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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049317/identification-of-genome-wide-targets-of-olig2-in-the-adult-mouse-spinal-cord-using-chip-seq
#1
Andrew J Darr, Matt C Danzi, Lee Brady, Dorothea Emig-Agius, Amber Hackett, Roozbeh Golshani, Nikita Warner, Jae Lee, Vance P Lemmon, Pantelis Tsoulfas
In jawed vertebrates, oligodendrocytes (OLs) are the myelin-producing glial cells responsible for ensheathment of axons within the central nervous system and are also crucial for remyelination following injury or disease. Olig2 is a crucial factor in the specification and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that give rise to mature, myelin-producing OLs in the developing and postnatal CNS; however, its role in adulthood is less well understood. To investigate the role Olig2 plays in regulating gene expression in the adult OL lineage in a physiologically-relevant context, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing analysis (ChIP-Seq) using whole spinal cord tissue harvested from adult mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046627/mecp2-deficiency-in-neuroglia-new-progress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rett-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Xu-Rui Jin, Xing-Shu Chen, Lan Xiao
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disease predominantly caused by mutations of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene. Generally, RTT has been attributed to neuron-centric dysfunction. However, increasing evidence has shown that glial abnormalities are also involved in the pathogenesis of RTT. Mice that are MeCP2-null specifically in glial cells showed similar behavioral and/or neuronal abnormalities as those found in MeCP2-null mice, a mouse model of RTT. MeCP2 deficiency in astrocytes impacts the expression of glial intermediate filament proteins such as fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100 and induces neuron toxicity by disturbing glutamate metabolism or enhancing microtubule instability...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046438/on-myelinated-axon-plasticity-and-neuronal-circuit-formation-and-function
#3
Rafael G Almeida, David A Lyons
Studies of activity-driven nervous system plasticity have primarily focused on the gray matter. However, MRI-based imaging studies have shown that white matter, primarily composed of myelinated axons, can also be dynamically regulated by activity of the healthy brain. Myelination in the CNS is an ongoing process that starts around birth and continues throughout life. Myelin in the CNS is generated by oligodendrocytes and recent evidence has shown that many aspects of oligodendrocyte development and myelination can be modulated by extrinsic signals including neuronal activity...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045978/-clinicopathologic-features-of-infant-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
H Wang, J T Ye, H X Yao, D Li, Y Dong
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) has traditionally been viewed as rare benign tumors that present with seizure widely considered curable with surgery alone. Most DNTs occur in childhood and young adults. However, rare reported cases occur in infants. This paper reported an infant case of DNT and its diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, molecular features and prognosis based on the review of current literatures. The age onset of this patient was only 11 months old. The clinical manifestations were partial seizures and the imaging data untypical; CT and MRI were all supportive of astrocytoma...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045809/postnatal-sonic-hedgehog-shh-responsive-cells-give-rise-to-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cells-during-myelination-and-in-adulthood-contribute-to-remyelination
#5
Maria A Sanchez, Regina C Armstrong
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) regulates a wave of oligodendrocyte production for extensive myelination during postnatal development. During this postnatal period of oligodendrogenesis, we fate-labeled cells exhibiting active Shh signaling to examine their contribution to the regenerative response during remyelination. Bitransgenic mouse lines were generated for induced genetic fate-labeling of cells actively transcribing Shh or Gli1. Gli1 transcription is an effective readout for canonical Shh signaling. Shh(CreERT2) mice and Gli1(CreERT2) mice were crossed to either R26(tdTomato) mice to label cells with red fluorescence, or, R26(IAP) mice to label membranes with alkaline phosphatase...
October 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044560/regulating-the-transcriptomes-that-mediate-the-conversion-of-fibroblasts-to-various-nervous-system-neural-cell-types
#6
Niusha Khazaei, Shima Rastegar-Pouyani, Nicholas O'Toole, Ping Wee, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia, Moein Yaqubi
Our understanding of the mechanism of cell fate transition during the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into various central nervous system (CNS) neural cell types has been limited by the lack of a comprehensive analysis on generated cells, independently and in comparison with other CNS neural cell types. Here, we applied an integrative approach on 18 independent high throughput expression data sets to gain insight into the regulation of the transcriptome during the conversion of fibroblasts into induced neural stem cells, induced neurons, induced astrocytes, and induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cells...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044559/discovery-and-characterization-of-novel-trans-spliced-products-of-human-polyoma-jc-virus-late-transcripts-from-pml-patients
#7
A Sami Saribas, Julia DeVoto, Akhil Golla, Hassen S Wollebo, Martyn K White, Mahmut Safak
Although the human neurotropic polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), was isolated almost a half century ago, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing its biology remains highly elusive. JCV infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a fatal brain disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunocompromised individuals including AIDS. It has a small circular DNA genome (∼ 5 kb) and generates two primary transcripts from its early and late coding regions, producing several predicted alternatively spliced products mainly by cis-splicing...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039438/chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-inhibit-the-migration-and-differentiation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-and-its-counteractive-interaction-with-laminin
#8
Yi Sun, Yingping Deng, Mili Xiao, Lan Hu, Zhihua Li, Chao Chen
Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) is a recognized problem in premature infants, particularly in those with very low birth weights. Although the survival rate of premature infants has notably increased due to the advancement of modern medical treatments, their likelihood of developmental disability is higher than infants with an average birth weight. It has been previously reported that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are selectively vulnerable to WMI in premature infants. Following brain injury, glial scars may develop within the white matter...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038005/prednisone-alleviates-demyelination-through-regulation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-a-c57bl-6-mouse-model-of-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#9
Hao Yu, Mingfeng Wu, Geng Lu, Tingting Cao, Nan Chen, Yijia Zhang, Higuo Jiang, Hongbin Fan, Ruiqin Yao
Myelin abnormalities, oligodendrocyte damage, and concomitant glia activation are common in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing evidence has demonstrated that the inflammatory response triggers demyelination and gliosis in demyelinating disorders. Numerous clinical interventions, including those used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS), have confirmed prednisone (PDN) as a powerful anti-inflammatory drug that reduces the inflammatory response and promotes tissue repair in multiple inflammation sites...
October 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036908/propofol-induces-apoptosis-of-neurons-but-not-astrocytes-oligodendrocytes-or-neural-stem-cells-in-the-neonatal-mouse-hippocampus
#10
Yasheng Yan, Shigang Qiao, Chika Kikuchi, Ivan Zaja, Sarah Logan, Congshan Jiang, Thiago Arzua, Xiaowen Bai
It has been shown that propofol can induce widespread apoptosis in neonatal mouse brains followed by long-term cognitive dysfunction. However, selective brain area and cell vulnerability to propofol remains unknown. This study was aimed to dissect toxic effect of propofol on multiple brain cells, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs). Seven-day-old mice were intraperitoneally administrated propofol or intralipid as a vehicle control for 6 hours. To identify vulnerable cells undergoing apoptosis following propofol exposure, brain sagittal sections were co-stained with antibodies against an apoptosis marker along with neuron, astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, or NSC markers using immunofluorescence staining...
October 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035306/platelet-endothelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-and-oligodendrogenesis-significance-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Chitra D Mandyam, Emmanuel G Villalpando, Noah L Steiner, Leon W Quach, McKenzie J Fannon, Sucharita S Somkuwar
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder with few therapeutic strategies that address the core pathophysiology. Brain tissue loss and oxidative damage are key components of alcoholism, such that reversal of these phenomena may help break the addictive cycle in alcohol use disorder (AUD). The current review focuses on platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), a key modulator of the cerebral endothelial integrity and neuroinflammation, and a targetable transmembrane protein whose interaction within AUD has not been well explored...
October 16, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034508/ulk4-deficiency-leads-to-hypomyelination-in-mice
#12
Min Liu, Ping Xu, Zhenlong Guan, Xiaohong Qian, Peter Dockery, Una Fitzgerald, Timothy O'Brien, Sanbing Shen
Brain nerve fibers are insulated by myelin which is produced by oligodendrocytes. Defects in myelination are increasingly recognized as a common pathology underlying neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, which are associated with deletions of the Unc-51-like kinase 4 (ULK4) gene. Key transcription factors have been identified for oligodendrogenesis, but little is known about their associated regulators. Here we report that Ulk4 acts as a key regulator of myelination. Myelination is reduced by half in the Ulk4(tm1a/tm1a) hypomorph brain, whereas expression of axonal marker genes Tubb3, Nefh, Nefl and Nefm remains unaltered...
October 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034286/data-of-indirect-immunofluorescence-labeling-of-the-mouse-brain-sections-with-sera-from-sle-and-ms-patients
#13
Ayse Ilksen Colpak, Banu Balci-Peynircioglu, Alp Can, Yasemin Gursoy-Ozdemir, Sevda Lule, Umut Kalyoncu, Turgay Dalkara
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Behcet Disease serum is immunoreactive to neurofilament medium which share common epitopes to bacterial HSP-65, a putative trigger" (Lule et a. 2017) [1]. The immunoreactivity to self-antigens is well characterized for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (Magro Checa et al., 2013) [2]. Indirect immunofluorescence labeling of the mouse tissue sections with patient sera has recently been popular to discover novel epitopes and gain mechanistic insight to diseases with dysregulated immunity (Lennon et al...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031245/decrease-in-cavity-size-and-oligodendrocyte-cell-death-using-neurosphere-derived-oligodendrocyte-like-cells-in-spinal-cord-contusion-model
#14
Hojjat Allah Abbaszadeh, Taki Tiraihi, Yousef Sadeghi, Ali Reza Delshad, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Taher Taheri, Ali Noori-Zadeh
Background: Oligodendrocyte cell death is among the important features of spinal cord injury, which appears within 15 min and occurs intensely for 4 h after injury, in the rat spinal contusion model. Accordingly, the number of oligodendrocytes is progressively reduced within 24 h after injury. Administration of oligodendrocyte-like cells (OLCs) into the lesion area is one of the approaches to counterbalance this condition. Methods: Bone marrow stromal cells were transdifferentiated into neurospheres and then into neural stem cells and later were differentiated into OLCs using triiodothyronine and transplanted into the spinal cord contusion rats...
October 15, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030079/quantitative-temporal-changes-in-dti-values-coupled-with-histological-properties-in-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-and-remyelination
#15
Ryutaro Yano, Junichi Hata, Yoshifumi Abe, Fumiko Seki, Keitaro Yoshida, Yuji Komaki, Hideyuki Okano, Kenji F Tanaka
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is widely used to evaluate microstructural variations in brain tissue. In particular, fractional anisotropy (FA), reflecting the magnitude and orientation of anisotropic water diffusion, allows us to detect pathological events in white matter. An ex vivo DTI study coupled with histological assessment is an efficient strategy to evaluate the myelination process, i.e. demyelination and remyelination. The relationship between DTI values and myelin content or the individual cellular components such as oligodendrocytes, microglia, and astrocytes during both processes of demyelination and remyelination are not well-understood...
October 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029896/clemastine-fumarate-as-a-remyelinating-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis-rebuild-a-randomised-controlled-double-blind-crossover-trial
#16
Ari J Green, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Bruce A Cree, Carolyn Bevan, W John Boscardin, Feng Mei, Justin Inman, Sam Arnow, Michael Devereux, Aya Abounasr, Hiroko Nobuta, Alyssa Zhu, Matt Friessen, Roy Gerona, Hans Christian von Büdingen, Roland G Henry, Stephen L Hauser, Jonah R Chan
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS characterised by immune-mediated destruction of myelin and progressive neuroaxonal loss. Myelin in the CNS is a specialised extension of the oligodendrocyte plasma membrane and clemastine fumarate can stimulate differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in vitro, in animal models, and in human cells. We aimed to analyse the efficacy and safety of clemastine fumarate as a treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis...
October 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027761/oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-malfunction-are-linked-in-pelizaeus-merzbacher-disease
#17
Montserrat Ruiz, Mélina Bégou, Nathalie Launay, Pablo Ranea-Robles, Patrizia Bianchi, Jone López-Erauskin, Laia Morató, Cristina Guilera, Bérengère Petit, Catherine Vaurs-Barriere, Céline Guéret-Gonthier, Marie-Noëlle Bonnet-Dupeyron, Stéphane Fourcade, Johan Auwerx, Odile Boespflug-Tanguy, Aurora Pujol
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a fatal hypomyelinating disorder characterized by early impairment of motor development, nystagmus, choreoathetotic movements, ataxia and progressive spasticity. PMD is caused by variations in the proteolipid protein gene PLP1, which encodes the two major myelin proteins of the central nervous system, PLP and its spliced isoform DM20, in oligodendrocytes. Large duplications including the entire PLP1 gene are the most frequent causative mutation leading to the classical form of PMD...
October 13, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027701/cellular-and-molecular-characterization-of-idh1-mutated-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas-reveals-tumor-heterogeneity-and-absence-of-egfr-pdgfr%C3%AE-activation
#18
S Azar, N Leventoux, C Ripoll, V Rigau, C Gozé, F Lorcy, L Bauchet, H Duffau, P O Guichet, B Rothhut, J P Hugnot
Diffuse low grade gliomas (DLGG, grade II gliomas) are slowly-growing brain tumors that often progress into high grade gliomas. Most tumors have a missense mutation for IDH1 combined with 1p19q codeletion in oligodendrogliomas or ATRX/TP53 mutations in astrocytomas. The phenotype of tumoral cells, their environment and the pathways activated in these tumors are still ill-defined and are mainly based on genomics and transcriptomics analysis. Here we used freshly-resected tumors to accurately characterize the tumoral cell population and their environment...
October 13, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027376/adenosine-a2a-receptor-agonist-ameliorates-eae-and-correlates-with-th1-cytokine-induced-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-via-suppression-of-mlck-signaling-pathway
#19
Ying Liu, Marwan Alahiri, Bianca Ulloa, Boxun Xie, Saud A Sadiq
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which is mediated by inflammatory cytokines released by CD4+ lymphocytes. To assess the effects of adenosine A2A receptors on BBB permeability in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: A2A receptor expression was detected by immunostaining in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) C57BL/6 mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 , and human MS brain...
October 12, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026001/understanding-a-role-for-hypoxia-in-lesion-formation-and-location-in-the-deep-and-periventricular-white-matter-in-small-vessel-disease-and-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Santiago Martinez Sosa, Kenneth J Smith
The deep and periventricular white matter is preferentially affected in several neurological disorders, including cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that common pathogenic mechanisms may be involved in this injury. Here we consider the potential pathogenic role of tissue hypoxia in lesion development, arising partly from the vascular anatomy of the affected white matter. Specifically, these regions are supplied by a sparse vasculature fed by long, narrow end arteries/arterioles that are vulnerable to oxygen desaturation if perfusion is reduced (as in SVD, MS and diabetes) or if the surrounding tissue is hypoxic (as in MS, at least)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
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