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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095365/barreloid-borders-and-neuronal-activity-shape-panglial-gap-junction-coupled-networks-in-the-mouse-thalamus
#1
Lena Claus, Camille Philippot, Stephanie Griemsmann, Aline Timmermann, Ronald Jabs, Christian Henneberger, Helmut Kettenmann, Christian Steinhäuser
The ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus plays an important role in somatosensory information processing. It contains elongated cellular domains called barreloids, which are the structural basis for the somatotopic organization of vibrissae representation. So far, the organization of glial networks in these barreloid structures and its modulation by neuronal activity has not been studied. We have developed a method to visualize thalamic barreloid fields in acute slices. Combining electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and electroporation in transgenic mice with cell type-specific fluorescence labeling, we provide the first structure-function analyses of barreloidal glial gap junction networks...
November 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093713/timing-of-future-remyelination-therapies-and-their-potential-to-stop-multiple-sclerosis-progression
#2
Burcu Zeydan, Moses Rodriguez, Orhun H Kantarci
Prior to the onset of demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), early oligodendrocyte injury, axonal degeneration and astroglial scarring occur. The irreversible progressive phase of MS begins when the axonal loss threshold is reached. Progressive disease onset has the highest impact on a poor prognosis in MS. Conversion to progressive disease is essentially an age-dependent process independent of disease duration and initial disease course. Although prevention of relapses has been the primary approach in the disease management, incomplete recovery from even the first relapse correlates with the long-term neurodegenerative phenotype of progressive MS onset...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093710/role-of-oligodendrocyte-dysfunction-in-demyelination-remyelination-and-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Adriana Octaviana Dulamea
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS) during development and throughout adulthood. They result from a complex and well controlled process of activation, proliferation, migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) from the germinative niches of the CNS. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the complex pathological process produces dysfunction and apoptosis of OLs leading to demyelination and neurodegeneration. This review attempts to describe the patterns of demyelination in MS, the steps involved in oligodendrogenesis and myelination in healthy CNS, the different pathways leading to OLs and myelin loss in MS, as well as principles involved in restoration of myelin sheaths...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092084/iron-availability-compromises-not-only-oligodendrocytes-but-also-astrocytes-and-microglial-cells
#4
Maria Victoria Rosato-Siri, Leandro Marziali, María Eugenia Guitart, Maria Elvira Badaracco, Mariana Puntel, Fernando Pitossi, Jorge Correale, Juana Maria Pasquini
When disrupted, iron homeostasis negatively impacts oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and impairs myelination. To better understand myelin formation and OLG maturation, in vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of iron deficiency (ID) not only on OLG maturation but also on astrocytes (AST) and microglial cells (MG). In vivo experiments in an ID model were carried out to describe maturational events during OLG and AST development and the reactive profile of MG during myelination when iron availability is lower than normal...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091609/leptin-sustains-spontaneous-remyelination-in-the-adult-central-nervous-system
#5
Ken Matoba, Rieko Muramatsu, Toshihide Yamashita
Demyelination is a common feature of many central nervous system (CNS) diseases and is associated with neurological impairment. Demyelinated axons are spontaneously remyelinated depending on oligodendrocyte development, which mainly involves molecules expressed in the CNS environment. In this study, we found that leptin, a peripheral hormone secreted from adipocytes, promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Leptin increased the OPC proliferation via in vitro phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK); whereas leptin neutralization inhibited OPC proliferation and remyelination in a mouse model of toxin-induced demyelination...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077718/integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-deletion-disrupts-oligodendrocyte-development-by-altering-cell-cycle
#6
Rashad Hussain, Wendy B Macklin
: During development, oligodendrocytes are initially specified, after which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and proliferate before differentiating into myelinating cells. Lineage-specific programming of oligodendrocytes results from sensing environmental cues through membrane-bound receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an important protein that is expressed at the inner margins of the plasma membrane and can mediate some of these signals...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076797/major-shifts-in-glial-regional-identity-are-a-transcriptional-hallmark-of-human-brain-aging
#7
Lilach Soreq, Jamie Rose, Eyal Soreq, John Hardy, Daniah Trabzuni, Mark R Cookson, Colin Smith, Mina Ryten, Rickie Patani, Jernej Ule
Gene expression studies suggest that aging of the human brain is determined by a complex interplay of molecular events, although both its region- and cell-type-specific consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we extensively characterized aging-altered gene expression changes across ten human brain regions from 480 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 106 years. We show that astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes, but not neuron-specific genes, shift their regional expression patterns upon aging, particularly in the hippocampus and substantia nigra, while the expression of microglia- and endothelial-specific genes increase in all brain regions...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076777/antagonistic-functions-of-mbp-and-cnp-establish-cytosolic-channels-in-cns-myelin
#8
Nicolas Snaidero, Caroline Velte, Matti Myllykoski, Arne Raasakka, Alexander Ignatev, Hauke B Werner, Michelle S Erwig, Wiebke Möbius, Petri Kursula, Klaus-Armin Nave, Mikael Simons
The myelin sheath is a multilamellar plasma membrane extension of highly specialized glial cells laid down in regularly spaced segments along axons. Recent studies indicate that myelin is metabolically active and capable of communicating with the underlying axon. To be functionally connected to the neuron, oligodendrocytes maintain non-compacted myelin as cytoplasmic nanochannels. Here, we used high-pressure freezing for electron microscopy to study these cytoplasmic regions within myelin close to their native state...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074911/further-evidence-for-microtubule-independent-dimerization-of-tppp-p25
#9
J Oláh, T Szénási, S Szunyogh, A Szabó, A Lehotzky, J Ovádi
Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP/p25) is a brain-specific disordered protein that modulates the dynamics and stability of the microtubule network by its assembly promoting, cross-linking and acetylation enhancing activities. In normal brain it is expressed primarily in differentiated oligodendrocytes; however, at pathological conditions it is enriched in inclusions of both neurons and oligodendrocytes characteristic for Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively. The objective of this paper is to highlight a critical point of a recently published Skoufias's paper in which the crucial role of the microtubules in TPPP/p25 dimerization leading to microtubule bundling was suggested...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074710/canine-spinal-cord-glioma
#10
Daniel R Rissi, Renee Barber, Annabelle Burnum, Andrew D Miller
Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073086/human-neural-progenitors-derived-from-integration-free-ipscs-for-sci-therapy
#11
Ying Liu, Yiyan Zheng, Shenglan Li, Haipeng Xue, Karl Schmitt, Georgene W Hergenroeder, Jiaqian Wu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Dong H Kim, Qilin Cao
As a potentially unlimited autologous cell source, patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide great capability for tissue regeneration, particularly in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, despite significant progress made in translation of iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to clinical settings, a few hurdles remain. Among them, non-invasive approach to obtain source cells in a timely manner, safer integration-free delivery of reprogramming factors, and purification of NPCs before transplantation are top priorities to overcome...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072884/structural-and-ultrastructural-alterations-in-human-olfactory-pathways-and-possible-associations-with-herpesvirus-6-infection
#12
Sandra Skuja, Anete Zieda, Kristine Ravina, Svetlana Chapenko, Silvija Roga, Ojars Teteris, Valerija Groma, Modra Murovska
Structural and ultrastructural alterations in human olfactory pathways and putative associations with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection were studied. The olfactory bulb/tract samples from 20 subjects with an unspecified encephalopathy determined by pathomorphological examination of the brain autopsy, 17 healthy age-matched and 16 younger controls were used. HHV-6 DNA was detected in 60, 29, and 19% of cases in these groups, respectively. In the whole encephalopathy group, significantly more HHV-6 positive neurons and oligodendrocytes were found in the gray matter, whereas, significantly more HHV-6 positive astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia/macrophages and endothelial cells were found in the white matter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071826/gat-1-mediated-gaba-uptake-in-rat-oligodendrocytes
#13
Giorgia Fattorini, Marcello Melone, María Victoria Sánchez-Gómez, Rogelio O Arellano, Silvia Bassi, Carlos Matute, Fiorenzo Conti
Stimulated by the results of a recent paper on the effects of tiagabine, a selective inhibitor of the main GABA transporter GAT-1, on oligodendrogenesis, we verified the possibility that GAT-1 may be expressed in oligodendrocytes using immunocytochemical methods and functional assays. Light microscopic analysis of the subcortical white matter of all animals revealed the presence of numerous GAT-1+ cells of different size (from 3 to 29 µm) and morphology. An electron microscope analysis revealed that, besides fibrous astrocytes and interstitial neurons, GAT-1 immunoreactivity was present in immature and mature oligodendrocytes...
January 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071741/loss-of-coupling-distinguishes-gjb1-mutations-associated-with-cns-manifestations-of-cmt1x-from-those-without-cns-manifestations
#14
Charles K Abrams, Mikhail Goman, Sarah Wong, Steven S Scherer, Kleopas A Kleopa, Alejandro Peinado, Mona M Freidin
CMT1X, an X-linked inherited neuropathy, is caused by mutations in GJB1, which codes for Cx32, a gap junction protein expressed by Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. Many GJB1 mutations cause central nervous system (CNS) abnormality in males, including stable subclinical signs and, less often, short-duration episodes characterized by motor difficulties and altered consciousness. However, some mutations have no apparent CNS effects. What distinguishes mutations with and without CNS manifestations has been unclear...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071239/induction-by-arsenate-of-cell-type-specific-cytotoxic-effects-in-nerve-and-hepatoma-cells
#15
Wafa Kharroubi, Thomas Nury, Samia Haj Ahmed, Pierre Andreoletti, Rachid Sakly, Mohamed Hammami, Gérard Lizard
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of sodium arsenate (AsV) on two different cell types: 158N murine oligodendrocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Exposure of 158N cells to AsV (0.1-400 µM; 48 h) induced a biphasic cytoxic effect defined as hormesis. Thus, low concentrations of AsV stimulate cell proliferation, as shown by phase-contrast microscopy, cell counting with trypan blue, and crystal violet assay, whereas high concentrations induce cell death associated with a loss of cell adhesion...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069965/dual-role-of-alcam-in-neuroinflammation-and-blood-brain-barrier-homeostasis
#16
Marc-André Lécuyer, Olivia Saint-Laurent, Lyne Bourbonnière, Sandra Larouche, Catherine Larochelle, Laure Michel, Marc Charabati, Michael Abadier, Stephanie Zandee, Neda Haghayegh Jahromi, Elizabeth Gowing, Camille Pittet, Ruth Lyck, Britta Engelhardt, Alexandre Prat
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is a cell adhesion molecule found on blood-brain barrier endothelial cells (BBB-ECs) that was previously shown to be involved in leukocyte transmigration across the endothelium. In the present study, we found that ALCAM knockout (KO) mice developed a more severe myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The exacerbated disease was associated with a significant increase in the number of CNS-infiltrating proinflammatory leukocytes compared with WT controls...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069926/creatine-enhances-mitochondrial-mediated-oligodendrocyte-survival-following-demyelinating-injury
#17
Kelly A Chamberlain, Kristen S Chapey, Sonia E Nanescu, Jeffrey K Huang
: Chronic oligodendrocyte loss, which occurs in the demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), contributes to axonal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Current therapies are able to reduce MS severity, but do not prevent transition into the progressive phase of the disease, which is characterized by chronic neurodegeneration. Therefore, pharmacological compounds that promote oligodendrocyte survival could be beneficial for neuroprotection in MS. Here, we investigated the role of creatine, an organic acid involved in ATP buffering, in oligodendrocyte function...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069797/oligodendrocyte-development-and-cns-myelination-are-unaffected-in-a-mouse-model-of-severe-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#18
Ryan W O'Meara, Sarah E Cummings, Yves De Repentigny, Emily McFall, John-Paul Michalski, Marc-Olivier Deguise, Sabrina Gibeault, Rashmi Kothary
The childhood neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by loss-of-function mutations or deletions in the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene resulting in insufficient levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Classically considered a motor neuron disease, increasing evidence now supports SMA as a multi-system disorder with phenotypes discovered in cortical neuron, astrocyte, and Schwann cell function within the nervous system. In this study, we sought to determine whether Smn was critical for oligodendrocyte (OL) development and central nervous system myelination...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069421/optogenetic-control-of-cell-differentiation-in-channelrhodopsin-2-expressing-os3-a-bipotential-glial-progenitor-cell-line
#19
Kenji Ono, Hiromi Suzuki, Ryusei Yamamoto, Hideki Sahashi, Yuhei Takido, Makoto Sawada
Alterations in the intracellular ion environment have been identified as one of the signals playing a critical role in the control of cellular proliferation and differentiation; however, the mechanisms responsible for signal transduction remain unclear. Recent studies have reported that channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a rapidly gated blue light (BL)-sensitive cation channel suitable for the non-invasive control of ion influx. We herein examined the expression of differentiation-associated markers by photo-activation and its signal transduction in ChR2-expressing OS3 (OS3ChR2) cells, which are clonal bipotential glial progenitor cells...
January 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065579/roles-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-il-10-in-virus-induced-demyelination
#20
REVIEW
Stanley Perlman, Jingxian Zhao
Neurotropic viruses are important causes of morbidity and mortality in human populations. Some of these viruses preferentially infect oligodendrocytes in the white matter, causing either direct lysis of infected cells, or more commonly myelin damage as a consequence of the host immune response to the virus. Virus-induced demyelination has similarities to the human disease multiple sclerosis. To study this disease process in experimental animals, mice are infected, most commonly, with neurotropic strains of mouse hepatitis virus, a coronavirus or Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis, a picornavirus...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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