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Reactive oxygen nano

Sarah May, Cordula Hirsch, Alexandra Rippl, Nils Bohmer, Jean-Pierre Kaiser, Liliane Diener, Adrian Wichser, Alexander Bürkle, Peter Wick
Due to their interesting physicochemical properties, gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are the focus of increasing attention in the field of biomedicine and are under consideration for use in drug delivery and bioimaging, or as radiosensitizers and nano-based vaccines. Thorough evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Au-NPs is required, since damage to the genome can remain undetected in standard hazard assessments. Available genotoxicity data is either limited or contradictory. Here, we examined the influence of three surface modified 3-4 nm Au-NPs on human A549 cells, according to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) paradigm...
August 10, 2018: Nanoscale
Yingjun Zhou, Fashui Hong, Yusheng Tian, Xiangyu Zhao, Jie Hong, Yuguan Ze, Ling Wang
Background : Numerous studies have demonstrated that, upon maternal exposure, nano-TiO2 can cross the placental barrier, accumulate in offspring animals, and cause neurotoxicity. However, the neurotoxic mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of nano-TiO2 on the dendritic outgrowth of hippocampal neurons and confirm the role of apoptosis and excessive autophagy in the neurotoxicity of offspring mice caused by nano-TiO2 , as well as its molecular mechanisms. Methods : Pregnant mice were intragastrically administered 1, 2, or 3 mg per kg body weight nano-TiO2 consecutively from prenatal day 7 to postpartum day 21...
November 1, 2017: Toxicology Research
Soojeong Cho, Byeongdu Lee, Wooram Park, Xiaoke Huang, Dong-Hyun Kim
To enhance localization and precision of therapeutic radiation delivery, nano-radiosensitizers have been developed. A specific volume of comprising surface atoms is known to be the radiosensitizing region. However, the shape dependent local dose enhancement of nanoparticles is often underestimated and rarely reported. Here, a noble metal nanostructure, inspired by the photoperiodic day-flowers, was synthesized by metal reduction with bile acid molecules. The impact of high surface area of day-flower like nanoparticles (D-NP) on radiosensitizing effect was demonstrated with assays for ROS generation, cellular apoptosis, and clonogenic survival of human liver cancer cells (HepG2) cells...
August 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bakthavatchalam Velavan, Thomas Divya, Anandasadagopan Sureshkumar, Ganapasam Sudhandiran
Chemotherapeutic drugs exert systemic toxicity in lung cancer cells and therefore novel treatment strategies are warranted. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), though possessing beneficial effects in alleviating cancer, its effect has been limited due to ineffective systemic delivery, toxicity and bioavailability. To attain the maximum therapeutic response of EGCG, we have synthesized bovine serum albumin (BSA) encapsulated magnetite nanoparticle (MNPs) loaded with EGCG (nano EGCG). The synthesized nano EGCG was characterized using HR-TEM, XRD and FT-IR...
July 31, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Alan Rocha Baggio, Mayara Simonelly Costa Santos, Fabiane H Veiga-Souza, Rodrigo Barbosa Nunes, Paulo Eduardo N Souza, Sônia Nair Báo, Antonio Otavio Toledo Patrocinio, Detlef W Bahnemann, Luciano P Silva, Maria José A Sales, Leonardo Giordano Paterno
The photophysical behavior and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (AlClPc) are evaluated by steady state absorption/emission, transient emission, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies in the presence graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and carboxylated nano graphene oxide (NGO). AlClPc and graphene oxides form a supramolecular structure stabilized by pi-pi interactions, which quantitatively quenches fluorescence emission and suppresses ROS generation...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Xuemei Sun, Bijuan Chen, Qiufen Li, Nan Liu, Bin Xia, Lin Zhu, Keming Qu
Nano- and microplastics have been shown to cause negative effects on marine organisms. However, the toxicities of nano- and microplastics toward marine bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of polystyrene nano- and microplastics on the marine bacterium Halomonas alkaliphila by determining growth inhibition, chemical composition, inorganic nitrogen conversion efficiencies and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The results showed that both nano- and microplastics inhibited the growth of H...
November 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Suresh K Verma, Ealisha Jha, Pritam Kumar Panda, Arun Thirumurugan, S K S Parashar, Shubhransu Patro, Mrutyunjay Suar
This study evaluates the impact of industrially prepared TiO2 nanoparticles on the biological system by using an in vitro model of colon cancer cell lines (HCT116). Industrial synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles was mimicked on the lab scale by the high-energy ball milling method by milling bulk titanium oxide particles for 5, 10, and 15 h in an ambient environment. The physiochemical characterization by field emission scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-visible spectroscopy revealed alteration in the size and surface charge with respect to increase in the milling time...
January 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Robert K Adamik, Naiara Hernández-Ibáñez, Jesus Iniesta, Jennifer K Edwards, Alexander G R Howe, Robert D Armstrong, Stuart H Taylor, Alberto Roldan, Yuanyang Rong, Richard Malpass-Evans, Mariolino Carta, Neil B McKeown, Daping He, Frank Marken
The one-step vacuum carbonization synthesis of a platinum nano-catalyst embedded in a microporous heterocarbon (Pt@cPIM) is demonstrated. A nitrogen-rich polymer of an intrinsic microporosity (PIM) precursor is impregnated with PtCl₆2- to give (after vacuum carbonization at 700 °C) a nitrogen-containing heterocarbon with embedded Pt nanoparticles of typically 1⁻4 nm diameter (with some particles up to 20 nm diameter). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of this hybrid material is 518 m² g-1 (with a cumulative pore volume of 1...
July 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Carlos Romero-Muñiz, Ana Martín-Recio, Pablo Pou, José M Gómez-Rodríguez, Rubén Pérez
Graphene is commonly regarded as an inert material. However, it is well known that the presence of defects or substitutional hetero-atoms confers graphene promising catalytic properties. In this work, we use first-principles calculations to show that it is also possible to enhance the chemical reactivity of a graphene layer by simply growing it on an appropriate substrate. Our comprehensive study demonstrates that, in strongly interacting substrates like Rh(111), graphene adopts highly rippled structures that exhibit areas with distinctive chemical behaviors...
July 25, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lauren N Pincus, Fjodor Melnikov, Jamila S Yamani, Julie B Zimmerman
A novel multifunctional sorbent material of nano-titanium dioxide-enabled chitosan beads cross-linked with copper (CuTICB) is capable of photo-oxidation of As(III) to the less-toxic and more easily adsorbed As(V) in UV light and selective adsorption of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) in the presence of phosphate, a strong adsorptive competitor and inhibitor of arsenic removal performance. CuTICB is an attractive sorbent as simultaneous photo-oxidation and adsorption reduces treatment time and cost while selective adsorption improves removal efficiency of arsenic in typical environmental conditions where competitive ions are predominant...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Marius Kunkel, Stefan Schildknecht, Klaus Boldt, Lukas Zeyffert, David Schleheck, Marcel Leist, Sebastian Polarz
The importation of construction principles or even constituents from biology into materials science is a prevailing concept. Vice versa, the cellular level modification of living systems with nonnatural components is much more difficult to achieve. It has been done for analytical purposes, for example, imaging, to learn something about intracellular processes. Cases describing the improvement of a biological function by the integration of a nonnatural (nano)constituent are extremely rare. Because biological membranes contain some kind of a surfactant, for example, phospholipids, our idea is to modify cells with a newly synthesized surfactant...
July 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Nasrin Ghassemi-Barghi
Etoposide is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, as a Topoisomerase II inhibitor, during clinical use, several side effects may occur. In addition, in several in vivo and in vitro studies, etoposide has been shown to have a range of genotoxic effects including single and double strand breaks. Melatonin is an anti-aging and antioxidant hormone synthesized from the pineal gland. The genoprotective, antioxidant, and free radical scavenger properties of melatonin have been well explained in various studies...
June 25, 2018: Pharmacology
Behnaz Ghaemi, Elnaz Shaabani, Roqya Najafi-Taher, Saeedeh Jafari Nodooshan, Amin Sadeghpour, Sharmin Kharrazi, Amir Amani
In this study, we investigated whether ZnO coating on Ag nanoparticles (NPs) tunes electron flux and hole figuration at the metal-semiconductor interface under UV radiation. This effect triggers the photoactivity and generation of reactive oxygen species from Ag@ZnO NPs, which results in enhanced cytotoxic effects and apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231). In this context, upregulation of apoptotic cascade proteins (i.e., Bax/Bcl2 association, p53, cytochrome c, and caspase-3) along with activation of oxidative stress proteins suggested the occurrence of apoptosis by Ag@ZnO NPs in cancer cells through the mitochondrial pathway...
July 25, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cristiano Soares, Simão Branco-Neves, Alexandra de Sousa, Jorge Teixeira, Ruth Pereira, Fernanda Fidalgo
This study aimed at evaluating the interactive effects of acetaminophen (AC; 400 mg kg-1 ) and silicon dioxide nanomaterial (nano-SiO2 ;3 mg kg-1 ) on soil-grown barley. After 14 days of growth, plant growth, evaluated in terms of fresh and dry weight, was greatly inhibited by AC, independently of being or not co-treated with nano-SiO2 . Plants growing under high levels of AC did not show any increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) nor thiols contents, though levels of superoxide anion (O2 .- ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) were increased in leaves and roots, respectively...
October 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shubo Tian, Qiang Fu, Wenxing Chen, Quanchen Feng, Zheng Chen, Jian Zhang, Weng-Chon Cheong, Rong Yu, Lin Gu, Juncai Dong, Jun Luo, Chen Chen, Qing Peng, Claudia Draxl, Dingsheng Wang, Yadong Li
Sub-nano metal clusters often exhibit unique and unexpected properties, which make them particularly attractive as catalysts. Herein, we report a "precursor-preselected" wet-chemistry strategy to synthesize highly dispersed Fe2 clusters that are supported on mesoporous carbon nitride (mpg-C3 N4 ). The obtained Fe2 /mpg-C3 N4 sample exhibits superior catalytic performance for the epoxidation of trans-stilbene to trans-stilbene oxide, showing outstanding selectivity of 93% at high conversion of 91%...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Hong Zhu, Yezheng Cai, Fanghui Wang, Peng Gao, Jidong Cao
Carbon-supported Au-Pt x Fe y nanoparticles were synthesized via microwave heating polyol process, followed by annealing for the formation of the ordered structure. The structure characterizations indicate that Au is alloyed with intermetallic Pt-Fe nanoparticles and therefore the surface electronic properties are tuned. The electrochemical tests show that the microwave heating polyol process is more effective than oil bath heating polyol process for synthesizing the highly active catalysts. The introduction of trace Au (0...
July 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nagarajan Padmavathy, Lopamudra Das Ghosh, Sai Rama Krishna Meka, Kaushik Chatterjee
Phytochemicals constitute a promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases, but their delivery poses significant challenges. In this work, a nanoscale polyactive emulsion was designed for smart, cell-responsive delivery of a curcumin prodrug (curcumin dicarboxylate, CDA) that was chemically conjugated to enzymatically labile oligo-peptides with polycaprolactone (PCL) as the carrier. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive (PLGLYAL) or nonsensitive (GPYYPLG) peptides were used as spacers for conjugating CDA and PCL...
July 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yu Li, Zhan-Zhao Zhang
Background: Excessive reactive oxygen species production caused by type 2 diabetes conditions can disrupt normal bone metabolism and greatly impair bone regeneration. Materials and methods: In the present study, curcumin (Cur)-loaded microspheres were incorporated into a fish collagen nano-hydroxyapatite scaffold to promote bone repair under diabetic conditions by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species production. Results: The drug release kinetic study showed that the Cur release from the composite scaffolds lasted up to 30 days...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Aala Azari, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Ehsan Zamani, Nahid Amani, Fatemeh Shaki
Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic chemical compound found in cooked foods. Considerable evidences suggest that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are contributed to AA toxicity. Ceric oxide (CeO2 ) nanoparticles (nano-ceria) have the potential to be developed as a therapeutic for oxidative stress insults due to their catalytic antioxidant properties. In this study we investigated, whether nano-ceria exerted a protective effect against AA-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative damage. HepG2 human cancer cell lines were exposed to nano-ceria (50, 100, and 200 µM) and after 30 min, AA in the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) concentration (200 µM) was added to the cells...
June 6, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Yoon-Mi Lee, Young Yoon, Haelim Yoon, Sooji Song, Hyun-Min Park, Yu Young Lee, Hyunho Shin, Sung Won Hwang, Kyung-Jin Yeum
The use of phytochemicals for preventing chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress such as cataracts is hindered by their low bioavailability. The effects of nano-carriers on the antioxidant activities of extracts of black rice with giant embryo (BRGEx) and soybeans (SBx) have been determined in human lens epithelial B3 cells. Scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that rGO (reduced graphene oxide) has a flat surface unlike GO (graphene oxide), which has a distinctive wrinkled structure with defects...
May 31, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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