 NAFLD patients diagnosed on ultrasound from June 2015 to March 2017 were selected as study subjects and divided into mild, moderate to severe fatty liver disease group and 50 healthy subjects as control group. The changes of ICW, ECW, body fat, skeletal muscle, protein and visceral fat area (VFA) of patients and controls were analyzed by using body composition analyzer...
July 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
G Feng, N He, J N Wang, M Mi, C Y Niu
The global prevalence rate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased year by year, and it has become the number one cause for chronic liver disease in China. In addition, the trend of NAFLD has become more pronounced and evident in female gender and younger age group. The long-term persistence of fatty liver disease may cause serious consequences. There are no accepted diagnostic criteria for diagnosing noninvasive diagnosis of NAFLD. Alpha-ketoglutarate is a newly discovered serological marker of high diagnostic value and considered the most valuable potential biomarker along with cytokeratine-18 (CK-18)...
June 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Y P Zhou, R Wu, W Shen, H H Yu, S J Yu
Objective: To explore the effects of oleic acid and palmitic acid on lipid deposition and mTOR/S6K1/SREBP-1c pathways in HepG2 cells. Methods: The model of steatosis was established with induction of oleic acid and palmitic acid and was intervened by rapamycin. The changes in lipid droplets were observed after staining the cells with oil Red O. Intracellular triglyceride (TG) contents in cells were measured by TG kit. mTOR, S6K1, and SREBP-1c mRNA expression levels were detected using QRT-PCR. Western blot was used to determine protein expression levels of mTOR, S6K1 and SREBP-1c...
June 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Xiuli Jiang, Lei Jiang, Aijing Shan, Yutong Su, Yulong Cheng, Dalong Song, He Ji, Guang Ning, Weiqing Wang, Yanan Cao
BACKGROUND: Effective targeting therapies for common chronic liver disease nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are in urgent need. MicroRNA-targeted therapeutics would be potentially an effective treatment strategy of hepatic diseases. Here we investigated the functional role of miR-221/222 and the therapeutic effects of antimiRs-221/222 in NASH mouse models. METHODS: We generated the miR-221/222flox/flox mice on a C57BL/6 J background and the hepatic miR-221/222 knockout (miR-221/222-LKO) mice...
October 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
Alessandro Mantovani, Elena Sani, Angelo Fassio, Antonio Colecchia, Ombretta Viapiana, Davide Gatti, Luca Idolazzi, Maurizio Rossini, Gianluca Salvagno, Giuseppe Lippi, Giacomo Zoppini, Christopher D Byrne, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
AIM: -: Information is lacking on the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and bone mineral density (BMD) or circulating bone turnover biomarkers in post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: -: We recruited 77 white post-menopausal women with T2DM, who consecutively attended our diabetes outpatient service during a 3-month period. Ultrasonography and transient elastography (Fibroscan®) were used for diagnosing and staging NAFLD...
October 10, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
Ning Ji, Yuqi Yang, Chao-Yun Cai, Zi-Ning Lei, Jing-Quan Wang, Pranav Gupta, Suneet Shukla, Suresh V Ambudkar, Dexin Kong, Zhe-Sheng Chen
Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is one of the most important mechanisms responsible for the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). Selonsertib, a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor, targets apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and is now in phase III clinical trial for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this study, we investigated whether selonsertib could reverse MDR-mediated by ABC transporters, including ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC1 and ABCC10. The results showed that selonsertib significantly reversed ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR, but not MDR-mediated by ABCC1 or ABCC10...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
Anna Carter, Simon Mark Brackley, Jiali Gao, Jake Peter Mann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is an autosomal recessive condition that may present in a mild form (cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD)), which mimics non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been suggested that CESD may affect 1 in 40,000 and is under-diagnosed in NAFLD clinics. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of LAL-D using analysis of genetic variation in LIPA. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for previously reported disease variants and prevalence estimates...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Katherine E Pinnick, Pippa J Gunn, Leanne Hodson
Stable isotopes are powerful tools for tracing the metabolic fate of molecules in the human body. In this chapter, we focus on the use of deuterium (2 H), a stable isotope of hydrogen, in the study of human lipid metabolism within the liver in vivo in humans and in vitro using hepatocyte cellular models. The measurement of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) will be focussed on, as the synthesis of fatty acids, specifically palmitate, has been gathering momentum as being implicated in cellular dysfunction, which may be involved in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jaehee Ahn, Dae Won Jun, Hyo Young Lee, Jin Hwa Moon
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Weight loss by lifestyle modification is the cornerstone therapy of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Low carbohydrate diet has showed favorable effects for body weight as well as hepatic fat content in several reports. In this meta-analysis, we review clinical studies article to date regarding the composition of the diet and analyzed the impact of low carbohydrate diet comparing to low calorie diet on hepatic fat change, AST and ALT using Forest plot. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of low carbohydrate diet on NAFLD...
September 25, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Sandra Leal, Lídia Rocha, Ana Silva, Juliana Faria, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Susana I Sá
Tamoxifen (TAM) therapy is the better treatment for breast cancer and the drug use the prophylaxis of this disease in young premenopausal women. Yet, the effects associated with this therapy are unknown. To better understand the extension of this problem, we developed an animal model to mimic this therapy, aiming to evaluate its potential biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver. Young cycling female rats were treated with TAM for one, two and three months and toxicological biomarkers and liver histomorphometry were evaluated...
October 3, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Ki-Jin Ryu, Hyuntae Park, Yong Jin Kim, Kyong Wook Yi, Jung Ho Shin, Jun Young Hur, Tak Kim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1793 Korean postmenopausal women aged 45-65 years who attended a routine health check at a Korean institution from January 2010 to December 2012. Their scores on the Menopause Rating Scale were used to assess VMS. Moderate to severe VMS included ratings of moderate, severe, and very severe...
November 2018: Maturitas
Ludovico Abenavoli, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Luigi Boccuto, Olena Tsyryuk, Nazarii Kobyliak
The main treatments for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are currently based on lifestyle changes, including ponderal decrease and dietary management. However, a subgroup of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), who are unable to modify their lifestyle successfully, may benefit from pharmaceutical support. Several drugs targeting pathogenic mechanisms of NAFLD have been evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of NASH. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear key regulator controlling several processes of the hepatic metabolism...
October 11, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Andrea Kristina Horst, Sonia M Najjar, Christoph Wagener, Gisa Tiegs
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. CEACAM1 is a differentiation antigen involved in the maintenance of epithelial polarity that is induced during hepatocyte differentiation and liver regeneration. CEACAM1 regulates insulin sensitivity by promoting hepatic insulin clearance, and controls liver tolerance and mucosal immunity. Obese insulin-resistant humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease manifest loss of hepatic CEACAM1...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lisa K Koch, Matthew M Yeh
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly prevalent and strongly associated with obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, not only in the Western societies, but also in most regions of the world in the 21st century. The spectrum of its histopathology ranges from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with risk for progressive fibrosis that may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Benign and malignant liver tumors have also been more frequently reported with the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes...
September 27, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Hongxue Shi, Jian Jan, Josiah E Hardesty, K Cameron Falkner, Russell A Prough, Appakalai N Balamurugan, Sri Prakash Mokshagundam, Suresh T Chari, Matthew C Cave
The endocrine disrupting chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and diabetes. However, an integrative analysis of the effects of PCBs on the liver and pancreas has never been performed for the two major PCB subtypes, dioxin-like (DL) and nondioxin-like (NDL), and a mixture of NDL/DL PCBs. Therefore, male C57BL/6 J mice fed a control synthetic diet were treated with either a NDL PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg); a single DL PCB congener, PCB 126 (20 μg/kg); a NDL/DL mixture, Aroclor 1260 plus PCB 126; or vehicle control for 2 weeks...
October 9, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Gyorgy Baffy
Gut microbiota is the largest collection of commensal microorganisms in the human body, engaged in reciprocal cellular and molecular interactions with the liver. This mutually beneficial relationship may break down and result in dysbiosis, associated with disease phenotypes. Altered composition and function of gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathobiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a prevalent condition linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction. NAFLD may progress to cirrhosis and portal hypertension, which is the result of increased intrahepatic vascular resistance and altered splanchnic circulation...
October 12, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Siddhartha Das, Uppalapati Venkata Uma Vamsidhar Reddy, Abdoul Hamide, Bhawana Badhe, Muthusamy Ravichandran, Abilash Srinivasa Murthy
Yellow phosphorous (YP) is the toxic form of elemental phosphorous and the chief constituent of firecrackers and rodenticides. In India, the rodenticide paste is frequently used for the suicidal purpose. This study is an autopsy-based observational study which describes the histopathological features of heart, lungs, liver, and kidney of fatal cases of YP poisoning. The most common autopsy features in the viscera were congestion and petechial hemorrhage. The liver histopathology findings were microvesicular steatosis (68%), hepatic necrosis (62%), macrovesicular steatosis (50%), inflammatory cells (46%), sinusoidal congestion (40%), cholestasis (32%), and toxic hepatitis (18%)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Cheng Zhang, Ping Wang, Yongqiang Li, Changxin Huang, Wei Ni, Yidan Chen, Junping Shi, Gongying Chen, Xiangrong Hu, Meng Ye, Shiwei Duan, Kaifeng Wang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prevalent liver malignancy that can be developed from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Numerous pathophysiological alterations, including insulin resistance, specific cytokine release, oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, are involved in the transition of NAFLD to cirrhosis and HCC. MicroRNAs, as post-transcriptional modulators, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD-related HCC by regulating lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and differentiation...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Steven Nash, Sherif Aboseif, Peter Gilling, Mathew Gretzer, Harvey Samowitz, Marc Rose, Joel Slutsky, Steven Siegel, Le Mai Tu
AIMS: This paper presents 4-year follow-up results for patients enrolled in a pivotal study conducted to support an FDA premarket approval application (PMAA). The study evaluated the safety and efficacy of the ProACT Adjustable Continence Therapy for the treatment of post-prostatectomy stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS: The clinical study involved 11 clinical sites and enrolled 160 subjects, all male. A total of 124 subjects met study criteria and 123 were implanted with ProACT...
October 12, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Mahmud Mahamid, Tawfik Khoury, Hana Amara, Mahmoud Siadi, Jabaren Mohamed, Amir Mari, Rafea Shalabi, Hisham Sholy, Wiliam Nseir
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging condition and is constituted as a vital public health epidemic globally. This study evaluated the process of identification and documentation of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome in correlation with those diagnosed with obesity. Methods: Participants included 352 patients older than 18 years who were diagnosed with fatty liver disease. We performed a cross-sectional study between August 2016 and September 2017...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
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