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Oligodendrocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679562/myotube-derived-factor-promotes-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-proliferation
#1
Akino Nakasone, Rieko Muramatsu, Yuki Kato, Yukio Kawahara, Toshihide Yamashita
Muscle cells secrete numerous molecules that function as endocrine hormones and regulate the functions of distant organs. Myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is regulated by peripheral hormones. However, the effects of muscle-derived molecules on myelination have not been sufficiently analyzed. In this study, we show that muscle-releasing factors promote proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which is an element of myelination process. Supernatants of mouse myotube cultures stimulated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into mouse OPCs...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674595/developmental-and-oncogenic-programs-in-h3k27m-gliomas-dissected-by-single-cell-rna-seq
#2
Mariella G Filbin, Itay Tirosh, Volker Hovestadt, McKenzie L Shaw, Leah E Escalante, Nathan D Mathewson, Cyril Neftel, Nelli Frank, Kristine Pelton, Christine M Hebert, Christine Haberler, Keren Yizhak, Johannes Gojo, Kristof Egervari, Christopher Mount, Peter van Galen, Dennis M Bonal, Quang-De Nguyen, Alexander Beck, Claire Sinai, Thomas Czech, Christian Dorfer, Liliana Goumnerova, Cinzia Lavarino, Angel M Carcaboso, Jaume Mora, Ravindra Mylvaganam, Christina C Luo, Andreas Peyrl, Mara Popović, Amedeo Azizi, Tracy T Batchelor, Matthew P Frosch, Maria Martinez-Lage, Mark W Kieran, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Rameen Beroukhim, Gerhard Fritsch, Gad Getz, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Kai W Wucherpfennig, David N Louis, Michelle Monje, Irene Slavc, Keith L Ligon, Todd R Golub, Aviv Regev, Bradley E Bernstein, Mario L Suvà
Gliomas with histone H3 lysine27-to-methionine mutations (H3K27M-glioma) arise primarily in the midline of the central nervous system of young children, suggesting a cooperation between genetics and cellular context in tumorigenesis. Although the genetics of H3K27M-glioma are well characterized, their cellular architecture remains uncharted. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing in 3321 cells from six primary H3K27M-glioma and matched models. We found that H3K27M-glioma primarily contain cells that resemble oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC-like), whereas more differentiated malignant cells are a minority...
April 20, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673913/epothilone-d-inhibits-microglia-mediated-spread-of-alpha-synuclein-aggregates
#3
Dario Valdinocci, Gary Grant, Tracey Dickson, Dean L Pountney
Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by chronic neuroinflammation and widespread α-synuclein (α-syn) cytoplasmic inclusions. Neuroinflammation associated with microglial cells is typically located in brain regions with α-syn deposits. The potential link between microglial cell migration and the transport of pathological α-syn protein in MSA was investigated. Qualitative analysis via immunofluorescence of MSA cases (n = 4) revealed microglial cells bearing α-syn inclusions distal from oligodendrocytes bearing α-syn cytoplasmic inclusions, as well as close interactions between microglia and oligodendrocytes bearing α-syn, suggestive of a potential transfer mechanism between microglia and α-syn bearing cells in MSA and the possibility of microglia acting as a mobile vehicle to spread α-syn between anatomically connected brain regions...
April 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673373/chorioamnionitis-neuroinflammation-and-injury-timing-is-key-in-the-preterm-ovine-fetus
#4
Ruth Gussenhoven, Rob J J Westerlaken, Daan R M G Ophelders, Alan H Jobe, Matthew W Kemp, Suhas G Kallapur, Luc J Zimmermann, Per T Sangild, Stanislava Pankratova, Pierre Gressens, Boris W Kramer, Bobbi Fleiss, Tim G A M Wolfs
BACKGROUND: Antenatal infection (i.e., chorioamnionitis) is an important risk factor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after preterm birth. Destructive and developmental disturbances of the white matter are hallmarks of preterm brain injury. Understanding the temporal effects of antenatal infection in relation to the onset of neurological injury is crucial for the development of neurotherapeutics for preterm infants. However, these dynamics remain unstudied. METHODS: Time-mated ewes were intra-amniotically injected with lipopolysaccharide at 5, 12, or 24 h or 2, 4, 8, or 15 days before preterm delivery at 125 days gestational age (term ~ 150 days)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673284/reducing-myeloperoxidase-activity-decreases-inflammation-and-increases-cellular-protection-in-ischemic-stroke
#5
Hyeon J Kim, Ying Wei, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Ji Y Lee, Michael A Moskowitz, John W Chen
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-inflammatory enzyme abundantly secreted by activated myeloid cells after stroke. We show that when MPO activity is either blocked by the specific inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH) in wildtype (WT) mice or congenitally absent (MPO-/- ), there was decreased cell loss, including degenerating neurons and oligodendrocytes, in the ischemic brains compared to vehicle-treated WT mice after stroke. MPO inhibition also reduced the number of activated myeloid cells after ischemia...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670968/nir-emitting-benzothiazolium-cyanines-with-an-enhanced-stokes-shift-for-mitochondria-imaging-in-live-cells
#6
Chathura S Abeywickrama, Hannah J Baumann, Nicolas Alexander, Leah P Shriver, Michael Konopka, Yi Pang
A series of benzothiazolium-based hemicyanines (3a-3f) have been synthesized. Evaluation of their photophysical properties shows that they exhibit improved photophysical characteristics. In comparison with the available commercial MitoTrackers, the new probes revealed an enhanced Stokes shift (Δλ ∼ 80 nm) and minimized aggregation for increased sensitivity. The synthesized probes are found to exhibit excellent selectivity for mitochondrial staining in an oligodendrocyte cell line. Probes show almost no fluorescence in aqueous environments, while the fluorescence is increased by ∼10-fold in organic solvents, making it possible for mitochondrial imaging without the need for post-staining washing...
April 19, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670575/mog-igg-associated-optic-neuritis-encephalitis-and-myelitis-lessons-learned-from-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Giordani Rodrigues Dos Passos, Luana Michelli Oliveira, Bruna Klein da Costa, Samira Luisa Apostolos-Pereira, Dagoberto Callegaro, Kazuo Fujihara, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato
Antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) have been found in some cases diagnosed as seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). MOG-IgG allowed the identification of a subgroup with a clinical course distinct from that of NMOSD patients who are seropositive for aquaporin-4-IgG antibodies. MOG-IgG is associated with a wider clinical phenotype, not limited to NMOSD, with the majority of cases presenting with optic neuritis (ON), encephalitis with brain demyelinating lesions, and/or myelitis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670463/combination-treatment-of-c16-peptide-and-angiopoietin-1-alleviates-neuromyelitis-optica-in-an-experimental-model
#8
Yuanyuan Zhang, Kewei Tian, Hong Jiang, Beibei Wang, Shu Han
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerve, causing blindness and paralysis in some individuals. Moreover, NMO may cause secondary complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), leading to oligodendrocyte and neuronal damage. In this study, a rodent NMO model, showing typical NMO pathogenesis, was induced with NMO-IgG from patient serum and human complement. We then tested whether the combination of C16, an α v β 3 integrin-binding peptide, and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), a member of the endothelial growth factor family, could alleviate NMO in the model...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664021/a-tlr-akt-foxo3-immune-tolerance-like-pathway-disrupts-the-repair-capacity-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#9
Taasin Srivastava, Parham Diba, Justin M Dean, Fatima Banine, Daniel Shaver, Matthew Hagen, Xi Gong, Weiping Su, Ben Emery, Daniel L Marks, Edward N Harris, Bruce Baggenstoss, Paul H Weigel, Larry S Sherman, Stephen A Back
Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) persistently disrupts myelin regeneration by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We identified a specific bioactive hyaluronan fragment (bHAf) that downregulates myelin gene expression and chronically blocks OPC maturation and myelination via a tolerance-like mechanism that dysregulates pro-myelination signaling via AKT. Desensitization of AKT occurs via TLR4 but not TLR2 or CD44. OPC differentiation was selectively blocked by bHAf in a maturation-dependent fashion at the late OPC (preOL) stage by a noncanonical TLR4/TRIF pathway that induced persistent activation of the FoxO3 transcription factor downstream of AKT...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663175/gfap-positive-progenitor-cell-production-is-concentrated-in-specific-encephalic-regions-in-young-adult-mice
#10
Zhibao Guo, Yingying Su, Huifang Lou
Previous genetic fate-mapping studies have indicated that embryonic glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP+ ) cells are multifunctional progenitor/neural stem cells that can produce astrocytes as well as neurons and oligodendrocytes throughout the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). However, emerging evidence from recent studies indicates that GFAP+ cells adopt different cell fates and generate different cell types in different regions. Moreover, the fate of GFAP+ cells in the young adult mouse CNS is not well understood...
April 16, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661590/rituximab-was-effective-for-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-followed-by-recurrent-optic-neuritis-with-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies
#11
Masako Nagashima, Hitoshi Osaka, Takahiro Ikeda, Ayumi Matsumoto, Akihiko Miyauchi, Kimihiko Kaneko, Ichiro Nakashima, Yuko Nakano, Kei Wakabayashi, Yukifumi Monden, Takanori Yamagata
BACKGROUND: The effect of rituximab on acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) followed by recurrent optic neuritis (ON) is not yet known. PATIENT: We are reporting the case of a 4-year-old Japanese girl who was diagnosed with anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody positive ADEM followed by recurrent ON. She developed altered mental status, left facial paralysis, left paresis, and experienced three episodes of ON. She was treated with rituximab and azathioprine (AZA) as prevention for recurrent ON...
April 13, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661538/an-unusual-case-of-anti-mog-cns-demyelination-with-concomitant-mild-anti-nmdar-encephalitis
#12
Jiajia Zhou, Winwen Tan, Suyin Elaine Tan, Jing Hu, Zhongqin Chen, Kang Wang
We report the case of a patient who presented with progressive unsteadiness and narcoleptic attacks followed by behavioral change and psychosis, without visual disturbances or seizures. MRI revealed multiple areas of fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesions involving the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus and third ventricular peri-ependymal region consistent with demyelination. Both the serum myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibodies (MOG-Abs) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) anti-N-methyl-d-as-partate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies were positive using transfected cell based assays...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660252/encapsulated-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-fate-is-dependent-on-pdgf-aa-release-kinetics-in-a-3d-microparticle-hydrogel-drug-delivery-system
#13
Meghan R Pinezich, Lauren N Russell, Nicholas P Murphy, Kyle J Lampe
Biomaterial drug delivery systems (DDS) can be used to regulate growth factor release and combat the limited intrinsic regeneration capabilities of central nervous system (CNS) tissue following injury and disease. Of particular interest are systems that aid in oligodendrocyte regeneration, as oligodendrocytes generate myelin which surrounds neuronal axons and helps transmit signals throughout the CNS. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are found in small numbers in the adult CNS, but are unable to effectively differentiate following CNS injury...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659152/cranial-pair-i-the-olfactory-nerve
#14
Carlos Crespo, Teresa Liberia, José Miguel Blasco-Ibáñez, Juan Nácher, Emilio Varea
The olfactory nerve constitutes the first cranial pair. Compared with other cranial nerves, it depicts some atypical features. First, the olfactory nerve does not form a unique bundle. The olfactory axons join other axons and form several small bundles or fascicles: the fila olfactoria. These fascicles leave the nasal cavity, pass through the lamina cribrosa of the ethmoid bone and enter the brain. The whole of these fascicles is what is known as the olfactory nerve. Second, the olfactory sensory neurons, whose axons integrate the olfactory nerve, connect the nasal cavity and the brain without any relay...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658460/-neuroprotective-effects-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-on-white-matter-damage-in-preterm-infants
#15
Yan Yue, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, De-Zhi Mu
White matter damage, characterized by demyelination due to the damage of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), is the most common type of brain damage in preterm infants. Survivors are often subject to long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae because of the lack of effective treatment. In recent years, it has been found that cell transplantation has the potential for the treatment of white matter damage. OPCs are frequently used cells in cell transplantation therapy. With abilities of migration and myelinization, OPCs are the best seed cells for the treatment of white matter damage...
April 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658057/combined-effects-of-rat-schwann-cells-and-17%C3%AE-estradiol-in-a-spinal-cord-injury-model
#16
Zeinab Namjoo, Fateme Moradi, Roya Aryanpour, Abbas Piryaei, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Yusef Abbasi, Amir Hosseini, Sajad Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Ranjbar Taklimie, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating traumatic event which burdens the affected individuals and the health system. Schwann cell (SC) transplantation is a promising repair strategy after SCI. However, a large number of SCs do not survive following transplantation. Previous studies demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2) protects different cell types and reduces tissue damage in SCI experimental animal model. In the current study, we evaluated the protective potential of E2 on SCs in vitro and investigated whether the combination of hormonal and SC therapeutic strategy has a better effect on the outcome after SCI...
April 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651138/gene-expression-links-functional-networks-across-cortex-and-striatum
#17
Kevin M Anderson, Fenna M Krienen, Eun Young Choi, Jenna M Reinen, B T Thomas Yeo, Avram J Holmes
The human brain is comprised of a complex web of functional networks that link anatomically distinct regions. However, the biological mechanisms supporting network organization remain elusive, particularly across cortical and subcortical territories with vastly divergent cellular and molecular properties. Here, using human and primate brain transcriptional atlases, we demonstrate that spatial patterns of gene expression show strong correspondence with limbic and somato/motor cortico-striatal functional networks...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649983/ncx-db-a-unified-resource-for-integrative-analysis-of-the-sodium-calcium-exchanger-super-family
#18
Katrin Bode, Damien M O'Halloran
Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers are low-affinity high-capacity transporters that mediate Ca2+ extrusion by coupling Ca2+ efflux to the influx of Na+ ions. The Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers form a super-family comprised of three branches each differing in ion-substrate selectivity: Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+ /Ca2+ /K+ exchangers, and Ca2+ /cation exchangers. Their primary function is to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis and play a particularly important role in excitable cells that experience transient Ca2+ fluxes. Research into the role and activity of Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers has focused extensively on the cardio-vascular system, however, growing evidence suggests that Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers play a key role in neuronal processes such as memory formation, learning, oligodendrocyte differentiation, neuroprotection during brain ischemia and axon guidance...
April 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649469/phosphatidylserine-is-not-just-a-cleanup-crew-but-also-a-well-meaning-teacher
#19
Fiona Y Glassman, Jennifer L Schneider, Radha Ramakrishnan, Robert K Dingman, Murali Ramanathan, Richard B Bankert, Sathy V Balu-Iyer
Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure during apoptosis leads to silent clearance of cells without adverse immune reactions to self-proteins. Given the biological functions of PS in cellular cleanup and global immunosuppression, we hypothesized that administration of PS-protein complexes would reduce immunogenicity. Here, we report that exposing Pompe disease mice to acid alpha glucosidase (rhGAA) with PS or immunosuppressant dexamethasone (Dex) resulted in lower anti-rhGAA-antibodies than in animals receiving rhGAA alone...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649413/neural-stem-cells-derived-directly-from-adipose-tissue
#20
Eric D Petersen, Jessica R Zenchak, Olivia V Lossia, Ute Hochgeschwender
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are characterized as self-renewing cell populations with the ability to differentiate into the multiple tissue types of the central nervous system. These cells can differentiate into mature neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. This category of stem cells has been shown to be a promisingly effective treatment for neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal injury. Most treatment studies with NSCs in animal models use embryonic brain-derived NSCs. This approach presents both ethical and feasibility issues for translation to human patients...
April 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
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