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Focused ultrasound

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936908/central-neuraxial-analgesia-for-labor-an-update-of-the-literature
#1
Serena Sodha, Alexandra Reeve, Roshan Fernando
Numerous techniques are in use to provide analgesia for labor, of which central neuraxial block is widely considered superior to non-neuraxial options. Central neuraxial techniques have evolved over many years to provide greater efficacy, safety and maternal satisfaction. This narrative review focuses on the literature relating to central neuraxial labor analgesia from the past 5 years, from November 2010 to October 2015. We discuss the evidence related to the various central neuraxial techniques used, the increasingly widespread use of ultrasound guidance and the evidence surrounding other novel methods of central neuraxial block insertion...
September 22, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935452/3d-image-guidance-assisted-identification-of-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastases-not-seen-on-intraoperative-ultrasound-results-from-a-prospective-trial
#2
T Peter Kingham, Linda M Pak, Amber L Simpson, Universe Leung, Alexandre Doussot, Michael I D'Angelica, Ronald P DeMatteo, Peter J Allen, William R Jarnagin
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant treatment of colorectal liver metastases has become increasingly common, and while effective, often renders small metastases difficult to visualize on intraoperative US. The objective of this study was to determine the utility of a 3D image-guidance system in patients with intraoperative sonographically-occult CRLM. METHODS: 50 patients with at least one CRLM ≤ 1.5 cm were enrolled in this prospective trial of an FDA-approved Explorer image-guidance system...
September 18, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935135/non-invasive-rapid-ablation-of-tissue-volume-using-histotripsy
#3
Jonathan E Lundt, Steven P Allen, Jiaqi Shi, Timothy L Hall, Charles A Cain, Zhen Xu
Histotripsy is a non-invasive, non-thermal ablation technique that uses high-amplitude, focused ultrasound pulses to fractionate tissue via acoustic cavitation. The goal of this study was to illustrate the potential of histotripsy with electronic focal steering to achieve rapid ablation of a tissue volume at a rate matching or exceeding those of current clinical techniques (∼1-2 mL/min). Treatment parameters were established in tissue-mimicking phantoms and applied to ex vivo tissue. Six-microsecond pulses were delivered by a 250-kHz array...
September 18, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933795/microfluidic-production-of-nanoscale-perfluorocarbon-droplets-as-liquid-contrast-agents-for-ultrasound-imaging
#4
Xiaonan Xu, Ruyuan Song, Minghao He, Chuan Peng, Miao Yu, Youmin Hou, Huihe Qiu, Ruhai Zou, Shuhuai Yao
Liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanodroplets may have a better chance to extravasate through inter-endothelial gaps (400-800 nm) into tumor interstitium for extravascular imaging, which holds promise as an innovative strategy for imaging-guided drug delivery, early diagnosis of cancer and minimally invasive treatment of cancer. Currently available emulsion technologies still face challenges in reducing droplet sizes from the microscale to the nanoscale. To control size and ensure monodispersity of PFC nanodroplets, we developed a flame-shaped glass capillary and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid device that creates a concentric flow of the dispersed phase enclosed by the focusing continuous phase at the cross-junction...
September 21, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933497/use-of-nh-a-3-%C3%AE-x-3-%C3%AE-sonoluminescence-for-diagnostics-of-nonequilibrium-plasma-produced-by-multibubble-cavitation
#5
Rachel Pflieger, Temim Ouerhani, Thierry Belmonte, Sergey I Nikitenko
In this work, the sonoluminescence of NH radicals has been evaluated as a new spectroscopic probe for the nonequilibrium plasma produced by multibubble cavitation in liquids. The experiments were performed in aqueous ammonia solutions subjected to power ultrasound at low and high frequencies and under two different rare gases (Ar and Xe). Sonoluminescence (SL) spectroscopy focuses on the emission of the two present systems: NH (A(3)Π-X(3)Σ(-)) and OH (A(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Π). Both spectroscopic systems indicate the absence of thermal equilibrium during bubble collapse (Tv > Tr) irrespective of the saturating gas...
September 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933214/magnetic-enhancement-of-stem-cell-targeted-delivery-into-the-brain-following-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-for-opening-the-blood-brain-barrier
#6
Wei-Bin Shen, Pavlos Anastasiadis, Ben Nguyen, Deborah Yarnell, Paul J Yarowsky, Victor Frenkel, Paul S Fishman
Focused ultrasound (FUS)-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) can enable even large therapeutics such as stem cells to enter the brain from the bloodstream. However, the efficiency is relatively low. Our previous study showed that human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in culture were attracted by an external magnetic field. In vivo, enhanced brain retention was observed near a magnet mounted on the skull in a rat model of traumatic brain injury, where BBBD also occurs...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931908/drug-release-from-core-shell-pva-silk-fibroin-nanoparticles-fabricated-by-one-step-electrospraying
#7
Yang Cao, Fengqiu Liu, Yuli Chen, Tao Yu, Deshuai Lou, Yuan Guo, Pan Li, Zhigang Wang, Haitao Ran
Silk fibroin (SF), a FDA-approved natural protein, is renowned for its great biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties. SF-based nanoparticles provide new options for drug delivery with their tunable drug loading and release properties. To take advantage of the features of carrier polymers, we present a one-step electrospraying method that combines SF, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and therapeutic drugs without an emulsion process. A distinct core-shell structure was obtained with the PVA core and silk shell after the system was properly set up...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929197/venous-invasion-by-hepatic-tumors-imaging-appearance-and-implications-for-management
#8
REVIEW
Scott M Thompson, Michael L Wells, James C Andrews, Eric C Ehman, Christine O Menias, Christopher L Hallemeier, Lewis R Roberts, Sudhakar K Venkatesh
Venous invasion by hepatic tumors most commonly occurs with hepatocellular carcinoma and is associated with worse patient prognosis. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of tumor thrombus in the liver. Moreover, differentiating between bland and tumor thrombus in the liver has important diagnostic, staging, therapeutic, and prognostic implications and may require a multimodal imaging approach including ultrasound, computed tomography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of hepatic malignancies with associated tumor thrombus is dependent on tumor type, disease extent within the liver, liver hemodynamics, and underlying liver function...
September 19, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928042/effect-of-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-hifu-in-conjunction-with-a-nanomedicines-microbubble-complex-for-enhanced-drug-delivery
#9
Hyounkoo Han, Hohyeon Lee, Kwangmeyung Kim, Hyuncheol Kim
Although nanomedicines have been intensively investigated for cancer therapy in the past, poor accumulation of nanomedicines in tumor sites remains a serious problem. Therefore, a novel drug delivery system is required to enhance accumulation and penetration of nanomedicines at the tumor site. Recently, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapeutic modality, and showed enhanced therapeutic efficacy in combination with nanomedicines. Cavitation effect induced by the combination of HIFU and microbubbles results in transiently enhanced cell membrane permeability, facilitating improved drug delivery efficiency into tumor sites...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927782/development-and-internal-validation-of-prediction-models-for-biochemical-failure-and-composite-failure-after-focal-salvage-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-for-local-radiorecurrent-prostate-cancer-presentation-of-risk-scores-for-individual-patient-prognoses
#10
Max Peters, Abi Kanthabalan, Taimur T Shah, Neil McCartan, Caroline M Moore, Manit Arya, Jochem R van der Voort van Zyp, Marinus A Moerland, Richard G Hindley, Mark Emberton, Hashim U Ahmed
PURPOSE: Patient selection for focal salvage remains difficult. Therefore, we developed and internally validated prediction models for biochemical failure (BF) and a composite endpoint (CE) following focal salvage high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for radiorecurrent prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective HIFU registry identified 150 cases (November 2006-August 2015). Recurrence was assessed with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with template prostate mapping biopsies, targeted biopsies, or systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies...
September 15, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926968/weakening-pin-bone-attachment-in-fish-fillets-using-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound
#11
Martin H Skjelvareid, Svein Kristian Stormo, Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Karsten Heia
High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) can be used for the localized heating of biological tissue through the conversion of sound waves into heat. Although originally developed for human medicine, HIFU may also be used to weaken the attachment of pin bones in fish fillets to enable easier removal of such bones. This was shown in the present study, where a series of experiments were performed on HIFU phantoms and fillets of cod and salmon. In thin objects such as fish fillets, the heat is mainly dissipated at the surfaces...
September 18, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926387/magnetic-resonance-guided-focused-ultrasound-versus-conventional-radiation-therapy-for-painful-bone-metastasis-a-matched-pair-study
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hsin-Lun Lee, Chia-Chun Kuo, Jo-Ting Tsai, Chun-You Chen, Meng-Huang Wu, Jeng-Fong Chiou
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an alternative local therapy for patients with painful bone metastasis for whom standard conventional radiation therapy (RT) has failed. However, the therapeutic effects of MRgFUS as a first-line treatment for bone metastasis remain uncertain. METHODS: A matched-pair study was conducted to compare the therapeutic effects of MRgFUS with those of conventional RT as a first-line treatment for patients with painful bone metastasis...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924922/assessing-the-non-tumorous-liver-implications-for-patient-management-and-surgical-therapy
#13
Pallavi Pandey, Ankur Pandey, Mary Dillhoff, Carl Schmidt, Ihab R Kamel, Timothy M Pawlik
INTRODUCTION: Hepatic resection is performed for various benign and malignant liver tumors. Over the last several decades, there have been improvements in the surgical technique and postoperative care of patients undergoing liver surgery. Despite this, liver failure following an extended hepatic resection remains a critical potential postoperative complication. Patients with underlying parenchymal liver diseases are at particular risk of liver failure due to impaired liver regeneration with an associated mortality risk as high as 60 to 90%...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924863/evaluation-of-deep-myometrial-invasion-in-endometrial-cancer-patients-is-dual-energy-ct-an-option
#14
Stefania Rizzo, Marco Femia, Davide Radice, Maria Del Grande, Dorella Franchi, Daniela Origgi, Valentina Buscarino, Alberto Mauro, Massimo Bellomi
OBJECTIVES: Assessment of deep (>50%) myometrial invasion by dual-energy CT (DECT) and Trans-Vaginal US (TVUS) in patients with endometrial cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients with endometrial cancer who underwent DECT and TVUS for pre-surgical staging. Three sets of images were evaluated: 70 keV (routine CT images), 50 keV, and iodine-water reconstructions. The gold standard was pathology after surgery. The agreement between the different imaging modalities and the gold standard was estimated...
September 18, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924476/clinical-validation-of-real-time-tissue-change-monitoring-during-prostate-tissue-ablation-with-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound
#15
Narendra T Sanghvi, Wo-Hsing Chen, Roy Carlson, Clint Weis, Ralf Seip, Toyoaki Uchida, Michael Marberger
BACKGROUND: The purpose of these clinical studies was to validate a Tissue Change Monitoring (TCM) algorithm in vivo. TCM is a quantitative tool for the real-time assessment of HIFU dose. TCM provides quantitative analysis of the backscatter pulse echo signals (pre and immediately post HIFU) for each individual ablative site, using ultrasonic tissue characterization as a surrogate for monitoring tissue temperature. Real-time analysis generates an energy difference parameter (ΔE in dB) that is proportional to tissue temperature...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923914/new-ultrasound-techniques-promise-further-advances-in-aki-and-ckd
#16
REVIEW
Travis D Hull, Anupam Agarwal, Kenneth Hoyt
AKI and CKD are important clinical problems because they affect many patients and the associated diagnostic and treatment paradigms are imperfect. Ultrasound is a cost-effective, noninvasive, and simple imaging modality that offers a multitude of means to improve the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of both AKI and CKD, especially considering recent advances in this technique. Ultrasound alone can attenuate AKI and prevent CKD by stimulating the splenic cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Additionally, microbubble contrast agents are improving the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for diagnosing kidney disease, especially when these agents are conjugated to ligand-specific mAbs or peptides, which make the dynamic assessment of disease progression and response to treatment possible...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921833/guideline-of-guidelines-asymptomatic-microscopic-haematuria
#17
REVIEW
Brian J Linder, Edward J Bass, Hugh Mostafid, Stephen A Boorjian
OBJECTIVE: To review major organizational guidelines on the evaluation and management of asymptomatic microscopic haematuria (AMH). METHODS: This is a review of the haematuria guidelines from 1.) American Urological Association (AUA), 2.) consensus statement from the Canadian Urological Association, Canadian Urologic Oncology Group, and Bladder Cancer Canada, 3.) American College of Physicians (ACP), 4.) Joint Consensus Statement of the Renal Association (RA) and British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS), and 5...
September 16, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921452/the-spectrum-of-imaging-appearances-of-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-anomalies-focus-on-mr-imaging
#18
REVIEW
Takeru Fukunaga, Shinya Fujii, Chie Inoue, Naoko Mukuda, Atsushi Murakami, Yoshio Tanabe, Tasuku Harada, Toshihide Ogawa
Müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are the result of incomplete development, vertical or lateral fusion, or absorption of the müllerian ducts. The range of anomalies includes uterovaginal agenesis or hypoplasia, unicornuate uterus, uterus didelphys, bicornuate uterus, septate uterus, and arcuate uterus. Correct diagnosis and classification of these anomalies are essential because pregnancy outcomes and treatment options vary between the types of anomaly. Furthermore, early identification of MDAs helps to avoid prolonged symptomatic periods and the complications that may subsequently arise, such as infertility, endometriosis, and neoplasm...
September 18, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918811/future-directions-for-endoscopic-ultrasound-where-are-we-heading
#19
REVIEW
Sahin Coban, Omer Basar, William R Brugge
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays an important role as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality in gastroenterology. New developments have emerged, especially in the last decade, and are being introduced to endoscopists. The ability to readily visualize and access organs in the gastrointestinal tract has allowed endoscopists to perform new interventional procedures. EUS procedures have taken the place of conventional approaches for the treatment of various gastrointestinal diseases, including pancreatic cystic lesions...
October 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918800/new-developments-in-endoscopic-ultrasound-tissue-acquisition
#20
REVIEW
Thiruvengadam Muniraj, Harry R Aslanian
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition has greatly evolved since the first EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration was reported nearly 25 years ago. EUS-guided tissue acquisition has become the procedure of choice for sampling of the pancreas, subepithelial lesions, and other structures adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract. This review focuses on recent developments in procedural techniques and needle technologies for EUS-guided tissue acquisition.
October 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
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