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Drosophila transport

Heath A MacMillan, Basma Nazal, Sahr Wali, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Lidiya Misyura, Andrew Donini, Jean-Paul Paluzzi
For insects, chilling injuries that occur in the absence of freezing are often related to a systemic loss of ion and water balance that leads to extracellular hyperkalemia, cell depolarization, and the triggering of apoptotic signalling cascades. The ability of insect ionoregulatory organs (e.g. the Malpighian tubules) to maintain ion balance in the cold has been linked to improved chill tolerance, and many neuroendocrine factors are known to influence ion transport rates of these organs. Injection of micromolar doses of CAPA (an insect neuropeptide) have been previously demonstrated to improve Drosophila cold tolerance, but the mechanisms through which it impacts chill tolerance are unclear, and low doses of CAPA have been previously demonstrated to cause anti-diuresis in insects, including dipterans...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Susan E Liao, Yiwei Ai, Ryuya Fukunaga
Drosophila Blanks is a testes-specific RNA-binding protein required for post-meiotic spermiogenesis. However, Blanks's role in regulating RNA populations in the testes remains unknown. We performed small RNA and mRNA high-throughput sequencing in blanks mutant testes and controls. We identified two miRNAs, one siRNA, and hundreds of mRNAs that are significantly upregulated or downregulated in blanks mutant testes. Pathway analysis revealed that differentially expressed mRNAs are involved in catabolic and metabolic processes, anion and cation transport, mating, and reproductive behavior...
July 2018: Heliyon
Alexis Hofherr, Claudia Seger, Fiona Fitzpatrick, Tilman Busch, Elisabeth Michel, Jingting Luan, Lea Osterried, Frieder Linden, Albrecht Kramer-Zucker, Barbara Wakimoto, Conny Schütze, Nils Wiedemann, Anna Artati, Jerzy Adamski, Gerd Walz, Edmund R S Kunji, Craig Montell, Terry Watnick, Michael Köttgen
Cilia are organelles specialized in movement and signal transduction. The ciliary transient receptor potential ion channel polycystin-2 (TRPP2) controls elementary cilia-mediated physiological functions ranging from male fertility and kidney development to left-right patterning. However, the molecular components translating TRPP2 channel-mediated Ca2+ signals into respective physiological functions are unknown. Here, we show that the Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi solute carrier 25 A 25 (SLC25A25) acts downstream of TRPP2 in an evolutionarily conserved metabolic signaling pathway...
August 6, 2018: PLoS Biology
Marie-Anne Félix, Michael Ailion, Jung-Chen Hsu, Aurélien Richaud, John Wang
The lifestyle and feeding habits of nematodes are highly diverse. Several species of Pristionchus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), including Pristionchus pacificus, have been reported to be necromenic, i.e. to associate with beetles in their dauer diapause stage and wait until the death of their host to resume development and feed on microbes in the decomposing beetle corpse. We review the literature and suggest that the association of Pristionchus to beetles may be phoretic and not necessarily necromenic. The view that Pristionchus nematodes have a necromenic lifestyle is based on studies that have sought Pristionchus only by sampling live beetles...
2018: PloS One
Mimi Shin, B Jill Venton
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a popular model organism for studying neurological processes and diseases due to the availability of sophisticated genetic tools. While endogenous neurotransmitter release has been characterized in Drosophila larvae, here, we measured endogenous dopamine release in isolated adult Drosophila brains for the first time. Dopamine was measured with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), and acetylcholine or nicotine were used as the stimulus, as both interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to evoke endogenous dopamine release...
August 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ning-Ning Liu, Priya Uppuluri, Achille Broggi, Angelique Besold, Kicki Ryman, Hiroto Kambara, Norma Solis, Viola Lorenz, Wanjun Qi, Maikel Acosta-Zaldívar, S Noushin Emami, Bin Bao, Dingding An, Francisco A Bonilla, Martha Sola-Visner, Scott G Filler, Hongbo R Luo, Ylva Engström, Per Olof Ljungdahl, Valeria C Culotta, Ivan Zanoni, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Julia R Köhler
Phosphate is an essential macronutrient required for cell growth and division. Pho84 is the major high-affinity cell-surface phosphate importer of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a crucial element in the phosphate homeostatic system of this model yeast. We found that loss of Candida albicans Pho84 attenuated virulence in Drosophila and murine oropharyngeal and disseminated models of invasive infection, and conferred hypersensitivity to neutrophil killing. Susceptibility of cells lacking Pho84 to neutrophil attack depended on reactive oxygen species (ROS): pho84-/- cells were no more susceptible than wild type C...
July 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Ying Sun, Yanyan Jia, Yifeng Guo, Fangyi Chen, Zhiqiang Yan
Drosophila dEAAT2, a member of the excitatory amino-acid transporter (EAAT) family, has been described as mediating the high-affinity transport of taurine, which is a free amino-acid abundant in both insects and mammals. However, the role of taurine and its transporter in hearing is not clear. Here, we report that dEAAT2 is required for the larval startle response to sound stimuli. dEAAT2 was found to be enriched in the distal region of chordotonal neurons where sound transduction occurs. The Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiological results showed that disrupted dEAAT2 expression significantly reduced the response of chordotonal neurons to sound...
July 24, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Wen Lu, Margot Lakonishok, Anna S Serpinskaya, David Kirchenbüechler, Shuo-Chien Ling, Vladimir I Gelfand
The posterior determination of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo is defined by the posterior localization of oskar (osk ) mRNA in the oocyte. Defects of its localization result in a lack of germ cells and failure of abdomen specification. A microtubule motor kinesin-1 is essential for osk mRNA posterior localization. Because kinesin-1 is required for two essential functions in the oocyte-transport along microtubules and cytoplasmic streaming-it is unclear how individual kinesin-1 activities contribute to the posterior determination...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Janusz Borycz, Anna Ziegler, Jolanta A Borycz, Guido Uhlenbrock, Daniel Tapken, Lucia Caceres, Michael Hollmann, Bernhard T Hovemann, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Histamine (HA) is a neurotransmitter in arthropod photoreceptors. It is recycled via conjugation to β-alanine to form β-alanylhistamine (carcinine). Conjugation occurs in epithelial glia that surround photoreceptor terminals in the first optic neuropil, and carcinine (CA) is then transported back to photoreceptors and cleaved to liberate HA and β-alanine. The gene Inebriated ( Ine ) encodes an Na+ /Cl- -dependent SLC6 family transporter translated as two protein isoforms, long (P1) and short (P2). Photoreceptors specifically express Ine-P2 whereas Ine-P1 is expressed in non-neuronal cells...
July 23, 2018: Biology Open
Wangchao Xu, Jin Xu
The arginine-rich dipeptide repeats (DPRs) are highly toxic products from the C9orf72 repeat expansion mutations, which are the most common causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the effects of DPRs in the synaptic regulation and excitotoxicity remain elusive, and how they contribute to the development of FTD is largely unknown. By expressing DPRs with different toxicity strength in various neuronal populations in a Drosophila model, we unexpectedly found that GR/PR with 36 repeats could lead to neurodegenerative phenotypes only when they were expressed in glutamatergic neurons, including motor neurons...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hana Hall, Jingqun Ma, Sudhanshu Shekhar, Walter D Leon-Salas, Vikki M Weake
BACKGROUND: Light exposure induces oxidative stress, which contributes to ocular diseases of aging. Blue light provides a model for light-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and retinal degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. In contrast to mature adults, which undergo retinal degeneration when exposed to prolonged blue light, newly-eclosed flies are resistant to blue light-induced retinal degeneration. Here, we sought to characterize the gene expression programs induced by blue light in flies of different ages to identify neuroprotective pathways utilized by photoreceptors to cope with light-induced oxidative stress...
July 20, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Trent Perry, Philip Batterham
The vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has made an enormous contribution to our understanding of insecticide targets, metabolism and transport. This contribution has been enabled by the unmatched capacity to manipulate genes in D. melanogaster and the fact that lessons learn in this system have been applicable to pests, because of the evolutionary conservation of key genes, particularly those encoding targets. With the advent of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology, genes can now be manipulated in pest species, but this review points to advantages that are likely to keep D...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Samuel S Rudisill, Bradley R Martin, Kevin M Mankowski, Charles R Tessier
Iron serves as a critical cofactor for proteins involved in a host of biological processes. In most animals, dietary iron is absorbed in enterocytes and then disseminated for use in other tissues in the body. The brain is particularly dependent on iron. Altered iron status correlates with disorders ranging from cognitive dysfunction to disruptions in circadian activity. The exact role iron plays in producing these neurological defects, however, remains unclear. Invertebrates provide an attractive model to study the effects of iron on neuronal development since many of the genes involved in iron metabolism are conserved, and the organisms are amenable to genetic and cytological techniques...
July 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Ana Paula C Rodrigues, André F Camargo, Ana Andjelković, Howard T Jacobs, Marcos T Oliveira
The xenotopic expression of the alternative oxidase AOX from the tunicate Ciona intestinalis in diverse models of human disease partially alleviates the phenotypic effects of mitochondrial respiratory chain defects. AOX is a non-proton pumping, mitochondrial inner membrane-bound, single-subunit enzyme that can bypass electron transport through the cytochrome segment, providing an additional site for ubiquinone reoxidation and oxygen reduction upon respiratory chain overload. We set out to investigate whether AOX expression in Drosophila could counteract the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication defects caused by disturbances in the mtDNA helicase or DNA polymerase γ...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sami Aboudhiaf, Georges Alves, Sandrine Parrot, Mohamed Amri, Mégane M Simonnet, Yael Grosjean, Gérard Manière, Laurent Seugnet
Amino-acid transporters are involved in functions reportedly linked to the sleep/wake cycle: neurotransmitter synthesis and recycling, the regulation of synaptic strength, protein synthesis and energy metabolism. In addition, the existence of bidirectional relationships between extracellular content, transport systems and sleep/wake states is receiving emerging support. Nevertheless, the connection between amino-acid transport and sleep/wake regulation remains elusive. To address this question, we used Drosophilamelanogaster and investigated the role of LAT1 (Large neutral Amino-acid Transporter 1) transporters...
July 16, 2018: Sleep
Panagiotis Moulos, Alexandros Alexandratos, Ioannis Nellas, Skarlatos G Dedos
BACKGROUND: The prothoracic gland (PG), the principal steroidogenic organ of insects, has been proposed as a model for steroid hormone biosynthesis and regulation. RESULTS: To validate the robustness of the model, we present an analysis of accumulated transcriptomic data from PGs of two model species, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. We identify that the common core components of the model in both species are encoded by nine genes. Five of these are Halloween genes whose expression differs substantially between the PGs of these species...
July 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Nayoung Lee, Jina Park, Yong Chul Bae, Jung Ho Lee, Chul Hoon Kim, Seok Jun Moon
Cilia are highly specialized antennae-like organelles that extend from the cell surface and act as cell signaling hubs. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a specialized form of intracellular protein trafficking that is required for the assembly and maintenance of cilia. Because cilia are so important, mutations in several IFT components lead to human disease. Thus, clarifying the molecular functions of the IFT proteins is a high priority in cilia biology. Live imaging in various species and cellular preparations has proven to be an important technique in both the discovery of IFT and the mechanisms by which it functions...
July 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Qingying Xun, Caili Bi, Xiaoying Cui, Hongyan Wu, Mingying Wang, Yanlin Liao, Rui Wang, Hao Xie, Zhijun Shen, Ming Fang
Magnesium transporter subtype 1 (MagT1) is a magnesium membrane transporter with channel like properties. We have previously identified MagT1 (CG7830) in Drosophila genome and characterized its protein product by electrophysiological means. Here, we report the generation of fly MagT1 mutants and show that MagT1 is essential for early embryonic development. In wings and primordial wings, by clonal analysis and RNAi knock down of MagT1, we have found that loss of MagT1 results enhanced/ectopic Wingless (Wg, a fly Wnt) signaling and disrupted Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling, indicating the crucial role of MagT1 for fly development at later stages...
June 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Thomas E Sladewski, Neil Billington, M Yusuf Ali, Carol S Bookwalter, Hailong Lu, Elena B Krementsova, Trina A Schroer, Kathleen M Trybus
We investigated the role of full-length Drosophila Bicaudal D (BicD) binding partners in dynein-dynactin activation for mRNA transport on microtubules. Full-length BicD robustly activated dynein-dynactin motility only when both the mRNA binding protein Egalitarian (Egl) and K10 mRNA cargo were present, and electron microscopy showed that both Egl and mRNA were needed to disrupt a looped, auto-inhibited BicD conformation. BicD can recruit two dimeric dyneins, resulting in faster speeds and longer runs than with one dynein...
June 26, 2018: ELife
Hongmei Ke, Zhi Feng, Min Liu, Tianhui Sun, Jianli Dai, Mengqi Ma, Lu-Ping Liu, Jian-Quan Ni, José Carlos Pastor-Pareja
Collagens are large secreted trimeric proteins making up most of the animal extracellular matrix. Secretion of collagen has been a focus of interest for cell biologists in recent years because collagen trimers are too large and rigid to fit into the COPII vesicles mediating transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. Collagen-specific mechanisms to create enlarged ER-to-Golgi transport carriers have been postulated, including cargo loading by conserved ER exit site (ERES) protein Tango1. Here, we report an RNAi screening for genes involved in collagen secretion in Drosophila...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
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