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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453642/facilitation-of-contextual-fear-extinction-by-orexin-1-receptor-antagonism-is-associated-with-the-activation-of-specific-amygdala-cell-subpopulations
#1
África Flores, Cyril Herry, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Berrendero
Background: Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides recently involved in the regulation of emotional memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA), an area orchestrating fear memory processes, appears to be modulated by orexin transmission during fear extinction. However, the neuronal types within the BLA involved in this modulation remain to be elucidated. Methods: We used retrograde tracing combined with immunofluorescence techniques in mice to identify BLA projection neurons and cell subpopulations in this brain region influenced by orexin transmission during contextual fear extinction consolidation...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449351/long-term-plasticity-of-corticostriatal-synapses-is-modulated-by-pathway-specific-co-release-of-opioids-through-kappa-opioid-receptors
#2
Sarah L Hawes, Armando G Salinas, David M Lovinger, Kim T Blackwell
Synaptic plasticity in striatum adjusts behaviour adaptively during skill learning, or maladaptively in the case of addiction. Just as dopamine plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity underlying normal skill learning and addiction, endogenous and exogenous opiates also modulate learning and addiction-related striatal plasticity. Though the role of opioid receptors in long-term depression in striatum has been characterized, their effect on long-term potentiation (LTP) remains unknown. In particular, direct pathway (Dopamine D1 Receptor containing; D1R) - spiny projection neurons (SPNs) co-release the opioid neuropeptide dynorphin, which acts at presynaptic kappa opioid receptors (KORs) on dopaminergic afferents and can negatively regulate dopamine release...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448548/altered-striatal-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#3
Carmen Rodríguez-Cueto, Mariluz Hernández-Gálvez, Cecilia J Hillard, Patricia Maciel, Sara Valdeolivas, José A Ramos, María Gómez-Ruiz, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
Spinocerebellar ataxia type-3 (SCA-3) is the most prevalent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia. We recently found that the endocannabinoid system is altered in the post-mortem cerebellum of SCA-3 patients, and similar results were also found in the cerebellar and brainstem nuclei of a SCA-3 transgenic mouse model. Given that the neuropathology of SCA-3 is not restricted to these two brain regions but rather, it is also evident in other structures (e.g., the basal ganglia), we studied the possible changes to endocannabinoid signaling in the striatum of these transgenic mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448523/semaphorin-1a-prevents-drosophila-olfactory-projection-neuron-dendrites-from-mis-targeting-into-select-antennal-lobe-regions
#4
Hung-Chang Shen, Sao-Yu Chu, Tsai-Chi Hsu, Chun-Han Wang, I-Ya Lin, Hung-Hsiang Yu
Elucidating how appropriate neurite patterns are generated in neurons of the olfactory system is crucial for comprehending the construction of the olfactory map. In the Drosophila olfactory system, projection neurons (PNs), primarily derived from four neural stem cells (called neuroblasts), populate their cell bodies surrounding to and distribute their dendrites in distinct but overlapping patterns within the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe (AL). However, it remains unclear whether the same molecular mechanisms are employed to generate the appropriate dendritic patterns in discrete AL glomeruli among PNs produced from different neuroblasts...
April 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447609/spatial-working-memory-alters-the-efficacy-of-input-to-visual-cortex
#5
Yaser Merrikhi, Kelsey Clark, Eddy Albarran, Mohammadbagher Parsa, Marc Zirnsak, Tirin Moore, Behrad Noudoost
Prefrontal cortex modulates sensory signals in extrastriate visual cortex, in part via its direct projections from the frontal eye field (FEF), an area involved in selective attention. We find that working memory-related activity is a dominant signal within FEF input to visual cortex. Although this signal alone does not evoke spiking responses in areas V4 and MT during memory, the gain of visual responses in these areas increases, and neuronal receptive fields expand and shift towards the remembered location, improving the stimulus representation by neuronal populations...
April 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445713/deregulation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-parkinson-s-disease-insight-from-epigenetic-structure-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-snca
#6
REVIEW
Subhrangshu Guhathakurta, Eugene Bok, Baggio A Evangelista, Yoon-Seong Kim
Understanding regulation of α-synuclein has long been a central focus for Parkinson's disease (PD) researchers. Accumulation of this protein in the Lewy body or neurites, mutations in the coding region of the gene and strong association of α-synuclein encoding gene multiplication (duplication/triplication) with familial form of PD have indicated the importance of this molecule in pathogenesis of the disease. Several years of research identified many potential faulty pathways associated with accumulation of α-synuclein inside dopaminergic neurons and its transmission to neighboring ones...
April 23, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445613/neuronal-distribution-of-tyramine-and-the-tyramine-receptor-amtar1-in-the-honeybee-brain
#7
Markus Thamm, Christina Scholl, Tina Reim, Kornelia Grübel, Karin Möller, Wolfgang Rössler, Ricarda Scheiner
Tyramine is an important neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insects. In honeybees, it is assumed to have functions in modulating sensory responsiveness and controlling motor behavior. Tyramine can bind to two characterized receptors in honeybees, both of which are coupled to intracellular cAMP pathways. How tyramine acts on neuronal, cellular and circuit levels is unclear. We investigated the spatial brain expression of the tyramine receptor AmTAR1 using a specific antibody. This antibody detects a membrane protein of the expected molecular weight in Western blot analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444635/the-leukocentric-theory-of-neurological-disorder-a-manifesto
#8
Robert Fern
Approximately half of the human brain is composed of white matter (WM), a specialized tissue housing the axonal projection of neurons and their necessary supporting glial cells. Axons course long distances from their parent soma, have a delicate structure, large surface area and in many cases are dependent upon a uniquely close morphological arrangement with myelinating oligodendrocyte partners; all factors that may predispose them to injury and disease. WM damage is central to a range of well-characterized disorders including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury and is also makes a significant contribution to disorders often considered to be largely focused in gray matter; for example, in stroke where ~49% of injury by volume is located in WM...
April 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443002/to-wait-or-not-to-wait-separate-mechanisms-in-the-oculomotor-circuit-of-basal-ganglia
#9
Masaharu Yasuda, Okihide Hikosaka
We reach a goal immediately after detecting the target, or later by withholding the immediate action. Each time, we choose one of these actions by suppressing the other. How does the brain control these antagonistic actions? We hypothesized that the output of basal ganglia (BG), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), suppresses antagonistic oculomotor signals by sending strong inhibitory output to superior colliculus (SC). To test this hypothesis, we trained monkeys to perform two kinds of saccade task: Immediate (visually guided) and delayed (visually-withheld but memory-guided) saccade tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441561/neural-circuits-reduced-inhibition-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#10
Randall M Golovin, Kendal Broadie
The Drosophila Fragile X Syndrome model has long generated insights into this devastating neurological disease state. A recent study of olfactory neural circuitry shows that decreased lateral inhibition onto projection neurons relaying sensory input into higher brain centers causes impaired behavior.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441464/crucial-roles-of-pox-neuro-in-the-developing-ellipsoid-body-and-antennal-lobes-of-the-drosophila-brain
#11
Shilpi Minocha, Werner Boll, Markus Noll
The paired box gene Pox neuro (Poxn) is expressed in two bilaterally symmetric neuronal clusters of the developing adult Drosophila brain, a protocerebral dorsal cluster (DC) and a deutocerebral ventral cluster (VC). We show that all cells that express Poxn in the developing brain are postmitotic neurons. During embryogenesis, the DC and VC consist of only 20 and 12 neurons that express Poxn, designated embryonic Poxn-neurons. The number of Poxn-neurons increases only during the third larval instar, when the DC and VC increase dramatically to about 242 and 109 Poxn-neurons, respectively, virtually all of which survive to the adult stage, while no new Poxn-neurons are added during metamorphosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439461/quantitative-assessment-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-expression-in-neurons-and-glia
#12
Lisha Choubey, Jantzen C Collette, Karen Müller Smith
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) have numerous functions in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS). For example, the FGFR1 receptor is important for proliferation and fate specification of radial glial cells in the cortex and hippocampus, oligodendrocyte proliferation and regeneration, midline glia morphology and soma translocation, Bergmann glia morphology, and cerebellar morphogenesis. In addition, FGFR1 signaling in astrocytes is required for postnatal maturation of interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439229/locomotion-related-population-cortical-ca-2-transients-in-freely-behaving-mice
#13
Quanchao Zhang, Jiwei Yao, Yu Guang, Shanshan Liang, Jiangheng Guan, Han Qin, Xiang Liao, Wenjun Jin, Jianxiong Zhang, Junxia Pan, Hongbo Jia, Junan Yan, Zhengzhi Feng, Weibing Li, Xiaowei Chen
Locomotion involves complex neural activity throughout different cortical and subcortical networks. The primary motor cortex (M1) receives a variety of projections from different brain regions and is responsible for executing movements. The primary visual cortex (V1) receives external visual stimuli and plays an important role in guiding locomotion. Understanding how exactly the M1 and the V1 are involved in locomotion requires recording the neural activities in these areas in freely moving animals. Here, we used an optical fiber-based method for the real-time monitoring of neuronal population activities in freely moving mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439099/optogenetic-silencing-of-a-corticotropin-releasing-factor-pathway-from-the-central-amygdala-to-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-disrupts-sustained-fear
#14
A Asok, A Draper, A F Hoffman, J Schulkin, C R Lupica, J B Rosen
The lateral central nucleus of the amygdala (CeAL) and the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTDL) coordinate the expression of shorter- and longer-lasting fears, respectively. Less is known about how these structures communicate with each other during fear acquisition. One pathway, from the CeAL to the BNSTDL, is thought to communicate via corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), but studies have yet to examine its function in fear learning and memory. Thus, we developed an adeno-associated viral-based strategy to selectively target CRF neurons with the optogenetic silencer archaerhodopsin tp009 (CRF-ArchT) to examine the role of CeAL CRF neurons and projections to the BNSTDL during the acquisition of contextual fear...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438183/semaphorin-plexin-signaling-influences-early-ventral-telencephalic-development-and-thalamocortical-axon-guidance
#15
Manuela D Mitsogiannis, Graham E Little, Kevin J Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Sensory processing relies on projections from the thalamus to the neocortex being established during development. Information from different sensory modalities reaching the thalamus is segregated into specialized nuclei, whose neurons then send inputs to cognate cortical areas through topographically defined axonal connections. Developing thalamocortical axons (TCAs) normally approach the cortex by extending through the subpallium; here, axonal navigation is aided by distributed guidance cues and discrete cell populations, such as the corridor neurons and the internal capsule (IC) guidepost cells...
April 24, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436980/amygdala-inputs-to-prefrontal-cortex-guide-behavior-amid-conflicting-cues-of-reward-and-punishment
#16
Anthony Burgos-Robles, Eyal Y Kimchi, Ehsan M Izadmehr, Mary Jane Porzenheim, William A Ramos-Guasp, Edward H Nieh, Ada C Felix-Ortiz, Praneeth Namburi, Christopher A Leppla, Kara N Presbrey, Kavitha K Anandalingam, Pablo A Pagan-Rivera, Melodi Anahtar, Anna Beyeler, Kay M Tye
Orchestrating appropriate behavioral responses in the face of competing signals that predict either rewards or threats in the environment is crucial for survival. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) and prelimbic (PL) medial prefrontal cortex have been implicated in reward-seeking and fear-related responses, but how information flows between these reciprocally connected structures to coordinate behavior is unknown. We recorded neuronal activity from the BLA and PL while rats performed a task wherein competing shock- and sucrose-predictive cues were simultaneously presented...
April 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436626/-the-role-of-central-cholinergic-system-in-epilepsy
#17
Ying Wang, Yi Wang, Zhong Chen
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, which is not only related to the imbalance between excitatory glutamic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic neurons, but also related to abnormal central cholinergic regulation. This article summarizes the scientific background and experimental data about cholinergic dysfunction in epilepsy from both cellular and network levels, further discusses the exact role of cholinergic system in epilepsy. In the cellular level, several types of epilepsy are believed to be associated with aberrant metabotropic muscarinic receptors in several different brain areas, while the mutations of ionotropic nicotinic receptors have been reported to result in a specific type of epilepsy-autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435985/elucidating-the-a%C3%AE-42-anti-aggregation-mechanism-of-action-of-tramiprosate-in-alzheimer-s-disease-integrating-molecular-analytical-methods-pharmacokinetic-and-clinical-data
#18
Petr Kocis, Martin Tolar, Jeremy Yu, William Sinko, Soumya Ray, Kaj Blennow, Howard Fillit, John A Hey
BACKGROUND: Amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and represent a promising target for drug development. Tramiprosate is a small-molecule Aβ anti-aggregation agent that was evaluated in phase III clinical trials for AD but did not meet the primary efficacy endpoints; however, a pre-specified subgroup analysis revealed robust, sustained, and clinically meaningful cognitive and functional effects in patients with AD homozygous for the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4/4 homozygotes), who carry an increased risk for the disease...
April 24, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432143/focal-local-field-potential-lfp-signature-of-the-single-axon-monosynaptic-thalamocortical-connection
#19
Espen Hagen, Janne C Fossum, Klas H Pettersen, Jose-Manuel Alonso, Harvey A Swadlow, Gaute T Einevolla
Recent years have seen a resurgence in use of the extracellularly recorded local field potential (LFP) to investigate neural network activity. To probe monosynaptic thalamic activation of cortical postsynaptic target cells, so called spike-trigger-averaged LFP (stLFP) signatures have been measured. In these experiments the cortical LFP is measured by means of multielectrodes covering several cortical lamina and averaged on spontaneous spikes of thalamocortical (TC) cells. Using a well-established forward-modeling scheme, we investigate the biophysical origin of this stLFP signature with simultaneous synaptic activation of cortical layer 4 neurons, mimicking the effect of a single afferent spike from a single TC neuron...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431685/galr3-mediates-galanin-proliferative-effects-on-postnatal-hippocampal-precursors
#20
D Khan, M Khan, Johan Runesson, M Zaben, W P Gray
Galanin, a neuropeptide co-released from noradrenergic and serotonergic projection neurons to the dentate gyrus, has recently emerged as an important mediator for signaling neuronal activity to the subgranular neurogenic stem cell niche supporting adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Galanin and its receptors appear to play key roles in depression-like behavior, and effects on hippocampal neurogenesis are relevant to pharmacological strategies for treating depression, which in part appear to rely on restoring altered neurogenesis...
April 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
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