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Drosophila transport

Elena V Fedorova, Natalja V Dorogova, Elena U Bolobolova, Svetlana A Fedorova, Dmitry A Karagodin, Anna A Ogienko, Asja S Khruscheva, Elina M Baricheva
Investigation of Drosophila oogenesis provides the opportunity to understand conservative genetic mechanisms underlying fertile female gamete development. In this work, we showed that the Drosophila DNA-binding protein GAGA factor (GAF) had a multifunctional role in oogenesis and it is involved in the regulation of this process genetic program. We studied the influence on Drosophila oogenesis of a number of mutations in the 5' region of the Trl gene that encodes GAF. We found that our originally generated Trl mutations lead to a decrease in transcriptional gene activity and levels of GAF expression in both germline and follicular cells...
December 10, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Daniel R Swale, Aaron D Gross, Quentin R R Coquerel, Jeffrey R Bloomquist
The majority of the currently available insecticides target the nervous system and genetic mutations of invertebrate neural proteins oftentimes yield deleterious consequences, yet the current methods for recording nervous system activity of an individual animal is costly and laborious. This suction electrode preparation of the third-instar larval central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, is a tractable system for testing the physiological effects of neuroactive agents, determining the physiological role of various neural pathways to CNS activity, as well as the influence of genetic mutations to neural function...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Runa Hamid, Nikhil Hajirnis, Shikha Kushwaha, Sadaf Saleem, Vimlesh Kumar, Rakesh K Mishra
Insect mushroom bodies (MB) have an ensemble of synaptic connections well-studied for their role in experience-dependent learning and several higher cognitive functions. MB requires neurotransmission for an efficient flow of information across synapses with different flexibility to meet the demand of the dynamically changing environment of an insect. Neurotransmitter transporters coordinate appropriate changes for an efficient neurotransmission at the synapse. Till date, there is no transporter reported for any of the previously known neurotransmitters in the intrinsic neurons of MB...
December 7, 2018: Developmental Biology
Christoph Heier, Ronald P Kühnlein
Triacylglycerol (TAG) is the most important caloric source with respect to energy homeostasis in animals. In addition to its evolutionarily conserved importance as an energy source, TAG turnover is crucial to the metabolism of structural and signaling lipids. These neutral lipids are also key players in development and disease. Here, we review the metabolism of TAG in the Drosophila model system. Recently, the fruit fly has attracted renewed attention in research due to the unique experimental approaches it affords in studying the tissue-autonomous and interorgan regulation of lipid metabolism in vivo Following an overview of the systemic control of fly body fat stores, we will cover lipid anabolic, enzymatic, and regulatory processes, which begin with the dietary lipid breakdown and de novo lipogenesis that results in lipid droplet storage...
December 2018: Genetics
Marta Portela, Berta Segura-Collar, Irene Argudo, Almudena Sáiz, Ricardo Gargini, Pilar Sánchez-Gómez, Sergio Casas-Tintó
Genetic lesions in glioblastoma (GB) include constitutive activation of PI3K and EGFR pathways to drive cellular proliferation and tumor malignancy. An RNAi genetic screen, performed in Drosophila melanogaster to discover new modulators of GB development, identified a member of the secretory pathway: kish/TMEM167A. Downregulation of kish/TMEM167A impaired fly and human glioma formation and growth, with no effect on normal glia. Glioma cells increased the number of recycling endosomes, and reduced the number of lysosomes...
December 2, 2018: Glia
Swati Banerjee, Maeveen Riordan
Neurexins are well known trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules that are required for proper synaptic development and function across species. Beyond synapse organization and function, little is known about other roles Neurexins might have in the nervous system. Here we report novel phenotypic consequences of mutations in Drosophila neurexin (dnrx), which alters axonal microtubule organization and transport. We show that dnrx mutants display phenotypic similarities with the BMP receptor wishful thinking (wit) and one of the downstream effectors, futsch, which is a known regulator of microtubule organization and stability...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Camille M Champigny, Robert P J Cormier, Chloé J Simard, Patrick-Denis St-Coeur, Samuel Fortin, Nicolas Pichaud
During the last decade, essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosatetraenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived from marine sources have been investigated as nonpharmacological dietary supplements to improve different pathological conditions, as well as aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA monoacylglycerides (MAG, both EPA and DHA) on the mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress of a short-lifespan model, Drosophila melanogaster , sampled at five different ages...
November 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
Rahul V Rane, David F Clarke, Stephen L Pearce, Guojie Zhang, Ary A Hoffmann, John G Oakeshott
We use annotated genomes of fourteen Drosophila species covering diverse host use phenotypes to test whether five gene families which often have detoxification functions are associated with host shifts among species. Bark, slime flux, flower and generalist necrotic fruit feeding species all have similar numbers of carboxyl/cholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase, cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes. However, species feeding on toxic Morinda citrifolia fruit and the fresh fruit feeding D...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Nur Izzatur Binti Ismail, Yasuhiko Kato, Tomoaki Matsuura, Hajime Watanabe
The crustacean Daphnia magna is an important model in multi-disciplinary scientific fields such as genetics, evolutionary developmental biology, toxicology, and ecology. Recently, the draft genome sequence and transcriptome data became publicly available for this species. Genetic transformation has also been achieved via the introduction of plasmid DNA into the genome. The identification of a screenable marker gene and generation of mutant strains are essential to further advance D. magna functional genomics...
2018: PloS One
Elodie Prince, Benjamin Kroeger, Dragan Gligorov, Clive Wilson, Suzanne Eaton, François Karch, Marko Brankatschk, Robert K Maeda
The male seminal fluid contains factors that affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In Drosophila, most of these factors are secreted by the two epithelial cell types that make up the male accessory gland: the main and secondary cells. Although secondary cells represent only ~4% of the cells of the accessory gland, their contribution to the male seminal fluid is essential for sustaining the female post-mating response. To better understand the function of the secondary cells, we investigated their molecular organization, particularly with respect to the intracellular membrane transport machinery...
November 14, 2018: Traffic
Jean-Marie Delpuech
BACKGROUND: Endosulfan is a semi-permanent pollutant that can be transported long distances through the atmosphere. Although phased out in many countries, it is still used in some populated areas and thus largely contributes to environmental pollution. It can impact non-target species such as Leptopilina boulardi, a hymenopteran parasitoid that is a beneficial insect because it controls the populations of its host. Only one L. boulardi egg can successfully develop in its host, a Drosophila larva...
November 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Bethany A Stahl, Emilie Peco, Sejal Davla, Kazuma Murakami, Nicolás A Caicedo Moreno, Donald J van Meyel, Alex C Keene
Sleep is critical for many aspects of brain function and is accompanied by brain-wide changes in the physiology of neurons and synapses [1, 2]. Growing evidence suggests that glial cells contribute to diverse aspects of sleep regulation, including neuronal and metabolic homeostasis [3-5], although the molecular basis for this remains poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, displays all the behavioral and physiological characteristics of sleep [1, 2], and genetic screening in flies has identified both conserved and novel regulators of sleep and wakefulness [2, 6, 7]...
November 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Kathleen E Pieper, Robert L Unckless, Kelly A Dyer
Selfish genetic elements that manipulate gametogenesis to achieve a transmission advantage are known as meiotic drivers. Sex-ratio X-chromosomes (SR) are meiotic drivers that prevent the maturation of Y-bearing sperm in male carriers to result in the production of mainly female progeny. The spread of an SR chromosome can affect host genetic diversity and genome evolution, and can even cause host extinction if it reaches sufficiently high prevalence. Meiotic drivers have evolved independently many times, though only in a few cases is the underlying genetic mechanism known...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Garrett L Cornelison, Simon A Levy, Tyler Jenson, Bess Frost
The nucleus is a spherical dual-membrane bound organelle that encapsulates genomic DNA. In eukaryotes, messenger RNAs (mRNA) are transcribed in the nucleus and transported through nuclear pores into the cytoplasm for translation into protein. In certain cell types and pathological conditions, nuclei harbor tubular invaginations of the nuclear envelope known as the "nucleoplasmic reticulum." Nucleoplasmic reticulum expansion has recently been established as a mediator of neurodegeneration in tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease...
November 9, 2018: Aging Cell
Marcelina Firkowska, Matylda Macias, Jacek Jaworski
The proper shape of dendritic arbors of different types of neurons determines their proper communication within neuronal networks. The shape of dendritic arbors is acquired during a complex and multistep process called dendritogenesis. In most cases, once proper morphology is achieved, it remains stable throughout the lifespan, with the exception of rare events during which dendrites are abruptly pruned. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is multisubunit machinery that is involved in various cellular processes when membrane scission is needed...
November 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Sarah D Neuman, Arash Bashirullah
Steroid hormones have long been thought to enter target cells via passive diffusion through the plasma membrane. Now, reporting in Developmental Cell, Okamoto et al. (2018) demonstrate that, at least for Drosophila, steroid hormones require a protein transporter for cellular entry.
November 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
Meng-Fu Maxwell Shih, Fred Pejman Davis, Gilbert Lee Henry, Josh Dubnau
The insect mushroom body (MB) is a conserved brain structure that plays key roles in a diverse array of behaviors. The Drosophila melanogaster MB is the primary invertebrate model of neural circuits related to memory formation and storage, and its development, morphology, wiring, and function has been extensively studied. MBs consist of intrinsic Kenyon Cells that are divided into three major neuron classes (γ, α'/β' and α/β) and 7 cell subtypes (γd, γm, α'/β'ap, α'/β'm, α/βp, α/βs and α/βc) based on their birth order, morphology, and connectivity...
November 5, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Maria Sokolova, Henna M Moore, Bina Prajapati, Joseph Dopie, Leena Meriläinen, Mikko Honkanen, Rita Cerejeira Matos, Minna Poukkula, Ville Hietakangas, Maria K Vartiainen
Actin has been linked to processes spanning the whole gene expression cascade, from regulating specific transcription factors, such as myocardin-related transcription factor, to chromatin remodeling and RNA polymerase function. However, whether actin controls the transcription of only specific genes or has a global role in gene expression has remained elusive. Our genome-wide analysis reveals, for the first time, that actin interacts with essentially all transcribed genes in Drosophila ovaries. Actin co-occupies the majority of gene promoters together with Pol II, and on highly expressed genes, these two proteins also associate with gene bodies...
October 15, 2018: iScience
Petra Ferronato, Ana Luiza Woch, Patricia Lima Soares, Daniel Bernardi, Marcos Botton, Felipe Andreazza, Eugênio E Oliveira, Alberto Soares Corrêa
Biological invasions have reached large parts of the globe, due to human actions across the planet. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) is a globally invasive species, always associated with enormous and costly damage to agricultural crops. Native to Southeast Asia, D. suzukii recently (i.e., 2013) invaded and is dispersing through South America. Here, we used a phylogeographic approach based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene fragment to explore the invasion dynamics of D. suzukii populations in Brazil...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Kara R Barber, Martin Hruska, Keegan M Bush, Jade A Martinez, Hong Fei, Irwin B Levitan, Matthew B Dalva, Yogesh P Wairkar
Functional synaptic networks are compromised in many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. While the mechanisms of axonal transport and localization of synaptic vesicles and mitochondria are relatively well studied, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the localization of proteins that localize to active zones. Recent finding suggests that mechanisms involved in transporting proteins destined to active zones are distinct from those that transport synaptic vesicles or mitochondria...
October 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
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