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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550169/the-gliotransmitter-d-serine-promotes-synapse-maturation-and-axonal-stabilization-in-vivo
#1
Marion R Van Horn, Arielle Strasser, Lois S Miraucourt, Loredano Pollegioni, Edward S Ruthazer
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is thought to play a key role in the refinement of connectivity in developing neural circuits. Pharmacological blockade or genetic loss-of-function manipulations that prevent NMDAR function during development result in the disorganization of topographic axonal projections. However, because NMDARs contribute to overall glutamatergic neurotransmission, such loss-of-function experiments fail to adequately distinguish between the roles played by NMDARs and neural activity in general...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549933/orexin-exerts-excitatory-effects-on-reticulospinal-neurons-in-the-rat-gigantocellular-reticular-nucleus-through-the-activation-of-postsynaptic-orexin-1-and-orexin-2-receptors
#2
Nian Yang, Guan-Zhong Wang, Si-Yi Wen, Qi-Cheng Qiao, Yu-Hui Liu, Jun Zhang
Previous studies have revealed that orexin may actively participate in central motor control. The gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) is a key element of the brainstem motor inhibitory system. The descending orexinergic projections also reach Gi region, and microinjection of orexin into Gi causes robust muscle tone inhibition. However, the modulation effects of orexin on Gi neurons remain unclear. In the present study, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we initially observed that orexin elicited an inward current in Gi neurons at a holding potential of -70mV in a concentration-dependent manner...
May 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549921/two-representations-of-a-high-dimensional-perceptual-space
#3
Jonathan D Victor, Syed M Rizvi, Mary M Conte
A perceptual space is a mental workspace of points in a sensory domain that supports similarity and difference judgments and enables further processing such as classification and naming. Perceptual spaces are present across sensory modalities; examples include colors, faces, auditory textures, and odors. Color is perhaps the best-studied perceptual space, but it is atypical in two respects. First, the dimensions of color space are directly linked to the three cone absorption spectra, but the dimensions of generic perceptual spaces are not as readily traceable to single-neuron properties...
May 23, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549898/brainstem-mechanisms-underlying-the-cough-reflex-and-its-regulation
#4
REVIEW
Donatella Mutolo
Cough is a very important airway protective reflex. Cough-related inputs are conveyed to the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) that projects to the brainstem respiratory network. The latter is reconfigured to generate the cough motor pattern. A high degree of modulation is exerted on second-order neurons and the brainstem respiratory network by sensory inputs and higher brain areas. Two medullary structures proved to have key functions in cough production and to be strategic sites of action for centrally active drugs: the cNTS and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG)...
May 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549853/molecular-fingerprinting-of-principal-neurons-in-the-rodent-hippocampus-a-neuroinformatics-approach
#5
D J Hamilton, C M White, C L Rees, D W Wheeler, G A Ascoli
Neurons are often classified by their morphological and molecular properties. The online knowledge base Hippocampome.org primarily defines neuron types from the rodent hippocampal formation based on their main neurotransmitter (glutamate or GABA) and the spatial distributions of their axons and dendrites. For each neuron type, this open-access resource reports any and all published information regarding the presence or absence of known molecular markers, including calcium-binding proteins, neuropeptides, receptors, channels, transcription factors, and other molecules of biomedical relevance...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546314/chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-changes-associated-with-subregion-selective-serotonin-cell-death-in-the-dorsal-raphe
#6
Reka Natarajan, Laura Forrester, Nicolas Chiaia, Bryan K Yamamoto
The current study examined the neurochemical mechanisms and neuroanatomical changes underlying co-existing behavioral effects associated with chronic stress-induced alterations in serotonin (5HT) neurons. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to adult male rats produced depression-like changes with cognitive dysfunction and selective cell death in the interfascicular nucleus of the dorsal raphe (DRif) resulting in decreased 5HTergic innervation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Twenty-one days of CUS decreased basal plasma levels of corticosterone and produced a shorter latency to immobility and longer durations of immobility in the force-swim test that persisted for one month after CUS...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546312/prefrontal-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptors-regulate-dissociable-aspects-of-decision-making-via-distinct-ventral-striatal-and-amygdalar-circuits
#7
Nicole L Jenni, Joshua D Larkin, Stan B Floresco
Mesocortical dopamine (DA) regulates a variety of cognitive functions via actions on D1 and/or D2 receptors. For example, risk/reward decision making is differentially modulated by these two receptors within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with D2 receptors enabling flexible decision making and D1 receptors promoting persistence in choice biases. Yet, it is unclear how DA mediates opposing patterns of behavior by acting on different receptors within the same terminal region. We explored the possibility that DA may act on separate networks of PFC neurons that are modulated by D1 or D2 receptors and in turn interface with divergent downstream structures, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA) or nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546310/heterozygous-gnal-mice-are-a-novel-animal-model-to-study-dystonia-pathophysiology
#8
Assunta Pelosi, Fabien Menardy, Daniela Popa, Jean-Antoine Girault, Denis Hervé
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Dominant mutations of the GNAL gene are a cause of isolated dystonia (DYT25) in patients. Some mutations result in a complete loss of function of the encoded protein, Gαolf, an adenylyl-cyclase-stimulatory G protein highly enriched in striatal projection neurons, in which it mediates the actions of dopamine and adenosine. We used male and female heterozygous Gnal knockout mice (Gnal+/-) to study how GNAL haplodeficiency is implicated in dystonia...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546212/rapid-binge-like-eating-and-body-weight-gain-driven-by-zona-incerta-gaba-neuron-activation
#9
Xiaobing Zhang, Anthony N van den Pol
The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin...
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546123/distribution-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactive-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-viviparous-fish-gambusia-affinis
#10
Shilpa K Bhat, C B Ganesh
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the common precursor enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine. In this investigation, the neuroanatomical distribution of TH-immunoreactivity was studied in the brain of the female mosquitofish Gambusia affinis. Numerous intensely stained TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were scattered in the olfactory bulb with their fibres extending towards the medial olfactory tract, whereas few telencephalic TH-ir cells with distinct fibres were observed in the dorsal nucleus of area ventralis telencephali and the posterior nucleus of area ventralis telencephali regions...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545678/rapid-synaptogenesis-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-induced-by-a-single-cocaine-administration-and-stabilized-by-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-interacting-kinase-1-activity
#11
Marc Dos Santos, Marine Salery, Benoit Forget, Maria Alexandra Garcia Perez, Sandrine Betuing, Thomas Boudier, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, Nicolas Heck
BACKGROUND: Repeated cocaine exposure produces new spine formation in striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of the nucleus accumbens. However, an acute exposure to cocaine can trigger long-lasting synaptic plasticity in SPNs leading to behavioral alterations. This raises the intriguing question as to whether a single administration of cocaine could enduringly modify striatal connectivity. METHODS: A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of presynaptic glutamatergic boutons and dendritic spines was performed on SPNs 1 hour and 1 week after a single cocaine administration...
March 29, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544784/presynaptic-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome-with-a-homozygous-sequence-variant-in-lama5-combines-myopia-facial-tics-and-failure-of-neuromuscular-transmission
#12
Ricardo A Maselli, Juan Arredondo, Jessica Vázquez, Jessica X Chong, Michael J Bamshad, Deborah A Nickerson, Marian Lara, Fiona Ng, Victoria L Lo, Peter Pytel, Craig M McDonald
Defects in genes encoding the isoforms of the laminin alpha subunit have been linked to various phenotypic manifestations, including brain malformations, muscular dystrophy, ocular defects, cardiomyopathy, and skin abnormalities. We report here a severe defect of neuromuscular transmission in a consanguineous patient with a homozygous variant in the laminin alpha-5 subunit gene (LAMA5). The variant c.8046C>T (p.Arg2659Trp) is rare and has a predicted deleterious effect. The affected individual, who also carries a rare homozygous sequence variant in LAMA1, had muscle weakness, myopia, and facial tics...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540422/loss-and-remodeling-of-striatal-dendritic-spines-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-homeostasis-to-maladaptive-plasticity
#13
REVIEW
Rosa M Villalba, Yoland Smith
In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of PD, the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection leads to two major changes in the morphology of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), i.e., a profound loss of dendritic spines and the remodeling of axospinous glutamatergic synapses. Striatal spine loss is an early event tightly associated with the extent of striatal DA denervation, but not the severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms, suggesting that striatal spine pruning might be a form of homeostatic plasticity that compensates for the loss of striatal DA innervation and the resulting dysregulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539954/differential-histone-acetylation-in-sub-regions-of-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-underlies-fear-consolidation-and-extinction
#14
Vandana Ranjan, Sanjay Singh, Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui, Sukanya Tripathi, Mohd Yahiya Khan, Anand Prakash
OBJECTIVE: The hallmark of anxiety disorders is excessive fear. Previous studies have suggested that selective neural projections from Basal nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) to amygdala and vice-versa precisely control the fear learning process. However the exact mechanism how the BNST controls fear consolidation and its extinction is largely unknown. In the present study we observed the changes in the BNST sub-regions following fear conditioning and its extinction. METHODS: The change in the number of positive neurons was determined by immunohistochemistry for Acetyl H3 (Histone 3), Acetyl H4 (Histone 4), cAMP response element binding Protein (CBP) and c-fos in three sub-regions of the BNST namely the anterio-lateral BNST (STLP) and anterio-medial BNST (STMA), and lateral-ventral BNST (STLV) of rats subjected to auditory fear conditioning and extinction...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539422/galanin-expressing-gaba-neurons-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-modulate-food-reward-and-non-compulsive-locomotion
#15
Emily Qualls-Creekmore, Sangho Yu, Marie Francois, John Hoang, Clara Huesing, Annadora Bruce-Keller, David Burk, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Christopher D Morrison, Heike Münzberg
The lateral hypothalamus (LHA) integrates reward and appetitive behavior and is composed of many overlapping neuronal populations. Recent studies associated LHA GABAergic neurons (LHA (GABA) ), that densely innervate the ventral tegmental area (VTA), with modulation of food reward and consumption; yet, LHA (GABA) >VTA projections exclusively modulated food consumption, not reward. We identified a subpopulation of LHA (GABA) neurons that co-express the neuropeptide galanin (LHA (Gal) ). These LHA (Gal) neurons also modulate food reward, but lack direct VTA innervation...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539417/exposure-to-stressors-facilitates-long-term-synaptic-potentiation-in-the-lateral-habenula
#16
Hoyong Park, Jeehae Rhee, Kwanghoon Park, Jung-Soo Han, Roberto Malinow, ChiHye Chung
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small part of the epithalamus that projects to monoamine centers in the brain. Previously, neurotransmission onto the LHb was shown to be abnormally potentiated in animal models of depression. However, synaptic plasticity in this brain area and the effect of stressor exposure on synaptic plasticity of the LHb have not been investigated. Thus, we explored whether the LHb undergoes dynamic changes in synaptic efficacy or not. First, we observed that a moderate long-term potentiation (LTP) occurs in a fraction of LHb neurons obtained from naïve Sprague Dawley rats...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538174/schizophrenia-related-microdeletion-impairs-emotional-memory-through-microrna-dependent-disruption-of-thalamic-inputs-to-the-amygdala
#17
Tae-Yeon Eom, Ildar T Bayazitov, Kara Anderson, Jing Yu, Stanislav S Zakharenko
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections). This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538168/the-menagerie-of-the-basal-forebrain-how-many-neural-species-are-there-what-do-they-look-like-how-do-they-behave-and-who-talks-to-whom
#18
REVIEW
Chun Yang, Stephen Thankachan, Robert W McCarley, Ritchie E Brown
The diverse cell-types of the basal forebrain control sleep-wake states, cortical activity and reward processing. Large, slow-firing, cholinergic neurons suppress cortical delta activity and promote cortical plasticity in response to reinforcers. Large, fast-firing, cortically-projecting GABAergic neurons promote wakefulness and fast cortical activity. In particular, parvalbumin/GABAergic neurons promote neocortical gamma band activity. Conversely, excitation of slower-firing somatostatin/GABAergic neurons promotes sleep through inhibition of cortically-projecting neurons...
May 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533745/characterization-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-human-serotonergic-neurons
#19
Lining Cao, Rui Hu, Ting Xu, Zhen-Ning Zhang, Weida Li, Jianfeng Lu
In the brain, the serotonergic neurons located in the raphe nucleus are the unique resource of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays a pivotal role in the regulation of brain development and functions. Dysfunction of the serotonin system is present in many psychiatric disorders. Lack of in vitro functional human model limits the understanding of human central serotonergic system and its related diseases and clinical applications. Previously, we have developed a method generating human serotonergic neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533604/a-quasi-experimental-study-on-the-effects-of-instrument-assisted-soft-tissue-mobilization-on-mechanosensitive-neurons
#20
Weiqing Ge, Emily Roth, Alyssa Sansone
[Purpose] Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM) is a form of manual therapy. Despite its growing popularity and an increasing number of patients receiving IASTM each year, there is a lack of high-level evidence to elucidate its therapeutic mechanisms and to support its clinical applications. The purpose of this research project was to determine the effects of IASTM on activities of mechanosensitive neurons in skin. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three subjects, 9 females and 14 males, mean age 25...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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