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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457860/controlling-the-outgrowth-and-functions-of-neural-stem-cells-the-effect-of-surface-topography
#1
REVIEW
Chara Simitzi, Kanelina Karali, Anthi Ranella, Emmanuel Stratakis
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing cells that generate the major cell types of the central nervous system, namely neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, during embryonic development and in the adult brain. NSCs reside in a complex niche where they are exposed to a plethora of signals, including both soluble and physical signals such as compressive and shear stresses, but also discontinuities and differences in morphology of the extracellular environment, termed as topographical features. Different approaches that incorporate artificial micro- and nano-scale surface topographical features have been developed aiming to recapitulate the in vivo NSC niche discontinuities and features, particularly for in vitro studies...
February 19, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457657/semaphorin4a-and-h-ferritin-utilize-tim-1-on-human-oligodendrocytes-a-novel-neuro-immune-axis
#2
Brian Chiou, Elisabeth Lucassen, Michael Sather, Asha Kallianpur, James Connor
Deficiency of trophic factors relating to the survival of oligodendrocytes, combined with direct interactions with the immune system, are favored paradigms that are increasingly implicated in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. We and others have previously shown that Sema4A and H-ferritin interact through the T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (Tim-2) receptor in mice. H-ferritin has been identified as the iron delivery protein for oligodendrocytes, whereas Sema4A causes a direct cytotoxic effect...
February 19, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449625/toll-like-receptor-4-modulation-influences-human-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#3
Chiara Grasselli, Daniela Ferrari, Cristina Zalfa, Matias Soncini, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Fabio A Facchini, Laura Marongiu, Francesca Granucci, Massimiliano Copetti, Angelo Luigi Vescovi, Francesco Peri, Lidia De Filippis
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation is pivotal to innate immunity and has been shown to regulate proliferation and differentiation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) in vivo. Here we study the role of TLR4 in regulating hNSC derived from the human telencephalic-diencephalic area of the fetal brain and cultured in vitro as neurospheres in compliance with Good Manifacture Procedures (GMP) guidelines. Similar batches have been used in recent clinical trials in ALS patients. We found that TLR2 and 4 are expressed in hNSCs as well as CD14 and MD-2 co-receptors, and TLR4 expression is downregulated upon differentiation...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448957/brain-region-specific-enhancement-of-remyelination-and-prevention-of-demyelination-by-the-csf1r-kinase-inhibitor-blz945
#4
Nicolau Beckmann, Elisa Giorgetti, Anna Neuhaus, Stefan Zurbruegg, Nathalie Accart, Paul Smith, Julien Perdoux, Ludovic Perrot, Mark Nash, Sandrine Desrayaud, Peter Wipfli, Wilfried Frieauff, Derya R Shimshek
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). While multiple effective immunomodulatory therapies for MS exist today, they lack the scope of promoting CNS repair, in particular remyelination. Microglia play a pivotal role in regulating myelination processes, and the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) pathway is a key regulator for microglia differentiation and survival. Here, we investigated the effects of the CSF-1 receptor kinase inhibitor, BLZ945, on central myelination processes in the 5-week murine cuprizone model by non-invasive and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448234/gene-expression-changes-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-alcohol-preferring-p-rats-following-binge-like-alcohol-drinking
#5
Jeanette N McClintick, William J McBride, Richard L Bell, Zheng-Ming Ding, Yunlong Liu, Xiaoling Xuei, Howard J Edenberg
Binge drinking of alcohol during adolescence is a serious public health concern with long-term consequences, including decreased hippocampal and prefrontal cortex volume and deficits in memory. We used RNA sequencing to assess the effects of adolescent binge drinking on gene expression in these regions. Male adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats were exposed to repeated binge drinking (three 1-h sessions/day during the dark/cycle, 5 days/week for 3 weeks starting at 28 days of age; ethanol intakes of 2.5-3 g/kg/session)...
September 14, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446722/herbal-compounds-with-special-reference-to-gastrodin-as-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-microglia-mediated-neuroin%C3%AF-ammation
#6
Juan-Juan Li, Shun-Jin Liu, Xiao-Yu Liu, Eng-Ang Ling
BACKGROUND: Activated microglia play a pivotal role neurodegenerative diseases by producing a variety of proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1bea (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) that are toxic to neurons and oligodendrocytes. METHODS: In view of the above, suppression of microglia mediated neuroinflammation is deemed a therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. Several potential Chinese herbal extracts have been reported to exert neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases targeting specifically at the activated microglia...
February 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445944/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibody-positive-optic-neuritis
#7
REVIEW
Takeshi Kezuka, Hitoshi Ishikawa
Anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody positive optic neuritis has been established as a new subset of optic neuropathy. Anti-MOG antibodies are usually measured by cell-based assay. Patients with anti-MOG antibody positive optic neuritis respond well to steroid therapy, and, while visual acuity outcomes are favorable, significant visual field defects remain. Furthermore, patients who are anti-MOG antibody positive have higher rates of recurrence compared to antibody negative patients. Based on these findings, anti-MOG antibody positive patients with optic neuritis have the characteristics of good visual outcomes, residual visual field defects, and high risk of recurrence...
February 14, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443798/clinical-features-imaging-and-natural-history-of-myelinated-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer
#8
Raksha Rao, Elif B Turkoglu, Emil A T Say, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To evaluate the natural history of myelinated retinal nerve fiber layer (MRNFL) through clinical features and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. METHODS: This is a retrospective, noncomparative, case series of patients who underwent thorough clinical examination to document associated ocular and systemic features. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography was performed when MRNFL was located posteriorly and accessible to imaging...
February 13, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442376/multiple-system-atrophy-and-apolipoprotein-e
#9
Kotaro Ogaki, Yuka A Martens, Michael G Heckman, Shunsuke Koga, Catherine Labbé, Oswaldo Lorenzo-Betancor, Anna I Wernick, Ronald L Walton, Alexandra I Soto, Emily R Vargas, Henrietta M Nielsen, Shinsuke Fujioka, Takahisa Kanekiyo, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A van Gerpen, William P Cheshire, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Phillip A Low, Wolfgang Singer, Dennis W Dickson, Guojun Bu, Owen A Ross
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of the specialized lipid metabolism involved in myelin synthesis and maintenance by oligodendrocytes has been associated with the unique neuropathology of MSA. We hypothesized that apolipoprotein E, which is associated with neurodegeneration, may also play a role in the pathogenesis of MSA. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated genetic associations of Apolipoprotein E alleles with risk of MSA and α-synuclein pathology, and also examined whether apolipoprotein E isoforms differentially affect α-synuclein uptake in a oligodendrocyte cell...
February 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438836/mog-antibody-demyelinating-diseases-a-case-of-post-partum-severe-rhombencephalitis-and-transverse-myelitis
#10
D Vecchio, E Virgilio, P Naldi, C Comi, R Cantello
INTRODUCTION: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) associated disorders present with a spectrum of clinical pictures including brainstem involvement. CASE REPORT: A patient with the sudden onset of a post-partum severe rhombencephalitis causing respiratory failure (12 years after a mild transverse myelitis). Despite the aggressive clinical course, she had an impressive recovery after plasmapheresis, and no further relapses on immunosuppression...
February 8, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437957/normal-aging-induces-a1-like-astrocyte-reactivity
#11
Laura E Clarke, Shane A Liddelow, Chandrani Chakraborty, Alexandra E Münch, Myriam Heiman, Ben A Barres
The decline of cognitive function occurs with aging, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. Astrocytes instruct the formation, maturation, and elimination of synapses, and impairment of these functions has been implicated in many diseases. These findings raise the question of whether astrocyte dysfunction could contribute to cognitive decline in aging. We used the Bac-Trap method to perform RNA sequencing of astrocytes from different brain regions across the lifespan of the mouse. We found that astrocytes have region-specific transcriptional identities that change with age in a region-dependent manner...
February 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436662/comparison-of-the-properties-of-neural-stem-cells-of-the-hippocampus-in-the-tree-shrew-and-rat-in%C3%A2-vitro
#12
Yuan-Dong Hu, Qiong Zhao, Xue-Rong Zhang, Liu-Lin Xiong, Zi-Bin Zhang, Piao Zhang, Rong-Ping Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are characterized by the ability of self‑renewal and capacity to proliferate and produce new nervous tissue. NSCs are capable of differentiating to three lineages of neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Furthermore, hippocampal NSCs transplantation can improve the neurological deficits associated with expression of cytokines. Therefore, to compare the properties of NSCs of tree shrews and rats in vitro, NSCs from tree shrews (tsNSCs) and rats f(rNSCs) were isolated...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436652/neuronalinjury-and-roles-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-a-neonatal-rat-model-of-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-periventricular-leukomalacia
#13
Lin Qiao, Jianhua Fu, Xindong Xue, Yongyan Shi, Li Yao, Wanjie Huang, Jun Li, Dan Zhang, Na Liu, Xin Tong, Yanna Du, Yuqing Pan
As research into periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) gradually increases, concerns are emerging about long‑term neuron injury. The present study aimed to investigate neuronal injury and the relevant alterations in apoptosis and autophagy in a PVL model established previously. A rat model of hypoxia‑ischemia‑induced PVL was established. In the model group, Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rats [postnatal day 3 (P3)] were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by suturing and exposed to 6‑8% oxygen for 2 h; in the control group, SD rats (P3) were subjected to right common carotid artery dissection followed by suturing, without ligation and hypoxic exposure...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436030/activating-transcription-factor-6%C3%AE-deficiency-exacerbates-oligodendrocyte-death-and-myelin-damage-in-immune-mediated-demyelinating-diseases
#14
Sarrabeth Stone, Shuangchan Wu, Stephanie Jamison, Wilaiwan Durose, Jean Pierre Pallais, Wensheng Lin
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) play a critical role in immune-mediated demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by regulating the viability of oligodendrocytes. Our previous studies show that activation of the PERK branch of the UPR protects myelinating oligodendrocytes against ER stress in young, developing mice that express IFN-γ, a key pro-inflammatory cytokine in MS and EAE, in the CNS...
February 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434692/gestational-age-not-transient-hyperthyrotropinemia-impacts-brain-white-matter-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-premature-infants
#15
Pi-Lien Hung, Chun-Chung Lui, Chen-Chang Lee, Yin-Hsiu Chien, Feng-Shun Chen, Chih-Cheng Chen, Hong-Ren Yu, Mei-Yung Chung, Li-Tung Huang
Transient hypothyroidism is common in premature infants and increases the risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Thyroid hormone (TH) is involved in oligodendrocyte development and myelination, however, whether transient hypothyroidism is associated with oligodendrocyte dysplasia and abnormal myelination is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate correlations among TH levels, neurodevelopmental outcomes and white matter (WM) microstructure in premature infants. The authors designed a cohort study recruiting 81 premature infants (age, 23-35 weeks)...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431427/chromis-1-a-ratiometric-fluorescent-probe-optimized-for-two-photon-microscopy-reveals-dynamic-changes-in-labile-zn-ii-in-differentiating-oligodendrocytes
#16
Daisy Bourassa, Christopher M Elitt, Adam M McCallum, S Sumalekshmy, Reagan L McRae, M Thomas Morgan, Nisan Siegel, Joseph W Perry, Paul A Rosenberg, Christoph J Fahrni
Despite the significant advantages of two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) over traditional confocal fluorescence microscopy in live-cell imaging applications, including reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching, increased depth penetration, and minimized autofluorescence, only a few metal ion-selective fluorescent probes have been designed and optimized specifically for this technique. Building upon a donor-acceptor fluorophore architecture, we developed a membrane-permeant, Zn(II)-selective fluorescent probe, chromis-1, that exhibits a balanced two-photon cross section between its free and Zn(II)-bound form and responds with a large spectral shift suitable for emission-ratiometric imaging...
February 12, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429012/er-stress-and-genomic-instability-induced-by-gamma-radiation-in-mice-primary-cultured-glial-cells
#17
Jit Chatterjee, Rajesha K Nairy, Jaldeep Langhnoja, Ashutosh Tripathi, Rajashekhar K Patil, Prakash P Pillai, Mohammed S Mustak
Ionizing radiation induces various pathophysiological conditions by altering central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. However, the potential effect of ionizing radiation response on cellular physiology in glial cells is unclear. In the present study, micronucleus test, comet assay, and RT-PCR were performed to investigate the potential effect of gamma radiation in cultured oligodendrocytes and astrocytes with respect to genomic instability, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, and inflammation...
February 10, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428242/bu-shen-yi-sui-capsule-promotes-remyelination-correlating-with-sema3a-nrp-1-lif-lifr-and-nkx6-2-in-mice-with-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#18
Pei-Yuan Zhao, Yong-Qiang Wang, Xi-Hong Liu, Ying-Jun Zhu, Hui Zhao, Qiu-Xia Zhang, Fang Qi, Jun-Ling Li, Nan Zhang, Yong-Ping Fan, Kang-Ning Li, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Jian-Feng Lei, Lei Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bu Shen Yi Sui capsule (BSYSC), based on traditional Chinese formula Liu Wei Di Huang pill, is effective for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in clinical experience and trials. Our previous studies confirmed that BSYSC had the neuroprotective effect in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); however, its mechanism of action was not clear. Thus, the effect of BSYSC on remyelination and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in the EAE mice...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427507/epigenetic-modifications-insight-into-oligodendrocyte-lineage-progression-regeneration-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Alexander Gregath, Richard Q Lu
Myelination by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system permits high fidelity saltatory conduction from neuronal cell bodies to axon terminals. Dysmyelinating and demyelinating disorders impair normal nervous system functions. Consequently, an understanding of oligodendrocyte differentiation that moves beyond the genetic code into the field of epigenetics is essential. Chromatin reprogramming is critical for steering stage-specific differentiation processes during oligodendrocyte development. Fine temporal control of chromatin remodeling through ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers and sequential histone modifiers shapes a chromatin regulatory landscape conducive to oligodendrocyte fate specification, lineage differentiation, and maintenance of cell identity...
February 10, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426336/salidroside-provides-neuroprotection-by-modulating-microglial-polarization-after-cerebral-ischemia
#20
Xiangrong Liu, Shaohong Wen, Feng Yan, Kuan Liu, Liqiang Liu, Lei Wang, Shangfeng Zhao, Xunming Ji
BACKGROUND: Following stroke, microglia can be driven to the "classically activated" pro-inflammatory (M1) phenotype and the "alternatively activated" anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Salidroside (SLDS) is known to inhibit inflammation and to possess protective effects in neurological diseases, but to date, the exact mechanisms involved in these processes after stroke have yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of SLDS on neuroprotection and microglial polarization after stroke...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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