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Focused ultrasound

Pavel B Rosnitskiy, P V Yuldashev, Oleg A Sapozhnikov, Adam Maxwell, Wayne Kreider, Michael R Bailey, Vera A Khokhlova
Various clinical applications of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) have different requirements for the pressure levels and degree of nonlinear waveform distortion at the focus. The goal of this work was to determine transducer design parameters that produce either a specified shock amplitude in the focal waveform or specified peak pressures while still maintaining quasilinear conditions at the focus. Multiparametric nonlinear modeling based on the KZK equation with an equivalent source boundary condition was employed...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Zhuochen Wang, Karl Heath Martin, Wenbin Huang, Paul A Dayton, Xiaoning Jiang
Techniques to image the microvasculature may play an important role in imaging tumor-related angiogenesis and vasa vasorum associated with vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. However, the microvasculature associated with these pathologies is difficult to detect using traditional B-mode ultrasound or even harmonic imaging due to small vessel size and poor differentiation from surrounding tissue. Acoustic angiography, a microvascular imaging technique which utilizes superharmonic imaging (detection of higher order harmonics of microbubble response), can yield a much higher contrast to tissue ratio (CTR) than second harmonic imaging methods...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Ming Ma, Fei Yan, Minghua Yao, Zijun Wei, Dongliang Zhou, Heliang Yao, Hairong Zheng, Hangrong Chen, Jianlin Shi
Entirely differing from the common templating-based multistep strategy in fabricating multifunctional hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs), a facile and template-free synthetic strategy has been established in constructing a unique hollow/mesoporous organosilica nanocapsule concurrently encapsulating both isopentyl acetate (PEA) liquid and superparamagnetic iron oxides inside (denoted as PEA@OSNCs). This novel material exhibits ultrasmall and uniform particle size (~82 nm), high surface area (~534 m2 g-1) and excellent colloidal stability in aqueous solution...
October 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
R M Bruno, K D Reesink, L Ghiadoni
AIM: The present paper is a selective review on the methodology and clinical significance of techniques to assess specifically endothelial function, carotid mechanics and renal vascular function, particularly in the light of vascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Endothelial dysfunction appears to be earlier detectable in the microcirculation of patients with altered glucose metabolism, while it attains significance in the macrocirculation at more advanced disease stages...
September 15, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Ebrahim Alipanahpour Dil, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Arash Asfaram
The present research is focused on the synthesis and characterization of zinc (II) oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NRs-AC) to prepare an outstanding adsorbent for the simultaneous adsorption of heavy metals and dyes as hazardous pollutant using ultrasound energy. The adsorbent was identified by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The individual effects and possible interactions between the most effective variables including initial metal ions (Cd(2+) and Co(2+)) and azo dyes (methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV)) concentration, adsorbent dosage and ultrasonic time on the responses were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM) and optimum conditions was fixed at Cd(2+), Co(2+), MB and CV concentrations were 25, 24, 18 and 14mgL(-1), respectively, 0...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Muhammad Saad, Hajira Tahir, Jawariya Khan, Uzma Hameed, Atika Saud
The present study focuses the synthesis of polyaniline nanoparticles (PANP) by rapid mixing polymerization method. They were recognized by FTIR and SEM techniques. Moreover they were utilized for the removal of Crystal Violet (CV) dye by ultrasonicated adsorption process. It ensures a quick alternative method compared to other conventional processes, which led to enhancement of mass transfer by ultrasound waves. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed through the effect of certain conditions like sonication time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and CV concentrations...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Siyuan Zhang, Zhiwei Cui, Tianqi Xu, Pan Liu, Dapeng Li, Shaoqiang Shang, Ranxiang Xu, Yujin Zong, Gang Niu, Supin Wang, Xijing He, Mingxi Wan
This paper compared the effects of flowing phase-shift nanodroplets (NDs) and lipid-shelled microbubbles (MBs) on subsequent cavitation during focused ultrasound (FUS) exposures. The cavitation activity was monitored using a passive cavitation detection method as solutions of either phase-shift NDs or lipid-shelled MBs flowed at varying velocities through a 5-mm diameter wall-less vessel in a transparent tissue-mimicking phantom when exposed to FUS. The intensity of cavitation for the phase-shift NDs showed an upward trend with time and cavitation for the lipid-shelled MBs grew to a maximum at the outset of the FUS exposure followed by a trend of decreases when they were static in the vessel...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Somayeh Dashamiri, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Arash Asfaram, Fahimeh Zare, Shaobin Wang
This paper focuses on the development of an effective methodology to obtain the optimum removal conditions assisted by ultrasonics to maximize the simultaneous removal of dyes, eosin Y (EY), methylene blue (MB) and phenol red (PR), by Cu(OH)2-NP-AC in aqueous solution using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of variables such as pH, initial dyes concentrations (mgL(-1)), and amount of sorbent (mg) and sonication time (min) on the dyes removal were studied. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to evaluate the interactive effects of adsorption variables...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Sonia Bahrani, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Mohammad Javad Khoshnood Mansoorkhani, Arash Asfaram, Ali Akbar Bazrafshan, Mihir Kumar Purkait
The present research focus on designing an appropriate dispersive solid-phase microextraction (UA-DSPME) for preconcentration and determination of Eriochrome Cyanine R (ECR) in aqueous solutions with aid of sonication using lead (II) dioxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (PbO-NPs-AC). This material was fully identified with XRD and SEM. Influence of pH, amounts of sorbent, type and volume of eluent, and sonication time on response properties were investigated and optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with surface response methodology using STATISTICA...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Miguel N Centelles, Michael Wright, Wladyslaw Gedroyc, Maya Thanou
Image guided drug delivery has gained significant attention during the last few years. Labelling nanoparticles or macromolecules and monitoring their fate in the body provides information that can be used to modulate their biodistribution and improve their pharmacokinetics. In this study we label antibodies and monitor their distribution in the tumours post intravenous injection. Using Focused Ultrasound (FUS, a non-invasive method of hyperthermia) we increase the tumour temperature to 42°C for a short period of time (3-5min) and we observe an increased accumulation of labelled antibody...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Zahraa Al-Hilli, Veljko Strajina, Travis J McKenzie, Geoffrey B Thompson, David R Farley, Melanie L Richards
BACKGROUND: Lateral neck dissection (LND) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) transitioned from isolated lymphadenectomy or "berry picking" based on clinical examination to multicompartment lymphadenectomy. We aimed to assess ultrasound (US) as a predictor of solitary (SLN) or multiple lymph node (MLN) metastases. METHODS: Demographics, US findings, extent of LND, and pathology were collected in patients with PTC who underwent LND. US sensitivity and specificity were calculated, and accuracy was correlated with US findings and patient characteristics...
September 29, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Antonio Manzo, Francesca Benaglio, Barbara Vitolo, Chandra Bortolotto, Francesca Zibera, Monica Todoerti, Claudia Alpini, Serena Bugatti, Roberto Caporali, Fabrizio Calliada, Carlomaurizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: Emerging research on the mechanisms of disease chronicity in experimental arthritis has included a new focus on the draining lymph node (LN). Here, we combined clinical-serological analyses and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) imaging to delineate noninvasively the reciprocal relationship in vivo between the joint and the draining LN in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Forty consecutive patients refractory to conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were examined through parallel PDUS of the hand-wrist joints and axillary LNs and compared with 20 healthy subjects...
October 22, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Jacob J Glaser, Cassandra Cardarelli, Samuel Galvagno, Thomas M Scalea, Sarah B Murthi
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound often includes cardiac ultrasound. It is commonly used to evaluate cardiac function in critically ill patients but lacks the specific quantitative anatomic assessment afforded by standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We developed the Focused Rapid Echocardiographic Examination (FREE), a hybrid between a cardiac ultrasound and TTE that places an emphasis on cardiac function rather than anatomy. We hypothesized that data obtained from FREE correlate well with TTE while providing actionable information for clinical decision making...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Riccardo Galli, Maria C Sighinolfi, Salvatore Micali, Eugenio Martorana, Marco Rosa, Alessando Mofferdin, Giampaolo Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL) for distal ureteral stones can be performed in prone or supine position. Our aim is to demonstrate the advantage of the supine transgluteal SWL approach for distal ureteral stones treatment using a real times ultrasound (US) focusing and to show how the Computerized Tomography (CT) scan parameters may be related to the outcomes. METHODS: We performed 70 consecutive supine transgluteal SWL of distal ureteral stones. All patients had a pre-treatment CT scan...
October 21, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Annah Lane, Ling Lee, Donna Traves, Andreas Lee
INTRODUCTION: The antenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB), a neural tube defect, is predominantly made at the second trimester morphology scan by ultrasound detection of structural abnormalities resulting from the associated Chiari II malformation. Evidence has emerged suggesting that these structural abnormalities can be detected earlier, by examination of the posterior fossa as part of the first trimester nuchal translucency scan. In particular, absence of the intra-cranial translucency (IT) of the fourth ventricle has shown promise as a diagnostic marker of OSB, although the sensitivity and specificity of this finding varies widely in the literature...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
James Tattersall
Current guidelines focus on conventional dialysis defined as 3-5 hours, three times per week, and suggest that longer or more frequent dialysis be considered. This paper presents the case for considering that shorter or less frequent dialysis should also be considered. More frequent and/or longer dialysis facilitates control of fluid overload, blood pressure, and phosphate levels. These benefits will require time to translate into probable hard outcome improvement. Patients are unlikely to participate in productive or pleasurable activities while undergoing dialysis in center or traveling to treatment...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
Jae-Hui Nam, Young-Jun Choi, Jae Yun Lim, Joon Hong Min, Won-Serk Kim
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is regarded as an effective skin-lifting device; however, literature regarding treatment of the aging neck and décolletage with HIFU is scarce. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combination with HIFU and low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG (LQSNY) laser on the aging neck and décolletage. Nineteen women were assessed. HIFU at two visits and LQSNY laser at six visits were used to irradiate the neck and chest. At week 16, improvements were rated using the Dedo classification, Fabi/Bolton Chest Wrinkle Scale (FBCWS), and Global Aesthetic Improvement Scales (GAIS)...
October 20, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Thomas Günther Lesser, Carsten Boltze, Harald Schubert, Frank Wolfram
Background: In recent years, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has gained increasing clinical interest as a non-invasive method for local therapy of liver malignancies. HIFU treatment of tumours and metastases in the liver dome is limited due to the adjacent ultrasound blocking lung. One-lung flooding (OLF) enables complete sonography of lung and adjoining organs including liver. HIFU liver ablation passing through the flooded lung could enable a direct intercostal beam path and thus improve dose deposition in liver...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Gerhard Batz, Michael Dinkel
Echocardiography as an imaging method in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine has enabled a new dimension of hemodynamic monitoring: the direct visualization of the cardiac function and its disruptions. Preconditions for a broad application in this area was the development of mobile, high-definition ultrasonic devices and the origination of focused examination techniques. A successful application of this method requires the respective know-how of the examiner, in order to take relevant decisions and avoid misdiagnoses...
October 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Margaret M Fleming, Anna I Holbrook, Mary S Newell
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to delineate the potential techniques for percutaneous ablation of breast cancer, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, and provide results from recent studies on these technologies. The techniques discussed are cryotherapy, laser irradiation, microwave irradiation, radiofrequency ablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, and irreversible electroporation. CONCLUSION: Although percutaneous ablation techniques have some promising potential for less-invasive treatment of breast cancer, larger multicenter trials are needed to confirm their efficacy, especially in comparison with the reference standard of lumpectomy...
October 20, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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