keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Projection neuron

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241653/synaptic-adaptations-to-chronic-ethanol-intake-in-male-rhesus-monkey-dorsal-striatum-depend-on-age-of-drinking-onset
#1
Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Kathleen A Grant, David M Lovinger
One in 12 adults suffer with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Studies suggest the younger the age in which alcohol consumption begins the higher the probability of being diagnosed with AUD. Binge/excessive alcohol drinking involves a transition from flexible to inflexible behavior likely involving the dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen nuclei). A major focus of this study was to examine the effect of age of drinking onset on subsequent chronic, voluntary ethanol intake and dorsal striatal circuitry. Data from rhesus monkeys (n = 45) that started drinking as adolescents, young adults or mature adults confirms an age-related risk for heavy drinking...
December 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240779/impact-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-hypothalamic-transcriptome-in-neonatal-sprague-dawley-rats
#2
Sanna Barrand, Tamsyn M Crowley, Ryan J Wood-Bradley, Kirstie A De Jong, James A Armitage
Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during early development has been shown to impact the formation of hypothalamic neurocircuitry, thereby contributing to imbalances in appetite and energy homeostasis and increasing the risk of obesity in subsequent generations. Early in postnatal life, the neuronal projections responsible for energy homeostasis develop in response to appetite-related peptides such as leptin. To date, no study characterises the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur in response to exposure to high fat diet during this critical window...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235480/vocal-learning-promotes-patterned-inhibitory-connectivity
#3
Mark N Miller, Chung Yan J Cheung, Michael S Brainard
Skill learning is instantiated by changes to functional connectivity within premotor circuits, but whether the specificity of learning depends on structured changes to inhibitory circuitry remains unclear. We used slice electrophysiology to measure connectivity changes associated with song learning in the avian analog of primary motor cortex (robust nucleus of the arcopallium, RA) in Bengalese Finches. Before song learning, fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) densely innervated glutamatergic projection neurons (PNs) with apparently random connectivity...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235097/activation-of-astrocytic-par1-receptors-in-the-rat-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-regulates-breathing-through-modulation-of-presynaptic-trpv1
#4
Rafiq Huda, Zheng Chang, Jeehaeh Do, Donald R McCrimmon, Marco Martina
Many of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying astrocytic modulation of synaptic function remain poorly understood. Recent studies show that G-protein coupled receptor-mediated astrocyte activation modulates synaptic transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), a brainstem nucleus that regulates crucial physiological processes including cardiorespiratory activity. By using calcium imaging and patch clamp recordings in acute brain slices of wild-type and TRPV1-/- rats, we show that activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) in NTS astrocytes potentiates presynaptic glutamate release on NTS neurons...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234889/translaminar-circuits-formed-by-the-pyramidal-cells-in-the-superficial-layers-of-cat-visual-cortex
#5
German Koestinger, Kevan A C Martin, Elisha S Rusch
Pyramidal cells in the superficial layers of the neocortex provide a major excitatory projection to layer 5, which contains the pyramidal cells that project to subcortical motor-related targets. Both structurally and functionally rather little is known about this interlaminar pathway, especially in higher mammals. Here, we made sparse ultrastructural reconstructions of the projection to layer 5 of three pyramidal neurons from layer 3 in cat V1 whose morphology, physiology, and synaptic connections with layers 2 and 3 were known...
December 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230053/stress-induced-unfolded-protein-response-contributes-to-zika-virus-associated-microcephaly
#6
Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Lluís Cordón-Barris, Christian Alfano, Catherine Creppe, Thérèse Couderc, Giovanni Morelli, Nicolas Thelen, Michelle America, Bettina Bessières, Férechté Encha-Razavi, Maryse Bonnière, Ikuo K Suzuki, Marie Flamand, Pierre Vanderhaeghen, Marc Thiry, Marc Lecuit, Laurent Nguyen
Accumulating evidence support a causal link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during gestation and congenital microcephaly. However, the mechanism of ZIKV-associated microcephaly remains unclear. We combined analyses of ZIKV-infected human fetuses, cultured human neural stem cells and mouse embryos to understand how ZIKV induces microcephaly. We show that ZIKV triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response in the cerebral cortex of infected postmortem human fetuses as well as in cultured human neural stem cells...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229861/appetite-suppressive-role-of-medial-septal-glutamatergic-neurons
#7
Patrick Sweeney, Changhong Li, Yunlei Yang
Feeding behavior is controlled by diverse neurons and neural circuits primarily concentrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain in mammals. In this study, by using chemo/optogenetic techniques along with feeding assays, we investigate how neurons within the medial septal complex (MSc), a brain area implicated in emotion and cognition, contribute to food intake. We find that chemo/optogenetic activation of MSc glutamatergic neurons profoundly reduces food intake during both light and dark periods of the rodent light cycle...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229559/axons-of-individual-dorsal-horn-neurons-bifurcated-to-project-in-both-the-anterolateral-and-the-postsynaptic-dorsal-column-systems
#8
M Condés-Lara, G Martínez-Lorenzana, G Rojas-Piloni, I Tello-García, A Manzano-García, E Rubio-Beltran, A González-Hernández
Sensory information stimulates receptors of somatosensory system neurons generating a signal that codifies the characteristics of peripheral stimulation. This information reaches the spinal cord and is relayed to supra-spinal structures through two main systems: the postsynaptic dorsal column-medial lemniscal (DC-ML) and the anterolateral (AL) systems. From the classical point of view, the DC-ML has an ipsilateral ascending pathway to the Gracilis (GRA) or Cuneate (CUN) nuclei and the AL has a contralateral ascending pathway to the ventral posterolateral (VPL) thalamic nucleus...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229554/the-effect-of-complex-acoustic-environment-during-early-development-on-the-responses-of-auditory-cortex-neurons-in-rats
#9
Kateryna Pysanenko, Zbyněk Bureš, Jiří Lindovský, Josef Syka
Acoustical environment plays an important role during the maturation of the auditory system. It has been shown that the sensory inputs to the developing centres influence the development of the structure of projections, neuronal responsiveness, excitatory-inhibitory balance, or tonotopical arrangement, throughout the auditory pathway. Our previous study (Bures et al., 2014) showed that rats reared in a complex acoustic environment (spectrally and temporally modulated sound reinforced by an active behavioural paradigm with a positive feedback) exhibit permanently improved response characteristics of the inferior colliculus (IC) neurons...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228949/a-mathematical-model-for-histamine-synthesis-release-and-control-in-varicosities
#10
Janet Best, H F Nijhout, Srimal Samaranayake, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Reed
BACKGROUND: Histamine (HA), a small molecule that is synthesized from the amino acid histidine, plays an important role in the immune system where it is associated with allergies, inflammation, and T-cell regulation. In the brain, histamine is stored in mast cells and other non-neuronal cells and also acts as a neurotransmitter. The histamine neuron cell bodies are in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus of the hypothalamus and these neurons send projections throughout the central nervous system (CNS), in particular to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, retina, and spinal cord...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228195/structural-connectivity-of-right-frontal-hyperactive-areas-scales-with-stuttering-severity
#11
Nicole E Neef, Alfred Anwander, Christoph Bütfering, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Angela D Friederici, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228131/synaptic-potentiation-at-basal-and-apical-dendrites-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-involves-activation-of-a-distinct-set-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-molecular-cues
#12
Patrycja Brzdak, Olga Wójcicka, Monika Zareba-Koziol, Daniel Minge, Christian Henneberger, Jakub Wlodarczyk, Jerzy W Mozrzymas, Tomasz Wójtowicz
In the central nervous system, several forms of experience-dependent plasticity, learning and memory require the activity-dependent control of synaptic efficacy. Despite substantial progress in describing synaptic plasticity, mechanisms related to heterogeneity of synaptic functions at local circuits remain elusive. Here we studied the functional and molecular aspects of hippocampal circuit plasticity by analyzing excitatory synapses at basal and apical dendrites of mouse hippocampal pyramidal cells (CA1 region) in acute brain slices...
December 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227016/patients-with-chronic-bipolar-disorder-exhibit-widespread-increases-in-extracellular-free-water
#13
Carissa Tuozzo, Amanda E Lyall, Ofer Pasternak, Anthony C D James, Timothy J Crow, Marek Kubicki
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BP) is a debilitating psychiatric disease that is not well understood. Previous diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies of BP patients found prominent microstructural white matter (WM) abnormalities of reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). Because FA is a nonspecific measure, relating these abnormalities to a specific pathology is difficult. Here, dMRI specificity was increased by free water (FW) imaging, which allows identification of changes in extracellular space (FW) from neuronal tissue (fractional anisotropy of tissue [FA-t])...
December 11, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226492/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-monosynaptic-sensory-motor-circuit-development-in-the-spinal-cord
#14
REVIEW
Fumiyasu Imai, Yutaka Yoshida
Motor behaviors are precisely controlled by the integration of sensory and motor systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Proprioceptive sensory neurons, key components of the sensory system, are located in the dorsal root ganglia and project axons both centrally to the spinal cord and peripherally to muscles and tendons, communicating peripheral information about the body to the CNS. Changes in muscle length detected by muscle spindles, and tension variations in tendons conveyed by golgi tendon organs, are communicated to the CNS through group Ia/II, and Ib proprioceptive sensory afferents, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225570/flexible-and-stable-value-coding-areas-in-caudate-head-and-tail-receive-anatomically-distinct-cortical-and-subcortical-inputs
#15
Whitney S Griggs, Hyoung F Kim, Ali Ghazizadeh, M Gabriela Costello, Kathryn M Wall, Okihide Hikosaka
Anatomically distinct areas within the basal ganglia encode flexible- and stable-value memories for visual objects (Hikosaka et al., 2014), but an important question remains: do they receive inputs from the same or different brain areas or neurons? To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh) and caudate tail (CDt) of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. We found that CDh and CDt received different inputs from several cortical and subcortical areas including temporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, claustrum and thalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225029/vagus-motor-neuron-topographic-map-determined-by-parallel-mechanisms-of-hox5-expression-and-time-of-axon-initiation
#16
Gabrielle R Barsh, Adam J Isabella, Cecilia B Moens
Many networks throughout the nervous system are organized into topographic maps, where the positions of neuron cell bodies in the projecting field correspond with the positions of their axons in the target field. Previous studies of topographic map development show evidence for spatial patterning mechanisms, in which molecular determinants expressed across the projecting and target fields are matched directly in a point-to-point mapping process. Here, we describe a novel temporal mechanism of topographic map formation that depends on spatially regulated differences in the timing of axon outgrowth and functions in parallel with spatial point-to-point mapping mechanisms...
December 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224779/combined-social-and-spatial-coding-in-a-descending-projection-from-the-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Malavika Murugan, Hee Jae Jang, Michelle Park, Ellia M Miller, Julia Cox, Joshua P Taliaferro, Nathan F Parker, Varun Bhave, Hong Hur, Yupu Liang, Alexander R Nectow, Jonathan W Pillow, Ilana B Witten
Social behaviors are crucial to all mammals. Although the prelimbic cortex (PL, part of medial prefrontal cortex) has been implicated in social behavior, it is not clear which neurons are relevant or how they contribute. We found that PL contains anatomically and molecularly distinct subpopulations that target three downstream regions that have been implicated in social behavior: the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and ventral tegmental area. Activation of NAc-projecting PL neurons (PL-NAc), but not the other subpopulations, decreased the preference for a social target...
November 22, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224721/synergistic-processing-of-visual-contours-across-cortical-layers-in-v1-and-v2
#18
Rujia Chen, Feng Wang, Hualou Liang, Wu Li
Visual cortical areas are interconnected via layer-specific feedforward and feedback projections. Such intricate connections are thought to be essential for parsing complex visual images, but the synergy among different layers in different cortical areas remains unclear. By simultaneously mapping neuronal activities across cortical depths in V1 and V2 of behaving monkeys, we identified spatiotemporally dissociable processes for grouping contour fragments and segregating background components. These processes generated and amplified contour signals within specific layers in V1 and V2...
November 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224666/central-and-peripheral-roles-of-vasopressin-in-the-circadian-defense-of-body-hydration
#19
REVIEW
Claire Gizowski, Eric Trudel, Charles W Bourque
Vasopressin is a neuropeptide synthesized by specific subsets of neurons within the eye and brain. Studies in rats and mice have shown that vasopressin produced by magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) that project to the neurohypophysis is released into the blood circulation where it serves as an antidiuretic hormone to promote water reabsorption from the kidney. Moreover vasopressin is a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that contributes to time-keeping within the master circadian clock (i.e. the suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and is also used as an output signal by SCN neurons to direct centrally mediated circadian rhythms...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222692/advances-in-understanding-hilar-mossy-cells-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#20
REVIEW
Helen E Scharfman
Hilar mossy cells (MCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG) distinguish the DG from other hippocampal subfields (CA1-3) because there are two glutamatergic cell types in the DG rather than one. Thus, in the DG, the main cell types include glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and MCs, whereas in CA1-3, the only glutamatergic cell type is the pyramidal cell. In contrast to GCs, MCs are different in morphology, intrinsic electrophysiological properties, afferent input and axonal projections, so their function is likely to be very different from GCs...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
keyword
keyword
16895
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"