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Projection neuron

Derek Garden, Arianna Rinaldi, Matthew F Nolan
The inferior olive plays a critical role in motor coordination and learning by integrating diverse afferent signals to generate climbing fibre inputs to the cerebellar cortex. While it is well established that climbing fibre signals are important for motor coordination, the mechanisms by which neurones in the inferior olive integrate synaptic inputs and the roles of particular ion channels are unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that neurones in the inferior olive actively integrate glutamatergic synaptic inputs...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Andreas Arendt, El-Sayed Baz, Monika Stengl
The circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia (Leucophaea) maderae is located in the accessory medulla (AME). Ipsi- and contralateral histaminergic compound eyes are required for photic entrainment. Light pulses delayed locomotor activity rhythms during the early night and advanced during the late night. Thus, different neuronal pathways might relay either light-dependent delays or advances to the clock. Injections of neuroactive substances combined with running-wheel assays suggested that GABA, PDF, myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs), and orcokinins (ORCs) are part of both entrainment pathways, while allatotropin (AT) only delayed locomotor rhythms at the early night...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
E H Baker, S W Levin, Z Zhang, A B Mukherjee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a devastating neurodegenerative storage disease caused by palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 deficiency, which impairs degradation of palmitoylated proteins (constituents of ceroid) by lysosomal hydrolases. Consequent lysosomal ceroid accumulation leads to neuronal injury, resulting in rapid neurodegeneration and childhood death. As part of a project studying the treatment benefits of a combination of cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetyl cysteine, we made serial measurements of patients' brain volumes with MR imaging...
October 20, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Thomas Burwick, Alexandros Bouras
The communication-through-coherence (CTC) hypothesis states that a sending group of neurons will have a particularly strong effect on a receiving group if both groups oscillate in a phase-locked ("coherent") manner (Fries, 2005, 2015). Here, we consider a situation with two visual stimuli, one in the focus of attention and the other distracting, resulting in two sites of excitation at an early cortical area that project to a common site in a next area. Taking a modeler's perspective, we confirm the workings of a mechanism that was proposed by Bosman et al...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
Samuel A Neymotin, Benjamin A Suter, Salvador Dura-Bernal, Gordon M G Shepherd, Michele Migliore, William W Lytton
Corticospinal neurons (SPI), thick-tufted pyramidal neurons in motor cortex layer 5B that project caudally via the medullary pyramids, display distinct class-specific electrophysiological properties in vitro: strong sag with hyperpolarization, lack of adaptation, and a nearly linear frequency-current (FI) relationship. We used our electrophysiological data to produce a pair of large archives of SPI neuron computer models in two model classes: 1. Detailed models with full reconstruction; 2. Simplified models with 6 compartments...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Katelyn N Benthall, Ryan A Hough, Andrew D McClellan
Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Neil C Ford, Mark L Baccei
Spinal lamina I projection neurons serve as a major conduit by which noxious stimuli detected in the periphery are transmitted to nociceptive circuits in the brain, including the parabrachial nucleus (PB) and the periaqueductal gray (PAG). While neonatal spino-PB neurons are more than twice as likely to exhibit spontaneous activity compared to spino-PAG neurons, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear since nothing is known about the voltage-independent (i.e. 'leak') ion channels expressed by these distinct populations during early life...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Stefan Dippel, Martin Kollmann, Georg Oberhofer, Alice Montino, Carolin Knoll, Milosz Krala, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Sergius Frank, Robert Kumpf, Joachim Schachtner, Ernst A Wimmer
BACKGROUND: The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is an emerging insect model organism representing the largest insect order, Coleoptera, which encompasses several serious agricultural and forest pests. Despite the ecological and economic importance of beetles, most insect olfaction studies have so far focused on dipteran, lepidopteran, or hymenopteran systems. RESULTS: Here, we present the first detailed morphological description of a coleopteran olfactory pathway in combination with genome-wide expression analysis of the relevant gene families involved in chemoreception...
October 17, 2016: BMC Biology
Siyu Zhang, Min Xu, Wei-Cheng Chang, Chenyan Ma, Johnny Phong Hoang Do, Daniel Jeong, Tiffany Lei, Jiang Lan Fan, Yang Dan
Long-range projections from the frontal cortex are known to modulate sensory processing in multiple modalities. Although the mouse has become an increasingly important animal model for studying the circuit basis of behavior, the functional organization of its frontal cortical long-range connectivity remains poorly characterized. Here we used virus-assisted circuit mapping to identify the brain networks for top-down modulation of visual, somatosensory and auditory processing. The visual cortex is reciprocally connected to the anterior cingulate area, whereas the somatosensory and auditory cortices are connected to the primary and secondary motor cortices...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Neloy Kumar Chakroborty, Randolf Menzel, Marco Schubert
Ca(2+) imaging techniques were applied to investigate the neuronal behavior of projection neurons in the honeybee antennal lobe to examine the effects of long lasting adaptation on odorant coding. Responses to 8 test odorants were measured before, during and after an odor adaptation phase. Bees were exposed to the adapting odor for 30 minutes. Test odorant responses were only recorded from a sub-population of accessible glomeruli on the antennal lobe surface. Projection neurons, the output neurons of the antennal lobes, are projecting through the lateral, mediolateral and medial antennal lobe tract to higher centers of the olfactory pathway...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Julian C Shillcock, Michael Hawrylycz, Sean Hill, Hanchuan Peng
Large-scale brain initiatives such as the US BRAIN initiative and the European Human Brain Project aim to marshall a vast amount of data and tools for the purpose of furthering our understanding of brains. Fundamental to this goal is that neuronal morphologies must be seamlessly reconstructed and aggregated on scales up to the whole rodent brain. The experimental labor needed to manually produce this number of digital morphologies is prohibitively large. The BigNeuron initiative is assembling community-generated, open-source, automated reconstruction algorithms into an open platform, and is beginning to generate an increasing flow of high-quality reconstructed neurons...
February 24, 2016: Brain Informatics
Hanna Zwaka, Daniel Münch, Gisela Manz, Randolf Menzel, Jürgen Rybak
In the honeybee brain, two prominent tracts - the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tract - project from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobes (ALs), to the central brain, the mushroom bodies (MBs), and the protocerebral lobe (PL). Intracellularly stained uniglomerular projection neurons were reconstructed, registered to the 3D honeybee standard brain atlas, and then used to derive the spatial properties and quantitative morphology of the neurons of both tracts. We evaluated putative synaptic contacts of projection neurons (PNs) using confocal microscopy...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Iryna Yavorska, Michael Wehr
Cortical inhibitory neurons exhibit remarkable diversity in their morphology, connectivity, and synaptic properties. Here, we review the function of somatostatin-expressing (SOM) inhibitory interneurons, focusing largely on sensory cortex. SOM neurons also comprise a number of subpopulations that can be distinguished by their morphology, input and output connectivity, laminar location, firing properties, and expression of molecular markers. Several of these classes of SOM neurons show unique dynamics and characteristics, such as facilitating synapses, specific axonal projections, intralaminar input, and top-down modulation, which suggest possible computational roles...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Katarzyna Lebida, Jerzy W Mozrzymas
Experience and learning in adult primary somatosensory cortex are known to affect neuronal circuits by modifying both excitatory and inhibitory transmission. Synaptic plasticity phenomena provide a key substrate for cognitive processes, but precise description of the cellular and molecular correlates of learning is hampered by multiplicity of these mechanisms in various projections and in different types of neurons. Herein, we investigated the impact of associative learning on neuronal plasticity in distinct types of postsynaptic neurons by checking the impact of classical conditioning (pairing whisker stroking with tail shock) on the spike timing-dependent plasticity (t-LTP and t-LTD) in the layer IV to II/III vertical pathway of the mouse barrel cortex...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
A Ridder, M L T M Müller, V Kotagal, K A Frey, R L Albin, N I Bohnen
OBJECTIVES: Dopaminergic degeneration affects both nigrostriatal projection neurons and retinal amacrine cells in Parkinson disease (PD). Parkinsonian retinopathy is associated with impaired color discrimination and contrast sensitivity. Some prior studies described associations between color discrimination deficits and cognitive deficits in PD, suggesting that contrast discrimination deficits are due, at least in part, to cognitive deficits in PD. We investigated the relationship between cognitive deficits and impaired contrast sensitivity in PD...
October 7, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Daniel Enterría-Morales, Ivette López-López, José López-Barneo, Xavier d'Anglemont de Tassigny
Gender difference in Parkinson's disease (PD) suggests that female sex steroids may promote dopaminergic neuron survival and protect them from degeneration. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is believed to be dopaminotrophic; thus it is considered as a potential therapeutic target in PD. Additionally, GDNF is endogenously synthetized in the caudate/putamen of humans and striatum in rodents. A neuroprotective role of estrogens on the nigrostriatal pathway via the stimulation of GDNF has been proposed...
2016: PloS One
Takayuki Ishiwata, Arisa Oshimoto, Takehito Saito, Yasunori Kotani, Shigeki Nomoto, Yasutsugu Aihara, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Benjamin N Greenwood
We previously reported that tetrodotoxin (TTX) perfusion into the median raphe nucleus (MRN), which contains the cell bodies of serotonin (5-HT) neurons, induced a considerable body temperature reduction under normal and low ambient temperatures (23 and 5°C, respectively) in freely moving rats but showed no such effect under high ambient temperature (35°C). In the present study, we aimed to determine the mechanism(s) of body temperature reduction after TTX perfusion into the MRN by measuring tail skin temperature (an index of heat loss), heart rate (an index of heat production), and locomotor activity (Act) under normal ambient temperature (23°C)...
October 12, 2016: Neuroreport
Alexey Petrushin, Lorenzo Ferrara, Axel Blau
OBJECTIVE: In light of recent progress in mapping neural function to behavior, we briefly and selectively review past and present endeavors to reveal and reconstruct nervous system function in Caenorhabditis elegans through simulation. APPROACH: Rather than presenting an all-encompassing review on the mathematical modeling of C. elegans, this contribution collects snapshots of pathfinding key works and emerging technologies that recent single- and multi-center simulation initiatives are building on...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Henrik Gezelius, Guillermina Lopez-Bendito
The thalamus is a central structure of the brain, primarily recognized for the relay of incoming sensory and motor information to the cerebral cortex but also key in high order intracortical communication. It consists of glutamatergic projection neurons organized in several distinct nuclei, each having a stereotype connectivity pattern and functional roles. In the adult these nuclei can be appreciated by architectural boundaries, though their developmental origin and specification is only recently beginning to be revealed...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
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