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Cho-Rong Lee, Wongeun Lee, Steve K Cho, Sung-Gyoo Park
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) regulate T cell immunity, and this population is a new therapeutic target for immune regulation. A previous study showed that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in controlling MDSC differentiation and immunoregulatory function in vivo. However, the direct effect of TGF-β on MDSCs with various cytokines has not previously been tested. Thus, we examined the effect of various cytokine combinations with TGF-β on MDSCs derived from bone marrow cells. The data show that different cytokine combinations affect the differentiation and immunosuppressive functions of MDSCs in different ways...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Irene Salamon, Gloria Saccani Jotti, Gianluigi Condorelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize new knowledge on long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) linked to cardiovascular disease, in particular to heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: LncRNAs are dysregulated in specific developmental and pathological conditions and regulate critical responses to stress. LncRNAs are being recognized as molecules regulating myocardial remodeling during disease, participating for instance in the regulation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and function and fibroblast proliferation...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Xiumei Che, Ki Cheong Park, Soo Jung Park, You Hyun Kang, Hyun A Jin, Joo Wan Kim, Dong Hyuk Seo, Dae Kyu Kim, Tae Il Kim, Won Ho Kim, Seung Won Kim, Jae Hee Cheon
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1)-expressing intestinal macrophages are significantly increased in the colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We focused here on the effects of guggulsterone on macrophage modulation in colitis as a potential therapeutic molecule in human IBD and explore the underlying mechanisms. Gene expression in macrophages was examined and wound healing assay using HT-29 cells was performed. Colitis in wild type and IL-10-, TLR4-, and MyD88-deficient mice was induced via the administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into the colon...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Cristina Rodríguez-Seco, Lydia Cabau, Anton Vidal-Ferran, Emilio Palomares
Over hundreds of new organic semiconductor molecules have been synthesized as hole transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells. However, to date, the well-known N2 , N2 , N2' , N2' , N7 , N7 , N7' , octakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9-spirobi-[9,9'-spirobi[9 H-fluorene]-2,2',7,7'-tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD) is still the best choice for the best perovskite device performance. Nevertheless, there is a consensus that spiro-OMeTAD by itself is not stable enough for long-term stable devices, and its market price makes its use in large-scale production costly...
March 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Xiaojun Wang, Chang Gu, Hongzhi Zheng, Yu-Mo Zhang, Sean Xiao-An Zhang
A multi-state and multi-stimuli-responsive oxazine molecular switch combining electro-base property and sensitively base/acid responsive properties was designed and synthesized. The multi-state structures of the molecular switch with different colors were speculated by comparison the optical properties with reference molecules and confirmed by NMR. The color switching mechanism under the stimulation of acid and base was investigated by DFT calculation. Three single states can be obtained and the switching is unidirectional under the stimulation of acid and base...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Mariusz Puchalski, Jacek Komasa, Krzysztof Pachucki
The interaction between nuclear spins in a molecule is exceptionally sensitive to the physics beyond the standard model. However, all present calculations of the nuclear spin-spin coupling constant J are burdened by computational difficulties, which hinders the comparison to experimental results. Here, we present a variational approach and calculate the constant J in the hydrogen molecule with the controlled numerical precision, using the adiabatic approximation. The apparent discrepancy with experimental result is removed by an analysis of nonadiabatic effects based on the experimental values of the J constant for HD, HT, and DT molecules...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Mateusz Borkowski
Optical molecular clocks promise unparalleled sensitivity to the temporal variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio and insight into possible new physics beyond the standard model. We propose to realize a molecular clock with bosonic ^{174}Yb_{2} molecules, where the forbidden ^{1}S_{0}→^{3}P_{0} clock transition would be induced magnetically. The use of a bosonic species avoids possible complications due to the hyperfine structure present in fermionic species. While direct clock line photoassociation would be challenging, weakly bound ground state molecules could be produced by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage and used instead...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Tingting Wang, Jun Ma, Baoqi Yin, Xiaopeng Xing
We systematically studied the adsorption of O2 on Aun- in the size range of 0-1 nm at low temperatures, and determined new active sizes with n = 22, 24, 34, and 36. The kinetic measurements more clearly showed the correlation between the reactivity of Aun- with O2 and their electronic properties: the sizes with a close electron shell are always inert, and the sizes with a unpaired electron can chemically adsorb one O2 molecule if their adiabatic detachment energies (ADEs) are lower than a threshold around 3...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen, Shin-Ichi Nakakita, Sachiko Kondo, Hirokazu Yagi, Koichi Kato, Takeomi Murata, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Toshio Kawahara, Yohei Watanabe, Yasushi Kanai, Takao Ono, Jun Hirabayashi, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yasuo Suzuki
The rapidly evolvable influenza A virus has caused pandemics linked to millions of deaths in the past century. Influenza A viruses are categorized by H (hemagglutinin; HA) and N (neuraminidase; NA) proteins expressed on the viral envelope surface. Analyses of past pandemics suggest that the HA gene segment comes from a nonhuman virus, which is then introduced into an immunologically naïve human population with potentially devastating consequences. As a prerequisite for infection, the nonhuman HA molecules of H1-H16 viruses must be able to bind to specific sialyl receptors on the host cell surface along the human respiratory tract...
March 15, 2018: FEBS Journal
Dongshuai Hou, Tiejun Yang, Jinhui Tang, Shaochun Li
Graphene oxide (GO) reinforced cement nanocomposites open up a new path for sustainable concrete design. In this paper, reactive force-field molecular dynamics was utilized to investigate the structure, reactivity and interfacial bonding of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H)/GO nanocomposite functionalized by hydroxyl (C-OH), epoxy (C-O-C), carboxyl (COOH) and sulfonic (SO3 H) groups with a coverage of 10%. The silicate chains in the hydrophilic C-S-H substrate provided numerous non-bridging oxygen sites and counter ions (Ca ions) with high reactivity, which allowed interlayer water molecules to dissociate into Si-OH and Ca-OH...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Giacomo Reina, Ngoc Do Quyen Chau, Yuta Nishina, Alberto Bianco
Several studies have demonstrated the ability of graphene oxide (GO) to efficiently adsorb small-interfering RNA (siRNA) on its surface and to transport it into cells. However, studies on whether and how siRNA interacts with GO are still inconclusive. In this context, understanding the interaction between GO and siRNA is fundamental to design new efficient gene silencing tools. In this work, the interactions between GO and siRNA molecules were systematically investigated. We focused on how the GO size, oxygenated groups present on the surface and chemical functionalization affect the double helix siRNA structure, using gel electrophoresis, UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and circular dichroism (CD)...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Dehbia Benkerrou, Matteo Ceccarelli
One of the greatest health threats facing modern medicine is the emergence of new bacterial strains which are increasingly resistant to almost all currently available antibiotics. According to a CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) report published in 2013, 63% of Acinetobacter species have been identified as Multidrug resistant strains. As for other Gram-negative bacteria, the presence of an outer membrane increases the intrinsic resistance of A. baumannii to most antibiotics. The outer membrane of A...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Beatriz Bernardo-Maestro, Elisa Garrido-Martín, Fernando López-Arbeloa, Joaquín Pérez-Pariente, Luis Gómez-Hortigüela
In an attempt to promote the crystallization of chiral inorganic frameworks, we explore the ability of chiral (1R,2S)-ephedrine and its diastereoisomer (1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine to act as organic building blocks for the crystallization of hybrid organo-inorganic aluminophosphate frameworks in the presence of fluoride. These molecules were selected because of their particular molecular asymmetric structure, which enables a rich supramolecular chemistry and a potential chiral recognition phenomenon during crystallization...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Wei Sun, Ju-Dong Luo, Hua Jiang, Dayue Darrel Duan
Tumor cells produce and secrete more nucleic acids, proteins and lipids than normal cells. These molecules are transported in the blood or around the cells in membrane-encapsulated exosomes. Tumor-derived or tumor-associated exosomes (usually 30-100 nm in diameter) contain abundant biological contents resembling those of the parent cells along with signaling messengers for intercellular communication involved in the pathogenesis, development, progression, and metastasis of cancer. As these exosomes can be detected and isolated from various body fluids, they have become attractive new biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Akhil Kumar, Ashish Tiwari, Ashok Sharma
Alzheimer disease (AD) is now considered as a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder and rapidly increasing to an alarming situation and causing higher death rate. One target one ligand hypothesis is not able to provide complete solution of AD due to multifactorial nature of disease and one target one drug seems to fail to provide better treatment against AD. Moreover, current available treatments are limited and most of the upcoming treatments under clinical trials are based on modulating single target...
March 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Mirza A Hammad, Rana Adnan Tahir, Hafiza Nisha Akram, Faheem Ahmad
BACKGROUND: As the number of elderly persons increases, neurodegenerative diseases are becoming ubiquitous. There is currently a great need for knowledge concerning management of old-age neurodegenerative diseases; the most important of which are: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the potential of computationally predicted molecules and targets against neurodegenerative diseases...
March 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Yawen Li, Fangming Xiu, Zezhong Mou, Zhiwei Xue, Huanhui Du, Chunxue Zhou, Yan Li, Yongyu Shi, Shenyi He, Huaiyu Zhou
AIM: Exosomes are nanoscale membranous vesicles secreted by most cell types able to transfer bioactive molecules among cells, which play crucial roles in intercellular communication. We characterized the exosomes derived from Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and detected the immune response in macrophages. METHODS: We used transmission electron microscopy, nanotracking analysis and western blotting to identify T. gondii exosomes. Functional experiments were performed in RAW264...
March 15, 2018: Nanomedicine
Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez, Zaira Hellen Villa, Marta Moreno, Carlos Tong-Rios, Stephan Meister, Gregory M LaMonte, Brice Campo, Joseph M Vinetz, Elizabeth A Winzeler
To develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria elimination, it will be necessary to discover biological interventions, including small molecules that act against Plasmodium vivax exoerythrocytic forms. However, a robust in vitro culture system for P. vivax is still lacking. Thus, to study exoerythrocytic forms, researchers must have simultaneous access to fresh, temperature-controlled patient blood samples, as well as an anopheline mosquito colony. In addition, researchers must rely on native mosquito species to avoid introducing a potentially dangerous invasive species into a malaria-endemic region...
March 15, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Thomas George Back, Kai N Sands, Tyler A Tuck
Selenium compounds play an important role in redox homeostasis in living organisms. One of their major functions is to suppress the harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxides and downstream reactive oxygen species that lead to oxidative stress, which has in turn been implicated in many diseases and degenerative conditions. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) family of selenoenzymes plays a key protective role by catalyzing the reduction of peroxides with glutathione. Considerable effort has been expended toward the discovery of small-molecule selenium compounds that mimic GPx...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Hitoyoshi Yasuo, Alex McDougall
Phallusia mammillata has recently emerged as a new ascidian model. Its unique characteristics, including the optical transparency of eggs and embryos and efficient translation of exogenously introduced mRNA in eggs, make the Phallusia system suitable for fluorescent protein (FP)-based imaging approaches. In addition, genomic and transcriptomic resources are readily available for this ascidian species, facilitating functional gene studies. Microinjection is probably the most versatile technique for introducing exogenous molecules such as plasmids, mRNAs, and proteins into ascidian eggs/embryos...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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