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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676731/oxytocin-functions-as-a-spatiotemporal-filter-for-excitatory-synaptic-inputs-to-vta-dopamine-neurons
#1
Lei Xiao, Michael F Priest, Yevgenia Kozorovitskiy
The experience of rewarding or aversive stimuli is encoded by distinct afferents to dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Several neuromodulatory systems including oxytocin regulate DA neuron excitability and synaptic transmission that process socially meaningful stimuli. We and others have recently characterized oxytocinergic modulation of activity in mouse VTA DA neurons, but the mechanisms underlying oxytocinergic modulation of synaptic transmission in DA neurons remain poorly understood...
April 20, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675583/do-alcohol-related-ampa-type-glutamate-receptor-adaptations-promote-intake
#2
F Woodward Hopf, Regina A Mangieri
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA, and kainate receptors) play a central role in excitatory glutamatergic signaling throughout the brain. As a result, functional changes, especially long-lasting forms of plasticity, have the potential to profoundly alter neuronal function and the expression of adaptive and pathological behaviors. Thus, alcohol-related adaptations in ionotropic glutamate receptors are of great interest, since they could promote excessive alcohol consumption, even after long-term abstinence...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675413/influence-of-the-size-and-curvedness-of-neural-projections-on-the-orientationally-averaged-diffusion-mr-signal
#3
Evren Özarslan, Cem Yolcu, Magnus Herberthson, Hans Knutsson, Carl-Fredrik Westin
Neuronal and glial projections can be envisioned to be tubes of infinitesimal diameter as far as diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) measurements via clinical scanners are concerned. Recent experimental studies indicate that the decay of the orientationally-averaged signal in white-matter may be characterized by the power-law, Ē ( q ) ∝ q -1 , where q is the wavenumber determined by the parameters of the pulsed field gradient measurements. One particular study by McKinnon et al . [1] reports a distinctively faster decay in gray-matter...
2018: Frontiers in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675332/50-hz-volumetric-functional-imaging-with-continuously-adjustable-depth-of-focus
#4
Rongwen Lu, Masashi Tanimoto, Minoru Koyama, Na Ji
Understanding how neural circuits control behavior requires monitoring a large population of neurons with high spatial resolution and volume rate. Here we report an axicon-based Bessel beam module with continuously adjustable depth of focus (CADoF), that turns frame rate into volume rate by extending the excitation focus in the axial direction while maintaining high lateral resolutions. Cost-effective and compact, this CADoF Bessel module can be easily integrated into existing two-photon fluorescence microscopes...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674952/stability-and-function-of-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-depend-on-bcl11b-ctip2
#5
Elodie De Bruyckere, Ruth Simon, Sigrun Nestel, Bernd Heimrich, Dennis Kätzel, Alexei V Egorov, Pentao Liu, Nancy A Jenkins, Neal G Copeland, Herbert Schwegler, Andreas Draguhn, Stefan Britsch
Structural and functional plasticity of synapses are critical neuronal mechanisms underlying learning and memory. While activity-dependent regulation of synaptic strength has been extensively studied, much less is known about the transcriptional control of synapse maintenance and plasticity. Hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapses connect dentate granule cells to CA3 pyramidal neurons and are important for spatial memory formation and consolidation. The transcription factor Bcl11b/Ctip2 is expressed in dentate granule cells and required for postnatal hippocampal development...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674233/the-growing-curvilinear-component-analysis-gcca-neural-network
#6
Giansalvo Cirrincione, Vincenzo Randazzo, Eros Pasero
Big high dimensional data is becoming a challenging field of research. There exist a lot of techniques which infer information. However, because of the curse of dimensionality, a necessary step is the dimensionality reduction (DR) of the information. DR can be performed by linear and nonlinear algorithms. In general, linear algorithms are faster because of less computational burden. A related problem is dealing with time-varying high dimensional data, where the time dependence is due to nonstationary data distribution...
April 6, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671352/huntington-s-disease-novel-therapeutic-perspectives-hanging-in-the-balance
#7
Ana Saavedra, Gerardo García-Díaz Barriga, Esther Pérez-Navarro, Jordi Alberch
Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene, has long been characterized by the presence of motor symptoms due to the loss of striatal projection neurons. Cognitive dysfunction and neuropsychiatric symptoms are also present and they occur in the absence of cell death in most mouse models, pointing to neuronal dysfunction and abnormal synaptic plasticity as causative mechanisms. Areas covered: Here, we focus on those common mechanisms altered by the presence of mutant huntingtin affecting corticostriatal and hippocampal function as therapeutic targets that could prove beneficial to ameliorate both cognitive and motor function in HD...
April 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671276/hexadecylated-linear-pei-self-assembled-nanostructures-as-efficient-vectors-for-neuronal-gene-delivery
#8
Ruby Bansal, Brashket Seth, Shashikant Tiwari, Sadaf Jahan, Manisha Kumari, Aditya Bhushan Pant, Rajnish Kumar Chaturvedi, Pradeep Kumar, Kailash Chand Gupta
Development of efficient and safe nucleic acid carriers is one of the most challenging requirements to improve the success of gene therapy. Here, we synthesized a linker, 3-(hexadecyloxy)-1-chloropropan-2-ol, and grafted it onto linear polyethylenimine in varying amounts to obtain a series of HD-lPEI polymers that were able to form self-assembled nanoparticles (SN). 1 H-NMR spectrometry was used to determine the extent of grafting of the linker, HD, on to the lPEI backbone. We further complexed the SN of HD-lPEI with plasmid DNA (pDNA) and the resultant nanoplexes were characterized by their size and zeta potential and further evaluated for their transfection ability and cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells...
April 18, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670517/computational-models-for-calcium-mediated-astrocyte-functions
#9
REVIEW
Tiina Manninen, Riikka Havela, Marja-Leena Linne
The computational neuroscience field has heavily concentrated on the modeling of neuronal functions, largely ignoring other brain cells, including one type of glial cell, the astrocytes. Despite the short history of modeling astrocytic functions, we were delighted about the hundreds of models developed so far to study the role of astrocytes, most often in calcium dynamics, synchronization, information transfer, and plasticity in vitro , but also in vascular events, hyperexcitability, and homeostasis. Our goal here is to present the state-of-the-art in computational modeling of astrocytes in order to facilitate better understanding of the functions and dynamics of astrocytes in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668865/association-between-brain-activation-and-functional-connectivity
#10
Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
The origin of the "resting-state" brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is still uncertain. Here we provide evidence for the neurovascular origins of the amplitude of the low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) by comparing them with task-induced blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses, which are considered a proxy for neuronal activation. Using fMRI data for 2 different tasks (Relational and Social) collected by the Human Connectome Project in 426 healthy adults, we show that ALFF and lFCD have linear associations with the BOLD response...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666910/ontogeny-and-development-of-the-tritocerebral-commissure-giant-tcg-an-identified-neuron-in-the-brain-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#11
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
April 17, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663742/degenerative-effect-of-ankaferd-blood-stopper%C3%A2-on-mice-peripheral-sensory-neurons-in-vitro
#12
Ramazan Üstün, Elif Kaval Oğuz
Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS) is a licensed medicinal herbal extract that ensures effective hemostasis on external, internal, postoperative and dental bleeds. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) harbor cell bodies of peripheral sensory neurons. DRG neurons receive peripheral information and regularly send projections to nuclei in the brainstem and the spinal cord. These neurons play critical roles in neural development. Neuronal dysfunctions were reported due to ABS use in surgical interventions. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the degenerative effects of the ABS on mice DRG cells <I>in vitro</I>...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663677/the-carotid-sinus-nerve-structure-function-and-clinical-implications
#13
Andrea Porzionato, Veronica Macchi, Carla Stecco, Raffaele De Caro
Interest has been renewed in the anatomy and physiology of the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) and its targets (carotid sinus and carotid body), due to recent proposals of surgical procedures for a series of common pathologies, such as carotid sinus syndrome, hypertension, heart failure and insulin resistance. The CSN originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve soon after its appearance from the jugular foramen. It shows frequent communications with the sympathetic trunk (usually at the level of the superior cervical ganglion) and the vagal nerve (main trunk, pharyngeal branches or superior laryngeal nerve)...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663553/rapid-evidence-assessment-of-approaches-to-community-neurological-nursing-care-for-people-with-neurological-conditions-post-discharge-from-acute-care-hospital
#14
REVIEW
Judith Dianne Pugh, Kathleen McCoy, Anne M Williams, Brenda Bentley, Leanne Monterosso
Neurological conditions represent leading causes of non-fatal burden of disease that will consume a large proportion of projected healthcare expenditure. Inconsistent access to integrated healthcare and other services for people with long-term neurological conditions stresses acute care services. The purpose of this rapid evidence assessment, conducted February-June 2016, was to review the evidence supporting community neurological nursing approaches for patients with neurological conditions post-discharge from acute care hospitals...
April 16, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663392/sushi-repeat-containing-protein-x-linked-2-a-novel-phylogenetically-conserved-hypothalamo-pituitary-protein
#15
Mehwish Anwer, Tamuna Bolkvadze, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Noora Puhakka, Tuomas Rauramaa, Ville Leinonen, Erwin A van Vliet, Dick F Swaab, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Stina Leskelä, Nea Bister, Tarja Malm, Synnöve Carlson, Eleonora Aronica, Asla Pitkänen
Sushi repeat-containing protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2) is a novel protein associated with language development, synaptic plasticity, tissue remodeling, and angiogenesis. We investigated the expression and spatial localization of SRPX2 in normal mouse, rat, monkey, and human brain using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Antibody specificity was determined using in vitro siRNA based silencing of SRPX2. Cell type-specific expression was verified by double-labeling with oxytocin or vasopressin. Western blot was used to detect SRPX2 protein in rat and human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662442/topographic-organization-of-cholinergic-innervation-from-the-basal-forebrain-to-the-visual-cortex-in-the-rat
#16
Frédéric Huppé-Gourgues, Karim Jegouic, Elvire Vaucher
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter for the regulation of visual attention, plasticity, and perceptual learning. It is released in the visual cortex predominantly by cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain, where stimulation may produce potentiation of visual processes. However, little is known about the fine organization of these corticopetal projections, such as whether basal forebrain neurons projecting to the primary and secondary visual cortical areas (V1 and V2, respectively) are organized retinotopically...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660735/the-anorexigenic-neural-pathways-of-oxytocin-and-its-clinical-implication
#17
Yuko Maejima, Shoko Yokota, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Kenju Shimomura
<br>Oxytocin was discovered in 1906 as a peptide that promotes delivery and milk ejection; however, its additional physiological functions were determined 100 years later. Many recent articles have reported newly discovered effects of oxytocin on social communication, bonding, reward-related behavior, adipose tissue, and muscle and food intake regulation. Because oxytocin neurons project to various regions in the brain that contribute to both feeding reward (hedonic feeding) and the regulation of energy balance (homeostatic feeding), the mechanisms of oxytocin on food intake regulation are complicated and largely unknown...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660600/holographic-imaging-and-photostimulation-of-neural-activity
#18
REVIEW
Weijian Yang, Rafael Yuste
Optical imaging methods are powerful tools in neuroscience as they can systematically monitor the activity of neuronal populations with high spatiotemporal resolution using calcium or voltage indicators. Moreover, caged compounds and optogenetic actuators enable to optically manipulate neural activity. Among optical methods, computer-generated holography offers an enormous flexibility to sculpt the excitation light in three-dimensions (3D), particularly when combined with two-photon light sources. By projecting holographic light patterns on the sample, the activity of multiple neurons across a 3D brain volume can be simultaneously imaged or optically manipulated with single-cell precision...
April 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659025/synaptic-depression-induced-by-postsynaptic-camp-production-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-calyx
#19
Shoma Sato, Kohei Ueno, Minoru Saitoe, Takaomi Sakai
Synaptic plasticity has been studied to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms of associative and nonassociative learning. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify the molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity because vast genetic information or tools are available. Here, by ex vivo Ca2+ imaging of an isolated cultured Drosophila brain, we examined the novel activity-dependent synaptic depression between the projection neurons of the antennal lobe (AL) and mushroom body (MB). Ex vivo Ca2+ imaging analysis revealed that electrical stimulation of AL elicits Ca2+ responses in the dendritic (calyx) and axonal (α lobe) regions of MB neurons, and the responses are reduced after repetitive AL stimulation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656870/distinct-accumbens-shell-output-pathways-promote-versus-prevent-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking
#20
Gabrielle D Gibson, Asheeta A Prasad, Philip Jean-Richard-Dit-Bressel, Joanna O Y Yau, E Zayra Millan, Yu Liu, Erin J Campbell, Jun Lim, Nathan J Marchant, John M Power, Simon Killcross, Andrew J Lawrence, Gavan P McNally
Contexts exert bi-directional control over relapse to drug seeking. Contexts associated with drug self-administration promote relapse, whereas contexts associated with the absence of self-administration protect against relapse. The nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) is a key brain region determining these roles of context. However, the specific cell types, and projections, by which AcbSh serves these dual roles are unknown. Here, we show that contextual control over relapse and abstinence is embedded within distinct output circuits of dopamine 1 receptor (Drd1) expressing AcbSh neurons...
April 6, 2018: Neuron
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