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Projection neuron

Akira Muto, Koichi Kawakami
To identify the role of a subpopulation of neurons in behavior, it is essential to test the consequences of blocking its activity in living animals. Laser ablation of neurons is an effective method for this purpose when neurons are selectively labeled with fluorescent probes. In the present study, protocols for laser ablating a subpopulation of neurons using a two-photon microscope and testing of its functional and behavioral consequences are described. In this study, prey capture behavior in zebrafish larvae is used as a study model...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Anna Mathia Klawonn, Michael Fritz, Anna Nilsson, Jordi Bonaventura, Kiseko Shionoya, Elahe Mirrasekhian, Urban Karlsson, Maarit Jaarola, Björn Granseth, Anders Blomqvist, Michael Michaelides, David Engblom
It is critical for survival to assign positive or negative valence to salient stimuli in a correct manner. Accordingly, harmful stimuli and internal states characterized by perturbed homeostasis are accompanied by discomfort, unease, and aversion. Aversive signaling causes extensive suffering during chronic diseases, including inflammatory conditions, cancer, and depression. Here, we investigated the role of melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs) in aversive processing using genetically modified mice and a behavioral test in which mice avoid an environment that they have learned to associate with aversive stimuli...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
James M Jeanne, Mehmet Fişek, Rachel I Wilson
Each odorant receptor corresponds to a unique glomerulus in the brain. Projections from different glomeruli then converge in higher brain regions, but we do not understand the logic governing which glomeruli converge and which do not. Here, we use two-photon optogenetics to map glomerular connections onto neurons in the lateral horn, the region of the Drosophila brain that receives the majority of olfactory projections. We identify 39 morphological types of lateral horn neurons (LHNs) and show that different types receive input from different combinations of glomeruli...
June 8, 2018: Neuron
Joanna I Giza, Jihye Kim, Heidi C Meyer, Agustin Anastasia, Iva Dincheva, Crystal I Zheng, Katherine Lopez, Henrietta Bains, Jianmin Yang, Clay Bracken, Conor Liston, Deqiang Jing, Barbara L Hempstead, Francis S Lee
A human variant in the BDNF gene (Val66Met; rs6265) is associated with impaired fear extinction. Using super-resolution imaging, we demonstrate that the BDNF Met prodomain disassembles dendritic spines and eliminates synapses in hippocampal neurons. In vivo, ventral CA1 (vCA1) hippocampal neurons undergo similar morphological changes dependent on their transient co-expression of a SorCS2/p75NTR receptor complex during peri-adolescence. BDNF Met prodomain infusion into the vCA1 during this developmental time frame reduces dendritic spine density and prelimbic (PL) projections, impairing cued fear extinction...
June 2, 2018: Neuron
Alessandro Tozzi, Valentina Durante, Guendalina Bastioli, Petra Mazzocchetti, Salvatore Novello, Alessandro Mechelli, Michele Morari, Cinzia Costa, Andrea Mancini, Massimiliano Di Filippo, Paolo Calabresi
Among genetic abnormalities identified in Parkinson's disease (PD), mutations of the leucine-rich repeat kinase2 (LRRK2) gene, such as the G2019S missense mutation linked to enhanced kinase activity, are the most common. While the complex role of LRRK2 has not been fully elucidated, evidence that mutated kinase activity affects synaptic transmission has been reported. Thus, our aim was to explore possible early alterations of neurotransmission produced by the G2019S LRRK2 mutation in PD. We performed electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings of striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) in the G2019S-Lrrk2 knock-in (KI) mouse model of PD, in D1994S kinase-dead (KD), Lrrk2 knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Hossein Mohammad-Pour Kargar, Hossein Azizi, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Ali Reza Mani, Saeed Semnaniann
Locus coeruleus nucleus (LC) is a major noradrenergic nucleus in the brain. It receives dense orexinergic projections from lateral hypothalamus. Whilst it is known that orexin A increases firing rate of LC neurons, its effect on spontaneous and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and eIPSCs, respectively) has not been yet identified. In this research, we investigated the effect of orexin A on eIPSCs and sIPSCs in LC neurons. Whole-cell recordings revealed that orexin A suppresses eIPSCs amplitude in which this effect was blocked by an orexin type-1 receptors antagonist (SB-334867) and cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors antagonist (AM251)...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Juan C Solís-S, Pablo García-Solís, Nancy G Hernández-Chan, Daniela A Zamorano-Martínez, Ma Elena Villagrán-Herrera, Gabriela Hernández-Puga, Haydé A Vergara-Castañeda, Ana A Sánchez-Tusie, Alfredo Varela-Echavarría, Hebert L Hernández-Montiel
Axonal projection is controlled by discrete regions localized at the neuroepithelium, guiding the neurite growth during embryonic development. These regions exert their effect through the expression of a family of chemotropic molecules, which actively participate in the formation of neuronal connections of the central nervous system in vertebrates. Previous studies describe prosomere 1 (P1) as a possible organizer of axonal growth of the rostral rhombencephalon, contributing to the caudal projection of reticulospinal rhombencephalic neurons...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
Harshada H Sant, Sanjay P Sane
Insect antennae are sensory organs of great importance because they can sense diverse environmental stimuli. In addition to serving as primary olfactory organs of insects, antennae also sense a wide variety of mechanosensory stimuli, ranging from low-frequency airflow or gravity cues to high-frequency antennal vibrations due to sound, flight or touch. The basal segments of the antennae house multiple types of mechanosensory structures that prominently include the sensory hair plates, or Böhm's bristles, which measure the gross extent of antennal movement, and a ring of highly sensitive scolopidial neurons, collectively called the Johnston's organs, which record subtle flagellar vibrations...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Sierra Lavoy, Vinita G Chittoor-Vinod, Clement Y Chow, Ian Martin
Disease phenotypes can be highly variable among individuals with the same pathogenic mutation. There is increasing evidence that background genetic variation is a strong driver of disease variability in addition to the influence of environment. To understand the genotype-phenotype relationship that determines the expressivity of a pathogenic mutation, a large number of backgrounds must be studied. This can be efficiently achieved using model organism collections such as the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP)...
June 15, 2018: Genetics
Susanne Neupert, Debora Fusca, Peter Kloppenburg, Reinhard Predel
Single cell mass spectrometry has become an established technique to study specific molecular properties such as the neuropeptide complement of identified neurons. Here, we describe a strategy to characterize, by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, neurochemical properties of neurons that were identified by their electrophysiological and neuroanatomical properties. The workflow for the first time combined perforated patch clamp recordings with dye loading by electroporation for electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characterization as well as chemical profiling of somata by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry with subsequent immunocytochemistry...
June 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Rachel A Ross, Silvia Leon, Joseph C Madara, Danielle Schafer, Chrysanthi Fergani, Caroline A Maguire, Anne Mj Verstegen, Emily Brengle, Dong Kong, Allan E Herbison, Ursula B Kaiser, Bradford B Lowell, Victor M Navarro
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, Adcyap1 ) is a neuromodulator implicated in anxiety, metabolism and reproductive behavior. PACAP global knockout mice have decreased fertility and PACAP modulates LH release. However, its source and role at the hypothalamic level remain unknown. We demonstrate that PACAP-expressing neurons of the ventral premamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus (PMVPACAP ) project to, and make direct contact with, kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate and AVPV/PeN nuclei and a subset of these neurons respond to PACAP exposure...
June 15, 2018: ELife
Anton Delwig, Shawnta Y Chaney, Andrea S Bertke, Jan Verweij, Susana Quirce, Delaine D Larsen, Cindy Yang, Ethan Buhr, Russell VAN Gelder, Juana Gallar, Todd Margolis, David R Copenhagen
A unique class of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in mammalian retinae has been recently discovered and characterized. These neurons can generate visual signals in the absence of inputs from rods and cones, the conventional photoreceptors in the visual system. These light sensitive ganglion cells (mRGCs) express the non-rod, non-cone photopigment melanopsin and play well documented roles in modulating pupil responses to light, photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, mood, sleep and other adaptive light functions...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Pinelopi Pliota, Vincent Böhm, Florian Grössl, Johannes Griessner, Ornella Valenti, Klaus Kraitsy, Joanna Kaczanowska, Manuel Pasieka, Thomas Lendl, Jan M Deussing, Wulf Haubensak
Survival relies on optimizing behavioral responses through experience. Animals often react to acute stress by switching to passive behavioral responses when coping with environmental challenge. Despite recent advances in dissecting mammalian circuitry for Pavlovian fear, the neuronal basis underlying this form of non-Pavlovian anxiety-related behavioral plasticity remains poorly understood. Here, we report that aversive experience recruits the posterior paraventricular thalamus (PVT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and sensitizes a Pavlovian fear circuit to promote passive responding...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Harvey B Sarnat
The cerebellar system is a series of axonal projections and synaptic circuits as networks, similar to those of the limbic system and those subserving the propagation and spread of seizures. Three principal cerebellar networks are identified and cerebellar disease often affects components of the networks other than just the cerebellar cortex. Contemporary developmental neuropathology of the cerebellum is best considered in the context of alterations of developmental processes: embryonic segmentation and genetic gradients along the three axes of the neural tube, individual neuronal and glial cell differentiation, migration, synaptogenesis, and myelination...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Tom P Franken, Philip X Joris, Philip H Smith
The brainstem's lateral superior olive (LSO) is thought to be crucial for localizing high-frequency sounds by coding interaural sound level differences (ILD). Its neurons weigh contralateral inhibition against ipsilateral excitation, making their firing rate a function of the azimuthal position of a sound source. Since the very first in vivo recordings, LSO principal neurons have been reported to give sustained and temporally integrating 'chopper' responses to sustained sounds. Neurons with transient responses were observed but largely ignored and even considered a sign of pathology...
June 14, 2018: ELife
Despina E Ganella, Ly Dao Nguyen, Luba Lee-Kardashyan, Leah E Kim, Antonio G Paolini, Jee Hyun Kim
In contrast to adult rodents, juvenile rodents fail to show relapse following extinction of conditioned fear. Using different retrograde tracers injected into the infralimbic cortex (IL) and the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) in conjunction with c-Fos and parvalbumin (PV) immunochemistry, we investigated the neurocircuitry of extinction in juvenile and adult rats. Regardless of fear extinction or retrieval, juvenile rats had more c-Fos+ neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) compared to adults, and showed a higher proportion of c-Fos+ IL-projecting neurons...
June 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Daniel B Yaeger, Emma J Coddington
Neurons in the medullary reticular formation are involved in the control of postural and locomotor behaviors in all vertebrates. Reticulospinal neurons in this brain region provide one of the major descending projections to the spinal cord. Although neurons in the newt medullary reticular formation have been extensively studied using in vivo extracellular recordings, little is known of their intrinsic biophysical properties or of the underlying circuitry of this region. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices containing the rostromedial reticular formation (rmRF) from adult male newts, we observed spontaneous miniature outward currents (SMOCs) in approximately two-thirds of neurons...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Samuel D Gale, Gabe J Murphy
The superficial layers of the superior colliculus (sSC) receive retinal input and project to thalamic regions - the dorsal lateral geniculate (dLGN) and lateral posterior (LP; or pulvinar) nuclei -that convey visual information to cortex. A critical step towards understanding the functional impact of sSC neurons on these parallel thalamo-cortical pathways is determining whether different classes of sSC neurons, which are known to respond to different features of visual stimuli, innervate overlapping or distinct thalamic targets...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Huamin Xu, Xiaodong Liu, Jianjian Xia, Tianshu Yu, Yanan Qu, Hong Jiang, Junxia Xie
Increasing evidence has confirmed that nigral iron accumulation and activation of NMDA receptors (NRs) contribute to the neurodegeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Earlier work indicated that activation of NRs participated in iron metabolism in the hippocampus. However, the relationship between activation of NRs and iron accumulation in DA neurons of the substantia nigra in PD was unknown. In this study, our results showed that NRs inhibitors MK-801 and AP5 protected nigrostriatal projection system and reduced nigral iron levels of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD rats...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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