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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324591/imaging-cytonemes-in-drosophila-embryos
#1
Lijuan Du, Sougata Roy
Conserved morphogenetic signaling proteins disperse across tissues to generate signal and signaling gradients, which in turn are considered to assign positional coordinates to the recipient cells. Recent imaging studies in Drosophila model have provided evidence for a "direct-delivery" mechanism of signal dispersion that is mediated by specialized actin-rich signaling filopodia, named cytonemes. Cytonemes establish contact between the signal-producing and target cells to directly exchange and transport the morphogenetic proteins...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319354/modification-of-a-putative-third-sodium-site-in-the-glycine-transporter-glyt2-influences-the-chloride-dependence-of-substrate-transport
#2
Cristina Benito-Muñoz, Almudena Perona, David Abia, Helena G Dos Santos, Enrique Núñez, Carmen Aragón, Beatriz López-Corcuera
Neurotransmitter removal from glycine-mediated synapses relies on two sodium-driven high-affinity plasma membrane GlyTs that control neurotransmitter availability. Mostly glial GlyT1 is the main regulator of glycine synaptic levels, whereas neuronal GlyT2 promotes the recycling of synaptic glycine and supplies neurotransmitter for presynaptic vesicle refilling. The GlyTs differ in sodium:glycine symport stoichiometry, showing GlyT1 a 2:1 and GlyT2 a 3:1 sodium:glycine coupling. Sodium binds to the GlyTs at two conserved Na+ sites: Na1 and Na2...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312334/in-vitro-transport-of-methotrexate-by-drosophila-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein
#3
Agnes Karasik, András Váradi, Flóra Szeri
Methotrexate (MTX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, immune suppressant and antimalarial drug. It is a substrate of several human ABC proteins that confer multidrug resistance to cancer cells and determine compartmentalization of a wide range of physiological metabolites and endo or xenobiotics, by their primary active transport across biological membranes. The substrate specificity and tissue distribution of these promiscuous human ABC transporters show a high degree of redundancy, providing robustness to these key physiological and pharmacological processes, such as the elimination of toxins, e...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301757/a-multi-component-neuronal-response-encodes-the-larval-decision-to-pupariate-upon-amino-acid-starvation
#4
Siddharth Jayakumar, Shlesha Richhariya, Bipan Kumar Deb, Gaiti Hasan
Organisms need to co-ordinate growth with development, particularly in the context of nutrient availability. Thus, multiple ways have evolved to survive extrinsic nutrient deprivation during development. In Drosophila , growth occurs during larval development. Larvae are thus critically dependant on nutritional inputs but post critical weight they pupariate even when starved. How nutrient availability is coupled to the internal metabolic state for the decision to pupariate needs better understanding. We had earlier identified glutamatergic interneurons in the ventral ganglion that regulate pupariation on a protein-deficient diet...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293839/a-membrane-transporter-is-required-for-steroid-hormone-uptake-in-drosophila
#5
Naoki Okamoto, Raghuvir Viswanatha, Riyan Bittar, Zhongchi Li, Sachiko Haga-Yamanaka, Norbert Perrimon, Naoki Yamanaka
Steroid hormones are a group of lipophilic hormones that are believed to enter cells by simple diffusion to regulate diverse physiological processes through intracellular nuclear receptors. Here, we challenge this model in Drosophila by demonstrating that Ecdysone Importer (EcI), a membrane transporter identified from two independent genetic screens, is involved in cellular uptake of the steroid hormone ecdysone. EcI encodes an organic anion transporting polypeptide of the evolutionarily conserved solute carrier organic anion superfamily...
October 1, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286955/adherens-junction-associated-pores-mediate-the-intercellular-transport-of-endosomes-and-cytoplasmic-proteins
#6
Wen-Ting Yang, Yu-Chiao Li, Chiao-Ming Lin, Wei-Chun Tang, Bi-Chang Chen, Emiko Suzuki, Jui-Chou Hsu
Intercellular endosomes (IEs) are endocytosed vesicles shuttled through the adherens junctions (AJs) between two neighboring epidermal cells during Drosophila dorsal closure. The cell-to-cell transport of IEs requires DE-cadherin (DE-cad), microtubules (MTs) and kinesin. However, the mechanisms by which IEs can be transported through the AJs are unknown. Here, we demonstrate the presence of AJ-associated pores with MTs traversing through the pores. Live imaging allows direct visualization of IEs being transported through the AJ-associated pores...
October 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257938/modulation-of-the-hippo-pathway-and-organ-growth-by-rna-processing-proteins
#7
Jana Mach, Mardelle Atkins, Kathleen M Gajewski, Violaine Mottier-Pavie, Leticia Sansores-Garcia, Jun Xie, Robert Andrew Mills, Weronika Kowalczyk, Leen Van Huffel, Gordon B Mills, Georg Halder
The Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway regulates organ growth, cell proliferation, and stem cell biology. Defects in Hippo signaling and hyperactivation of its downstream effectors-Yorkie (Yki) in Drosophila and YAP/TAZ in mammals-result in progenitor cell expansion and overgrowth of multiple organs and contribute to cancer development. Deciphering the mechanisms that regulate the activity of the Hippo pathway is key to understanding its function and for therapeutic targeting. However, although the Hippo kinase cascade and several other upstream inputs have been identified, the mechanisms that regulate Yki/YAP/TAZ activity are still incompletely understood...
October 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30235233/a-genetic-mosaic-screen-identifies-genes-modulating-notch-signaling-in-drosophila
#8
Luming Ren, Dongqing Mo, Yunlong Li, Tong Liu, Huan Yin, Na Jiang, Junzheng Zhang
Notch signaling is conserved in most multicellular organisms and plays critical roles during animal development. The core components and major signal transduction mechanism of Notch signaling have been extensively studied. However, our understanding of how Notch signaling activity is regulated in diverse developmental processes still remains incomplete. Here, we report a genetic mosaic screen in Drosophila melanogaster that leads to identification of Notch signali ng modulators during wing development. We discovered a group of genes required for the formation of the fly wing margin, a developmental process that is strictly dependent on the balanced Notch signaling activity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231999/sobremesa-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-expressed-in-glia-is-essential-for-proper-timing-of-development-and-brain-growth
#9
Diego Galagovsky, Ana Depetris-Chauvin, Gérard Manière, Flore Geillon, Martine Berthelot-Grosjean, Elodie Noirot, Georges Alves, Yael Grosjean
In Drosophila, ecdysone hormone levels determine the timing of larval development. Its production is regulated by the stereotypical rise in prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) levels. Additionally, ecdysone levels can also be modulated by nutrition (specifically by amino acids) through their action on Drosophila insulin-like peptides (Dilps). Moreover, in glia, amino-acid-sensitive production of Dilps regulates brain development. In this work, we describe the function of an SLC7 amino acid transporter, Sobremesa (Sbm)...
September 18, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230472/humidity-response-depends-on-the-small-soluble-protein-obp59a-in-drosophila
#10
Jennifer S Sun, Nikki K Larter, J Sebastian Chahda, Douglas Rioux, Ankita Gumaste, John R Carlson
Hygrosensation is an essential sensory modality that is used to find sources of moisture. Hygroreception allows animals to avoid desiccation, an existential threat that is increasing with climate change. Humidity response, however, remains poorly understood. Here we find that humidity-detecting sensilla in the Drosophila antenna express and rely on a small protein, Obp59a. Mutants lacking this protein are defective in three hygrosensory behaviors, one operating over seconds, one over minutes, and one over hours...
September 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226901/suppression-of-the-synaptic-localization-of-a-subset-of-proteins-including-app-partially-ameliorates-phenotypes-of-the-drosophila-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#11
Koto Furotani, Keisuke Kamimura, Takaaki Yajima, Minoru Nakayama, Rena Enomoto, Takuya Tamura, Hitoshi Okazawa, Masaki Sone
APP (amyloid precursor protein), the causative molecule of Alzheimer's disease, is synthesized in neuronal cell bodies and subsequently transported to synapses. We previously showed that the yata gene is required for the synaptic transport of the APP orthologue in Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we examined the effect of a reduction in yata expression in the Drosophila Alzheimer's disease model, in which expression of human mutant APP was induced. The synaptic localization of APP and other synaptic proteins was differentially inhibited by yata knockdown and null mutation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224439/modulation-of-crbs-dependent-activation-of-the-acetate-switch-in-vibrio-cholerae
#12
Itai Muzhingi, Cecilia Prado, Mariame Sylla, Frances F Diehl, Duy K Nguyen, Mariah M Servos, Stephany Flores Ramos, Alexandra E Purdy
Vibrio cholerae controls the pathogenicity of interactions with arthropod hosts via the activity of the CrbS/R two component system. This signaling pathway regulates the consumption of acetate, which in turn, alters the relative virulence of interactions with arthropods, including Drosophila melanogaster CrbS is a histidine kinase that links a transporter-like domain to its signaling apparatus via putative STAC and PAS domains. CrbS and its cognate response regulator are required for expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase ( acs ), which converts acetate to acetyl-CoA...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209352/a-post-ingestive-amino-acid-sensor-promotes-food-consumption-in-drosophila
#13
Zhe Yang, Rui Huang, Xin Fu, Gaohang Wang, Wei Qi, Decai Mao, Zhaomei Shi, Wei L Shen, Liming Wang
Adequate protein intake is crucial for the survival and well-being of animals. How animals assess prospective protein sources and ensure dietary amino acid intake plays a critical role in protein homeostasis. By using a quantitative feeding assay, we show that three amino acids, L-glutamate (L-Glu), L-alanine (L-Ala) and L-aspartate (L-Asp), but not their D-enantiomers or the other 17 natural L-amino acids combined, rapidly promote food consumption in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This feeding-promoting effect of dietary amino acids is independent of mating experience and internal nutritional status...
September 12, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209205/-drosophila-exo70-is-essential-for-neurite-extension-and-survival-under-thermal-stress
#14
Alex Chun Koon, Zhefan Stephen Chen, Shaohong Peng, Joyce Man See Fung, Xiaoman Zhang, Kayly M Lembke, Hoi Kin Chow, C Andrew Frank, Liwen Jiang, Kwok-Fai Lau, Ho Yin Edwin Chan
The octomeric exocyst complex governs the final step of exocytosis in both plants and animals. Its roles, however, extend beyond exocytosis and include organelle biogenesis, ciliogenesis, cell migration, and cell growth. Exo70 is a conserved component of the exocyst whose function in Drosophila is unclear. In this study, we characterized two mutant alleles of Drosophila exo70. exo70 mutants exhibit reduced synaptic growth, locomotor activity, glutamate receptor density, and mEPSP amplitude. We found that presynaptic Exo70 is necessary for normal synaptic growth at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190420/signatures-of-insecticide-selection-in-the-genome-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
David Duneau, Haina Sun, Jonathan Revah, Keri San Miguel, Henry D Kunerth, Ian V Caldas, Philipp W Messer, Jeffrey G Scott, Nicolas Buchon
Resistance to insecticides has evolved in multiple insect species, leading to increased application rates and even control failures. Understanding the genetic basis of insecticide resistance is fundamental for mitigating its impact on crop production and disease control. We performed a GWAS approach with the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to identify the mutations involved in resistance to two widely used classes of insecticides: organophosphates (OPs, parathion) and pyrethroids (deltamethrin). Most variation in parathion resistance was associated with mutations in the target gene Ace , while most variation in deltamethrin resistance was associated with mutations in Cyp6a23 , a gene encoding a detoxification enzyme never previously associated with resistance...
September 6, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185553/altered-er-mitochondria-contact-impacts-mitochondria-calcium-homeostasis-and-contributes-to-neurodegeneration-in-vivo-in-disease-models
#16
Kyu-Sun Lee, Sungun Huh, Seongsoo Lee, Zhihao Wu, Ae-Kyeong Kim, Ha-Young Kang, Bingwei Lu
Calcium (Ca2+ ) homeostasis is essential for neuronal function and survival. Altered Ca2+ homeostasis has been consistently observed in neurological diseases. How Ca2+ homeostasis is achieved in various cellular compartments of disease-relevant cell types is not well understood. Here we show in Drosophila Parkinson's disease (PD) models that Ca2+ transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria through the ER-mitochondria contact site (ERMCS) critically regulates mitochondrial Ca2+ (mito-Ca2+ ) homeostasis in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and that the PD-associated PINK1 protein modulates this process...
September 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174114/presynaptic-biogenesis-requires-axonal-transport-of-lysosome-related-vesicles
#17
Anela Vukoja, Ulises Rey, Astrid G Petzoldt, Christoph Ott, Dennis Vollweiter, Christine Quentin, Dymtro Puchkov, Eric Reynolds, Martin Lehmann, Svea Hohensee, Stefanie Rosa, Reinhard Lipowsky, Stephan J Sigrist, Volker Haucke
Nervous system function relies on the polarized architecture of neurons, established by directional transport of pre- and postsynaptic cargoes. While delivery of postsynaptic components depends on the secretory pathway, the identity of the membrane compartment(s) supplying presynaptic active zone (AZ) and synaptic vesicle (SV) proteins is unclear. Live imaging in Drosophila larvae and mouse hippocampal neurons provides evidence that presynaptic biogenesis depends on axonal co-transport of SV and AZ proteins in presynaptic lysosome-related vesicles (PLVs)...
September 19, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30161013/sglt6-a-pharmacological-target-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#18
Tamara Baader-Pagler, Matthias Eckhardt, Frank Himmelsbach, Achim Sauer, Birgit E Stierstorfer, Bradford S Hamilton
Despite increased knowledge of nutrient intake regulation and energy homeostasis, treatment options for obesity remain limited. Food reward consists of two branches: gustatory and post-ingestive nutritive information. Drosophila lacking dSLC5A11 (sodium/glucose cotransporter 6-SGLT6) prefer L-glucose over D-glucose independently of their state of satiety. Human SGLT6 is an active transporter of myo-inositol and D-glucose. We investigated expression of SGLT6 in human tissue and found a significant expression in the small intestine and brain...
August 30, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138334/the-thirsty-fly-ion-transport-peptide-itp-is-a-novel-endocrine-regulator-of-water-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#19
Martina Gáliková, Heinrich Dircksen, Dick R Nässel
Animals need to continuously adjust their water metabolism to the internal and external conditions. Homeostasis of body fluids thus requires tight regulation of water intake and excretion, and a balance between ingestion of water and solid food. Here, we investigated how these processes are coordinated in Drosophila melanogaster. We identified the first thirst-promoting and anti-diuretic hormone of Drosophila, encoded by the gene Ion transport peptide (ITP). This endocrine regulator belongs to the CHH (crustacean hyperglycemic hormone) family of peptide hormones...
August 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126171/-drosophila-as-a-model-for-assessing-the-function-of-rna-binding-proteins-during-neurogenesis-and-neurological-disease
#20
REVIEW
Eugenia C Olesnicky, Ethan G Wright
An outstanding question in developmental neurobiology is how RNA processing events contribute to the regulation of neurogenesis. RNA processing events are increasingly recognized as playing fundamental roles in regulating multiple developmental events during neurogenesis, from the asymmetric divisions of neural stem cells, to the generation of complex and diverse neurite morphologies. Indeed, both asymmetric cell division and neurite morphogenesis are often achieved by mechanisms that generate asymmetric protein distributions, including post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanisms such as the transport of translationally silent messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and local translation of mRNAs within neurites...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
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