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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680200/biological-feasibility-and-importance-of-a-gonorrhea-vaccine-for-global-public-health
#1
Leah R Vincent, Ann E Jerse
There is a growing public health interest in controlling sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through vaccination due to increasing recognition of the global disease burden of STIs and the role of STIs in women's reproductive health, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and the health and well-being of neonates. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has historically challenged vaccine development through the expression of phase and antigenically variable surface molecules and its capacity to cause repeated infections without inducing protective immunity...
April 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618511/structural-and-functional-delineation-of-aerobactin-biosynthesis-in-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#2
Daniel C Bailey, Evan Alexander, Matthew R Rice, Eric J Drake, Lisa S Mydy, Courtney C Aldrich, Andrew M Gulick
Aerobactin, a citryl-hydroxamate siderophore, is produced by a number of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria to aid in iron assimilation. Interest in this well-known siderophore was reignited by recent investigations suggesting that it plays a key role in mediating the enhanced virulence of a hypervirulent pathotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP). In contrast to classical opportunistic strains of K. pneumoniae , hvKP causes serious life-threatening infections in previously healthy individuals in the community...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408383/evaluation-of-synergistic-antimicrobial-effect-of-vitamins-a-b1-b2-b6-b12-c-d-e-and-k-with-antibiotics-against-resistant-bacterial-strains
#3
Shakeel Shahzad, Muhammad Adnan Ashraf, Muhammad Sajid, Aqeel Shahzad, Azhar Rafique, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood
OBJECTIVES: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) superbugs, including Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are a challenge for healthcare professionals. In this study, the synergistic activity of vitamins with antibiotics against resistant bacterial strains was evaluated. METHODS: Synergistic effects between antibiotics and stock solutions of vitamins were evaluated by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. Distilled water and propylene glycol were used as solvent for water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, respectively...
June 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183757/virulence-and-resistance-on-various-pathogens-mediated-by-mobile-genetic-integrons-via-high-flux-assays
#4
Yukui Zhong, Huamin Zhong, Qiulian Deng, Zhenwen Zhou, Yongqiang Xie, Muxia Yan, Tingting Hu, Mingyong Luo
BACKGROUND: Recognized as a resistance mechanism responsible for the emergence and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, integron is widely distributed and spread among clinical microorganisms and play a key role in the dissemination of such antimicrobial resistance, which may eventually contribute to the unleashing of "Super Bugs" In this study, detection assays based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methodologies targeting on class 1 to class 3 integrase genes was developed and evaluated...
January 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923605/microbial-pathogenicity-and-virulence-mediated-by-integrons-on-gram-positive-microorganisms
#5
REVIEW
Yanmei Li, Ling Yang, Jie Fu, Muxia Yan, Dingqiang Chen, Li Zhang
Gram-positive microorganisms are one of leading pathogenic microorganisms in public health, including several typical "Super Bugs" as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, which caused a increasement of infections, clinical failures and expenses. Regarded as a common genetic element responsible for horizontal gene transfer, integrons are widely distributed in various pathogens considered as a determinant in the acquisition and evolution of antibiotic resistance...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530195/facile-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-mediated-by-polyacrylamide-reduction-approach-to-antibacterial-application
#6
Hosam I Salaheldin, Meshal H K Almalki, Abd Elhameed M Hezma, Gamal E H Osman
The current time increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant 'super-bugs' and the risks associated with food safety have become global issues. Therefore, further research is warranted to identify new and effective antimicrobial substances. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized by autoclaving technique using, different concentrations of Ag salt (AgNO3) solution (1, 5, 10, and 25 mM). Their presence was confirmed by a surface plasmon resonance band at ∼435 nm using UV-Vis absorption spectra...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174759/-infectious-supercarelessness-in-discussing-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#7
Neil S Greenspan
Many bacterial pathogens are exhibiting resistance to increasing numbers of antibiotics making it much more challenging to treat the infections caused by these microbes. In many reports in the media and perhaps even in discussions among physicians and biomedical scientists, these bacteria are frequently referred to as "bugs" with the prefix "super" appended. This terminology has a high potential to elicit unjustified inferences and fails to highlight the broader evolutionary context. Understanding the full range of biological and evolutionary factors that influence the spread and outcomes of infections is critical to formulating effective individual therapies and public health interventions...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792774/under-expression-of-chemosensory-genes-in-domiciliary-bugs-of-the-chagas-disease-vector-triatoma-brasiliensis
#8
Axelle Marchant, Florence Mougel, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Jane Costa, Carlos Eduardo Almeida, Myriam Harry
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses-a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358749/genomic-insights-into-the-esbl-and-mcr-1-producing-st648-escherichiacoli-with-multi-drug-resistance
#9
Huimin Zhang, Christopher H Seward, Zuowei Wu, Huiyan Ye, Youjun Feng
Polymyxin acts as an ultimate line of refuge against the severe infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. This conventional idea is challenged dramatically by the recent discovery of mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) is prevalent in food animals and human beings worldwide. More importantly, the mcr-1 gene was found to be co-localized with other antibiotic resistance genes, raising the possibility that super-bugs with pan-drug resistance are emerging. However, little is reported on the genomes of the mcr-1-positive bacterial host reservoirs...
2016: Science Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26487554/resistance-integrons-class-1-2-and-3-integrons
#10
REVIEW
Yang Deng, Xuerui Bao, Lili Ji, Lei Chen, Junyan Liu, Jian Miao, Dingqiang Chen, Huawei Bian, Yanmei Li, Guangchao Yu
As recently indiscriminate abuse of existing antibiotics in both clinical and veterinary treatment leads to proliferation of antibiotic resistance in microbes and poses a dilemma for the future treatment of such bacterial infection, antimicrobial resistance has been considered to be one of the currently leading concerns in global public health, and reported to widely spread and extended to a large variety of microorganisms. In China, as one of the currently worst areas for antibiotics abuse, the annual prescription of antibiotics, including both clinical and veterinary treatment, has approaching 140 gram per person and been roughly estimated to be 10 times higher than that in the United Kingdom, which is considered to be a potential area for the emergence of "Super Bugs"...
2015: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25865985/superbugs-causing-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-and-the-return-of-pre-antibiotic-era
#11
S Qureshi, C Agrawal, M Madan, A Pandey, H Chauhan
The rise in super bugs causing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity despite recent advances in management owing to the looming 'antibiotic apocalypse'. The aetiology and susceptibility pattern of the VAP isolates varies with patient population, type of intensive care unit (ICU) and is an urgent diagnostic challenge. The present study carried out for a period of one year in a tertiary care hospital, enrolled patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥48 hrs. Endotracheal aspirates (ETA) from suspected VAP patients were processed by semi quantitative method...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25479075/chitosan-improves-anti-biofilm-efficacy-of-gentamicin-through-facilitating-antibiotic-penetration
#12
Haibo Mu, Fan Guo, Hong Niu, Qianjin Liu, Shunchun Wang, Jinyou Duan
Antibiotic overuse is one of the major drivers in the generation of antibiotic resistant "super bugs" that can potentially cause serious effects on health. In this study, we reported that the polycationic polysaccharide, chitosan could improve the efficacy of a given antibiotic (gentamicin) to combat bacterial biofilms, the universal lifestyle of microbes in the world. Short- or long-term treatment with the mixture of chitosan and gentamicin resulted in the dispersal of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) biofilms...
2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25451137/inhaled-formulations-and-pulmonary-drug-delivery-systems-for-respiratory-infections
#13
REVIEW
Qi Tony Zhou, Sharon Shui Yee Leung, Patricia Tang, Thaigarajan Parumasivam, Zhi Hui Loh, Hak-Kim Chan
Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers...
May 2015: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25287013/co-existence-of-beta-lactamases-in-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-from-kathmandu-nepal
#14
Ram Hari Pokhrel, Badri Thapa, Rajesh Kafle, Pradeep Kumar Shah, Chanwit Tribuddharat
BACKGROUND: The trend of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is increasing in Nepal. Limited studies have been reported investigating ESBL types and carbapenemases in E. coli. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted between June 2012 to January 2013 in Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Nepal. Non-repetitive clinical samples from out-patient department (OPD) and Intensive Care Units (ICU) were processed for bacteriological culture and identification of E...
2014: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25140175/multidrug-resistance-an-emerging-crisis
#15
REVIEW
Jyoti Tanwar, Shrayanee Das, Zeeshan Fatima, Saif Hameed
The resistance among various microbial species (infectious agents) to different antimicrobial drugs has emerged as a cause of public health threat all over the world at a terrifying rate. Due to the pacing advent of new resistance mechanisms and decrease in efficiency of treating common infectious diseases, it results in failure of microbial response to standard treatment, leading to prolonged illness, higher expenditures for health care, and an immense risk of death. Almost all the capable infecting agents (e...
2014: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24897785/wonder-world-of-phages-potential-biocontrol-agents-safeguarding-biosphere-and-health-of-animals-and-humans-current-scenario-and-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Ruchi Tiwari, Sandip Chakraborty, Kuldeep Dhama, Mohd Yaqoob Wani, Amit Kumar, Sanjay Kapoor
Darwin's theory of natural selection and concept of survival of fittest of Wallace is a universal truth which derives the force of life among all live entities on this biosphere. Issues regarding food safety along with increased drug resistance and emerging zoonotic infections have proved that multidisciplinary efforts are in demand for human and animal welfare. This has led to development of various novel therapies the list of which remains incomplete without mentioning about phages. Homologous and non-homologous recombination along with point mutation and addition of new genes play role in their evolution...
February 1, 2014: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24331611/harmonic-radar-tagging-for-tracking-movement-of-nezara-viridula-hemiptera-pentatomidae
#17
Grant L Pilkay, Francis P F Reay-Jones, Jeremy K Greene
Harmonic radar tagging was investigated as a method for monitoring the movement of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Because adhesive toxicity and tag weight limit the use of this technology, initial efforts focused on selection of the optimal adhesive and design of harmonic radar tags to reduce impact on the movement of stink bugs. A design consisting of a 6-cm-long 0.10-mm-thick silver-plated copper monopole on the anode terminal of a three-contact Schottky barrier diode attached with Gorilla super glue provided a compromise between unimpaired movement and tracking range, adding an additional 8% to the weight of the stink bug while not significantly (P > 0...
October 2013: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24127037/application-of-polymer-nanocomposites-in-the-nanomedicine-landscape-envisaging-strategies-to-combat-implant-associated-infections
#18
REVIEW
Poushpi Dwivedi, Shahid S Narvi, Ravi P Tewari
This review article presents an overview of the potential biomedical application of polymer nanocomposites arising from different chemistries, compositions, and constructions. The interaction between the chosen matrix and the filler is of critical importance. The existing polymer used in the biomedical arena includes aliphatic polyesters such as polylactide (PLA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO), poly(butylenes succinate) (PBS), poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s, and natural biopolymers such as starch, cellulose, chitin, chitosan, lignin, and proteins...
December 16, 2013: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23730551/engineering-nanosilver-as-an-antibacterial-biosensor-and-bioimaging-material
#19
Georgios A Sotiriou, Sotiris E Pratsinis
The capacity of nanosilver (Ag nanoparticles) to destroy infectious micro-organisms makes it one of the most powerful antimicrobial agents, an attractive feature against "super-bugs" resistant to antibiotics. Furthermore, its plasmonic properties facilitate its employment as a biosensor or bioimaging agent. Here, the interaction of nanosilver with biological systems including bacteria and mammalian cells is reviewed. The toxicity of nanosilver is discussed focusing on Ag(+) ion release in liquid solutions. Biomedical applications of nanosilver are also presented capitalizing on its antimicrobial and plasmonic properties and summarizing its advantages, limitations and challenges...
October 2011: Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22958711/-save-antibiotics-save-lives-an-indian-success-story-of-infection-control-through-persuasive-diplomacy
#20
A Ghafur, V Nagvekar, S Thilakavathy, K Chandra, R Gopalakrishnan, Pr Vidyalakshmi
UNLABELLED: HASH(0x4c7f490) BACKGROUND: Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat, with increasing prevalence in many countries. Restricted usage of higher end antibiotics, especially carbapenem is of great importance in tackling these super bugs. Purpose of this retrospective study was to analyse the impact of antibiotic stewardship activities on the prevalence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in our hospital. FINDINGS: In the first Quarter of 2009, average usage of carbapenem group of antibiotics was 955 vials a month while in 2010, the usage dropped to 745 vials per month...
2012: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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