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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535586/an-experimental-infarct-targeting-the-internal-capsule-histopathological-and-ultrastructural-changes
#1
Chang-Woo Han, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Myung Giun Noh, Jin-Myung Kim, Hyung-Seok Kim, Hyung-Sun Kim, Ra Gyung Kim, Jongwook Cho, Hyoung-Ihl Kim, Min-Cheol Lee
BACKGROUND: Stroke involving the cerebral white matter (WM) has increased in prevalence, but most experimental studies have focused on ischemic injury of the gray matter. This study was performed to investigate the WM in a unique rat model of photothrombotic infarct targeting the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), focusing on the identification of the most vulnerable structure in WM by ischemic injury, subsequent glial reaction to the injury, and the fundamental histopathologic feature causing different neurologic outcomes...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534935/effect-of-fasudil-on-cognitive-function-following-status-convulsion-in-rats
#2
Rong He, Wei Han, Xiaojie Song, Xiaoju Tang, Li Cheng, Li Jiang
Fasudil has been demonstrated to possess a protective effect in neural injury; however, its protective effect on convulsive brain injury remains to be assessed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the latent mechanism and effect of fasudil on cognitive function following status convulsion (SC) in rats. Initially, to determine the effects of SC, the expression levels of Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/Rho‑associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway‑associated proteins were measured by western blot analysis in 16 rats...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534438/the-axonal-cytoskeleton-and-the-assembly-of-nodes-of-ranvier
#3
Aniket Ghosh, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Vertebrate nervous systems rely on rapid nerve impulse transmission to support their complex functions. Fast conduction depends on ensheathment of nerve axons by myelin-forming glia and the clustering of high concentrations of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) in the axonal gaps between myelinated segments. These gaps are the nodes of Ranvier. Depolarization of the axonal membrane initiates the action potential responsible for impulse transmission, and the Nav help ensure that this is restricted to nodes...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534246/microglia-housekeeper-of-the-central-nervous-system
#4
REVIEW
John Alimamy Kabba, Yazhou Xu, Handson Christian, Wenchen Ruan, Kitchen Chenai, Yun Xiang, Luyong Zhang, Juan M Saavedra, Tao Pang
Microglia, of myeloid origin, play fundamental roles in the control of immune responses and the maintenance of central nervous system homeostasis. These cells, just like peripheral macrophages, may be activated into M1 pro-inflammatory or M2 anti-inflammatory phenotypes by appropriate stimuli. Microglia do not respond in isolation, but form part of complex networks of cells influencing each other. This review addresses the complex interaction of microglia with each cell type in the brain: neurons, astrocytes, cerebrovascular endothelial cells, and oligodendrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534077/white-matter-injury-in-the-preterm-infant-pathology-and-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Stephen A Back
The human preterm brain is particularly susceptible to cerebral white matter injury (WMI) that disrupts the normal progression of developmental myelination. Advances in the care of preterm infants have resulted in a sustained reduction in the severity of WMI that has shifted from more severe focal necrotic lesions to milder diffuse WMI. Nevertheless, WMI remains a global health problem and the most common cause of chronic neurological morbidity from cerebral palsy and diverse neurobehavioral disabilities. Diffuse WMI involves maturation-dependent vulnerability of the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage with selective degeneration of late oligodendrocyte progenitors (preOLs) triggered by oxidative stress and other insults...
May 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533935/a-review-of-the-emerging-potential-therapy-for-neurological-disorders-human-embryonic-stem-cell-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Geeta Shroff, Jyoti Dhanda Titus, Rhea Shroff
The first human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line was developed in the late nineties. hESCs are capable of proliferating indefinitely and differentiate into all the three embryonic germ layers. Further, the differentiation of hESC lines into neural precursor cells and neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes showed their potential in treating several incurable neurological disorders such as spinal cord injury (SCI), cerebral palsy (CP), Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we will discuss the global scenario of research and therapeutic use of hESCs in the treatment of neurological disorders...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533781/myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-deciphering-a-target-in-inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Patrick Peschl, Monika Bradl, Romana Höftberger, Thomas Berger, Markus Reindl
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, is a myelin protein solely expressed at the outermost surface of myelin sheaths and oligodendrocyte membranes. This makes MOG a potential target of cellular and humoral immune responses in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Due to its late postnatal developmental expression, MOG is an important marker for oligodendrocyte maturation. Discovered about 30 years ago, it is one of the best-studied autoantigens for experimental autoimmune models for multiple sclerosis (MS)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531236/psychosine-enhances-the-shedding-of-membrane-microvesicles-implications-in-demyelination-in-krabbe-s-disease
#8
Ludovic D'Auria, Cory Reiter, Emma Ward, Ana Lis Moyano, Michael S Marshall, Duc Nguyen, Giuseppe Scesa, Zane Hauck, Richard van Breemen, Maria I Givogri, Ernesto R Bongarzone
In prior studies, our laboratory showed that psychosine accumulates and disrupts lipid rafts in brain membranes of Krabbe's disease. A model of lipid raft disruption helped explaining psychosine's effects on several signaling pathways important for oligodendrocyte survival and differentiation but provided more limited insight in how this sphingolipid caused demyelination. Here, we have studied how this cationic inverted coned lipid affects the fluidity, stability and structure of myelin and plasma membranes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529944/optimization-of-time-for-neural-stem-cells-transplantation-for-brain-stroke-in-rats
#9
Seyyed Mohyeddin Ziaee, Parisa Tabeshmehr, Khawaja Husnain Haider, Majidreza Farrokhi, Abdolhamid Shariat, Atena Amiri, Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Despite encouraging data in terms of neurological outcome, stem cell based therapy for ischemic stroke in experimental models and human patients is still hampered by multiple as yet un-optimized variables, i.e., time of intervention, that significantly influence the prognosis. The aim of the present study was to delineate the optimum time for neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation after ischemic stroke. METHODS: The NSCs were isolated from 14 days embryo rat ganglion eminence and were cultured in NSA medium (neurobasal medium, 2% B27, 1% N2, bFGF 10 ng/mL, EGF 20 ng/mL and 1% pen/strep)...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528122/probdnf-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-differentiation-of-mouse-neural-stem-cells
#10
Jia-Yi Li, Jia Liu, Nimshitha Pavathuparambil Abdul Manaph, Larisa Bobrovskaya, Xin-Fu Zhou
ProBDNF, a precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is an important regulator of neurodegeneration, hippocampal long-term depression, and synaptic plasticity. ProBDNF and its receptors pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR), vps10p domain-containing receptor Sortilin and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) are expressed in neuronal and glial cells. The role of proBDNF in regulation of neurogenesis is not fully defined. This study aims to uncover the function of proBDNF in regulating the differentiation, migration and proliferation of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527274/caracter%C3%A3-sticas-de-la-estructura-molecular-de-las-prote%C3%A3-nas-e-del-virus-del-zika-y-e1-del-virus-de-la-rub%C3%A3-ola-y-posibles-implicaciones-en-el-neurotropismo-y-en-las-alteraciones-del-sistema-nervioso
#11
Luis Alberto Gómez, Gladis Montoya, Hernán Mauricio Rivera, Juan Carlos Hernández
Introducción. El virus del Zika (ZIKV) es un flavivirus con envoltura, transmitido a los seres humanos principalmente por el vector Aedes aegypti. La infección por ZIKV se ha asociado con un gran neurotropismo y con efectos neuropáticos, como el síndrome de Guillain-Barré en el adulto y la microcefalia fetal y posnatal, así como con un síndrome de infección congénita similar al producido por el virus de la rubéola (RV).Objetivo. Comparar las estructuras moleculares de la proteína de envoltura E del virus del Zika (E-ZIKV) y de la E1 del virus de la rubéola (E1-RV), y plantear posibles implicaciones en el neurotropismo y en las alteraciones del sistema nervioso asociadas con el ZIKV...
April 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526178/late-onset-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-hodgkin-lymphoma
#12
Whitley W Aamodt, James E Siegler, Angela N Viaene, Michael N Rubenstein
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease resulting from infection of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system with John Cunningham virus. Although PML is commonly diagnosed in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus, it can also arise in other immunodeficient states. In this report, we present an unusual case of PML occurring 40years after chemoradiation therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma in a patient with normal total lymphocyte counts on annual surveillance...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#13
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524175/modulators-of-microglial-activation-and-polarization-after-intracerebral-haemorrhage
#14
REVIEW
Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Qian Li, Qing-Wu Yang, Jian Wang
Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most lethal subtype of stroke but currently lacks effective treatment. Microglia are among the first non-neuronal cells on the scene during the innate immune response to ICH. Microglia respond to acute brain injury by becoming activated and developing classic M1-like (proinflammatory) or alternative M2-like (anti-inflammatory) phenotypes. This polarization implies as yet unrecognized actions of microglia in ICH pathology and recovery, perhaps involving microglial production of proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522408/multipotency-and-therapeutic-potential-of-ng2-cells
#15
REVIEW
Martin Valny, Pavel Honsa, Jan Kriska, Miroslava Anderova
NG2 cells represent one of the most proliferative glial cell populations in the intact mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They are well-known for their ability to renew themselves or to generate new oligodendrocytes during development as well as in adulthood, therefore also being termed oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Following CNS injuries, such as demyelination, trauma or ischemia, the proliferative capacity of NG2 cells rapidly increases and moreover, their differentiation potential broadens, as documented by numerous reports also describing their differentiation into astrocytes or even neurons...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521040/cortical-remyelination-is-heterogeneous-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Eva M M Strijbis, Evert-Jan Kooi, Paul van der Valk, Jeroen J G Geurts
Cortical lesions (CLs) are an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology; they correlate better with physical disability and cognitive impairment than white matter lesions (WMLs). Because remyelination can be extensive in CLs, we quantified remyelination in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), addressing oligodendrocyte (OGD) maturation state and clinical relevance of remyelination. Brain tissue samples from 21 chronic MS patients were immunohistochemically stained for myelin proteolipid protein, Olig2, which is strongly expressed in OGD precursor cells (OPCs), but weakly expressed in mature OGDs and other OGD markers...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519900/type-i-interferon-pathway-in-cns-homeostasis-and-neurological-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Blank, Marco Prinz
Type I interferons (IFNs), IFN-α and IFN-β, represent the major effector cytokines of the host immune response against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. These cytokines are produced via activation of numerous pattern recognition receptors, including the Toll-like receptor signaling network, retinoic acid-inducible gene-1 (RIG-1), melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA-5) and interferon gamma-inducible protein-16 (IFI-16). Whilst the contribution of type I IFNs to peripheral immunity is well documented, they can also be produced by almost every cell in the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518477/acute-oligodendrocyte-loss-with-persistent-white-matter-injury-in-a-third-trimester-equivalent-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#18
Jessie Newville, Carlos Fernando Valenzuela, Lu Li, Lauren L Jantzie, Lee Anna Cunningham
Alcohol exposure during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Human imaging studies have revealed significant white matter (WM) abnormalities linked to cognitive impairment in children with FASD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated both the acute and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on oligodendrocyte number and WM integrity in a third trimester-equivalent mouse model of FASD, in which mouse pups were exposed to alcohol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development...
May 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512781/developmental-regulation-and-localization-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferases-cpts-in-rat-brain
#19
Jennifer N Jernberg, Caitlyn E Bowman, Michael J Wolfgang, Susanna Scafidi
While the brain's high energy demands are largely met by glucose, brain is also equipped with the ability to oxidize fatty acids for energy and metabolism. The brain expresses the carnitine palmitoyltransferases (CPTs) that mediate carnitine-dependent entry of long-chain acyl-CoAs into the mitochondrial matrix for β-oxidation - CPT1a and CPT2 located on the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively. Their developmental profile, regional distribution and activity as well as cell type expression remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512742/differing-intrinsic-biological-properties-between-forebrain-and-spinal-oligodendroglial-lineage-cells
#20
Makoto Horiuchi, Yoko Suzuki-Horiuchi, Tasuku Akiyama, Aki Itoh, David Pleasure, Earl Carstens, Takayuki Itoh
Differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is known to be regulated by the microenvironment where they differentiate. However, current research has not verified whether or not oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLCs) derived from different anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS) respond to microenvironmental cues in the same manner. Here, we isolated pure OPCs from rat neonatal forebrain (FB) and spinal cord (SC) and compared their phenotypes in the same in vitro conditions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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