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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346735/mechanisms-of-modulation-of-calcium-phosphate-pathological-mineralization-by-mobile-and-immobile-small-molecule-inhibitors
#1
Meng Li, Jing Zhang, Lijun Wang, Baoshan Wang, Christine V Putnis
Potential pathways for inhibiting crystal growth are either via disrupting local microenvironments surrounding crystal-solution interfaces or physically blocking solute molecule attachment. However, the actual mode of inhibition may be more complicated due to the characteristic time scale for the inhibitor adsorption and relaxation to a well-bound state at crystal surfaces. Here we demonstrate the role of citrate (CA) and hydroxycitrate (HCA) in brushite (DCPD, CaHPO4·2H2O) crystallization over a broad range of both inhibitor concentrations and supersaturations by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346732/microscopic-theory-of-coupled-slow-activated-dynamics-in-glass-forming-binary-mixtures
#2
Rui Zhang, Kenneth S Schweizer
The Elastically Collective Nonlinear Langevin Equation theory for one-component viscous liquids and suspensions is generalized to treat coupled slow activated relaxation and diffusion in glass-forming binary sphere mixtures of any composition, size ratio and inter-particle interactions. A trajectory-level dynamical coupling parameter concept is introduced to construct two coupled dynamic free energy functions for the smaller penetrant and larger matrix particle. A two-step dynamical picture is proposed where the first step process involves matrix-facilitated penetrant hopping quantified in a self-consistent manner based on a temporal coincidence condition...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346308/tissue-engineering-to-improve-immature-testicular-tissue-and-cell-transplantation-outcomes-one-step-closer-to-fertility-restoration-for-prepubertal-boys-exposed-to-gonadotoxic-treatments
#3
REVIEW
Federico Del Vento, Maxime Vermeulen, Francesca de Michele, Maria Grazia Giudice, Jonathan Poels, Anne des Rieux, Christine Wyns
Despite their important contribution to the cure of both oncological and benign diseases, gonadotoxic therapies present the risk of a severe impairment of fertility. Sperm cryopreservation is not an option to preserve prepubertal boys' reproductive potential, as their seminiferous tubules only contain spermatogonial stem cells (as diploid precursors of spermatozoa). Cryobanking of human immature testicular tissue (ITT) prior to gonadotoxic therapies is an accepted practice. Evaluation of cryopreserved ITT using xenotransplantation in nude mice showed the survival of a limited proportion of spermatogonia and their ability to proliferate and initiate differentiation...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345901/playing-with-the-molecules-of-life
#4
Douglas D Young, Peter G Schultz
Our understanding of the complex molecular processes of living organisms is growing exponentially. This knowledge, togeth-er with a powerful arsenal of tools for manipulating the structures of biological macromolecules, is allowing chemists to begin to harness and reprogram the remarkable machinery of life. Here we review one such example in which the genetic code itself has been expanded with new building blocks that allow us to probe and manipulate the structures and functions of proteins in ways previously unimaginable...
January 18, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345850/effects-of-glutaraldehyde-didecyldimethylammonium-bromide-combined-disinfectant-on-the-cell-surface-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Wenshu Lin, Jialin Yi, Yuelin Zhang, Zhirui Deng, Qin Chen, Bing Niu
AIMS: The effects of a new glutaraldehyde-didecyldimethylammonium bromide combination disinfectant (GD) on the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus, a representative Gram-positive bacterium, were investigated in this study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Results of bacterial surface structural analysis showed that GD significantly changed the bacterial morphology. The membrane fluidity decreased and outer membrane permeabilization increased after contact with GD. Furthermore, the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane was destroyed by over 99% after exposure to GD for a short time...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345469/a-large-family-of-centrosymmetric-and-chiral-f-element-bearing-iodate-selenates-exhibiting-coordination-number-and-dimensional-reductions
#6
Meiying Qie, Jian Lin, Fang Kong, Mark A Silver, Zenghui Yue, Xiaomei Wang, Linjuan Zhang, Hongliang Bao, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Jian-Qiang Wang
The exploration of phase formation in the f-element-bearing iodate selenate system has resulted in 14 novel rare-earth-containing iodate selenates, Ln(IO3)(SeO4) (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd; LnISeO-1), Ln(IO3)(SeO4)(H2O) (Ln = Sm, Eu; LnISeO-2), and Ln(IO3)(SeO4)(H2O)2·H2O (Ln = Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y; LnISeO-3), as well as two new thorium iodate selenates, Th(OH)(IO3)(SeO4)(H2O) (ThISeO-1) and Th(IO3)2(SeO4) (ThISeO-2). LnISeO-3 and ThISeO-2 crystallize in the chiral space group P212121, while LnISeO-1, LnISeO-2, and ThISeO-1 crystallize in the centrosymmetric space group P21/c...
January 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345456/pre-occupation-of-empty-carriers-decreases-endo-lysosome-escape-and-reduces-the-protein-delivery-efficiency-of-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#7
Wenqing Li, Liping Sun, Yiqiu Xia, Si-Jie Hao, Gong Cheng, Zhigang Wang, Yuan Wan, Chuandong Zhu, Hongzhang He, Si-Yang Zheng
Endo/lysosome escape is a major challenge in nanoparticles-based protein delivery for cancer therapy. To enhance endo/lysosomal escape and increase the efficacy of proteins delivery, current strategies mainly focuses on destroying endo/lysosomes by employing modified nanoparticles, such as pH-sensitive polyplexes, cell-penetrating peptides, and photosensitive molecules. Herein, we hypothesize that pre-treatment with empty nanocarriers might make endo/lysosomes occupied and affect the endo/lysosomal escape of subsequent protein delivery by nanocarriers...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345419/targeting-bcl2-gene-promoter-g-quadruplex-with-a-new-class-of-furopyridazinone-based-molecules
#8
Jussara Amato, Alessia Pagano, Domenica Capasso, Sonia Di Gaetano, Mariateresa Giustiniano, Ettore Novellino, Antonio Randazzo, Bruno Pagano
Targeting of G-quadruplex-forming DNA in BCL2 gene promoter to inhibit the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein represents an attractive opportunity in cancer treatment. So far, efforts made in the discovery of molecules able to target BCL2 G-quadruplex mainly succeeded in the identification of ligands with poor drug-like properties. Here, a small series of furo[2,3-d]pyridazin-4(5H)-one derivatives were evaluated as a new class of drug-like G-quadruplex-targeting compounds. Biophysical studies showed that two derivatives could effectively bind to BCL2 G-quadruplex with good selectivity...
January 18, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345384/a-single-molecule-propyne-trap-highly-efficient-removal-of-propyne-from-propylene-with-anion-pillared-ultramicroporous-materials
#9
Lifeng Yang, Xili Cui, Qiwei Yang, Siheng Qian, Hui Wu, Zongbi Bao, Zhiguo Zhang, Qilong Ren, Wei Zhou, Banglin Chen, Huabin Xing
Propyne/propylene (C3 H4 /C3 H6 ) separation is a critical process for the production of polymer-grade C3 H6 . However, optimization of the structure of porous materials for the highly efficient removal of C3 H4 from C3 H6 remains challenging due to their similar structures and ultralow C3 H4 concentration. Here, it is first reported that hybrid ultramicroporous materials with pillared inorganic anions (SiF62- = SIFSIX, NbOF52- = NbOFFIVE) can serve as highly selective C3 H4 traps for the removal of trace C3 H4 from C3 H6 ...
January 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345323/vernalization-can-regulate-flowering-time-through-microrna-mechanism-in-brassica-rapa
#10
Feiyi Huang, Xiaoting Wu, Xilin Hou, Shuaixu Shao, Tongkun Liu
Vernalization is an important process that regulates the floral transition in plants. MiRNAs are endogenous non-coding sRNA molecules that function in plant growth and development. Despite that miRNAs related to flowering have previously been characterized, miRNAs roles in response to vernalization in Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) has never been studied. Here, two sRNA libraries from Brassica rapa leaves (vernalized and non-vernalized plants) were constructed and sequenced. 208 known and 535 novel miRNAs were obtained, of which 20 known and 66 new miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed and considered as vernalization-related miRNAs...
January 18, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345258/combination-of-a-graphene-sers-substrate-and-magnetic-solid-phase-micro-extraction-used-for-the-rapid-detection-of-trace-illegal-additives
#11
Shihua Yu, Zhigang Liu, Hongwei Li, Jianpo Zhang, Xin-Xin Yuan, Xiangyu Jia, Yuqing Wu
Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an ultra-sensitive spectroscopy technique, which can provide rich structural information for a great number of molecules, while solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) is an efficient method for sample pretreatment in analytical chemistry, particularly in a micro-system. In the present report, a silver-loaded and graphene-based magnetic composite (Fe3O4@GO@Ag) was fabricated for use as both a SERS-active substrate and SPME material. The π-π stacking and fluorescence quenching abilities of GO make the composite a perfect candidate for SERS in analyzing real-world samples...
January 18, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345196/surfactant-protein-c-dampens-inflammation-by-decreasing-jak-stat-activation-during-lung-repair
#12
Huiyan Jin, Andrzej K Ciechanowicz, Alanna R Kaplan, Lin Wang, Ping Xia Zhang, Yi-Chien Lu, Rachel E Tobin, Brooke A Tobin, Lauren Cohn, Caroline J Zeiss, Patty J Lee, Emanuela M Bruscia, Diane S Krause
Surfactant Protein C (SPC), a key component of pulmonary surfactant, also plays a role in regulating inflammation. SPC deficiency in patients and mouse models is associated with increased inflammation and delayed repair, but the key drivers of SPC-regulated inflammation in response to injury are largely unknown. This study focuses on a new mechanism of SPC as an anti-inflammatory molecule using SPC-TK/SPC-KO (surfactant protein C-thymidine kinase/surfactant protein C knockout) mice, which represent a novel sterile injury model that mimics clinical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344995/activation-of-human-cd141-and-cd1c-dendritic-cells-in-vivo-with-combined-tlr-3-and-tlr-7-8-ligation
#13
Frances E Pearson, Karshing Chang, Yoshihito Minoda, Ingrid M Leal Rojas, Oscar L Haigh, Ghazal Daraj, Kirsteen M Tullett, Kristen J Radford
Mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells are valuable models to study aspects of the human immune system in vivo. We describe a humanized mouse model (hu mice) in which fully functional human CD141+ and CD1c+ myeloid and CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC) develop from human cord blood CD34+ cells in immunodeficient mice. CD141+ DC are the human equivalents of murine CD8+ /CD103+ DC which are essential for the induction of tumor-inhibitory cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, making them attractive targets to exploit for the development of new cancer immunotherapies...
January 18, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344895/bioinformatics-approaches-to-predict-drug-responses-from-genomic-sequencing
#14
Neel S Madhukar, Olivier Elemento
Fulfilling the promises of precision medicine will depend on our ability to create patient-specific treatment regimens. Therefore, being able to translate genomic sequencing into predicting how a patient will respond to a given drug is critical. In this chapter, we review common bioinformatics approaches that aim to use sequencing data to predict sample-specific drug susceptibility. First, we explain the importance of customized drug regimens to the future of medical care. Second, we discuss the different public databases and community efforts that can be leveraged to develop new methods for identifying new predictive biomarkers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344723/structural-associations-between-organelle-membranes-in-nectary-parenchyma-cells
#15
Silvia Rodrigues Machado, Elisa A Gregório, Tatiane M Rodrigues
The close association between membranes and organelles, and the intense chloroplast remodeling in parenchyma cells of extrafloral nectaries occurred only at the secretion time and suggest a relationship with the nectar secretion. Associations between membranes and organelles have been well documented in different tissues and cells of plants, but poorly explored in secretory cells. Here, we described the close physical juxtaposition between membranes and organelles, mainly with chloroplasts, in parenchyma cells of Citharexylum myrianthum (Verbenaeceae) extrafloral nectaries under transmission electron microscopy, using conventional and microwave fixation...
January 17, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344581/glycophorin-c-sialylation-regulates-lu-bcam-adhesive-capacity-during-erythrocyte-aging
#16
T R L Klei, D Z de Back, P J Asif, P J J H Verkuijlen, M Veldthuis, P C Ligthart, J Berghuis, E Clifford, B M Beuger, T K van den Berg, R van Zwieten, W El Nemer, R van Bruggen
Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) is a transmembrane adhesion molecule expressed by erythrocytes and endothelial cells that can interact with the extracellular matrix protein laminin-α5. In sickle cell disease, Lu/BCAM is thought to contribute to adhesion of sickle erythrocytes to the vascular wall, especially during vaso-occlusive crises. On healthy erythrocytes however, its function is unclear. Here we report that Lu/BCAM is activated during erythrocyte aging. We show that Lu/BCAM-mediated binding to laminin-α5 is restricted by interacting, in cis, with glycophorin-C-derived sialic acid residues...
January 9, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344302/evans-blue-attachment-enhances-somatostatin-receptor-subtype-2-imaging-and-radiotherapy
#17
Rui Tian, Orit Jacobson, Gang Niu, Dale O Kiesewetter, Zhantong Wang, Guizhi Zhu, Ying Ma, Gang Liu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Purpose: Radionuclide therapy directed against tumors that express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) has proven effective for the treatment of advanced, low- to intermediate-grade neuroendocrine tumors in the clinic. In clinical usage, somatostatin peptide-based analogs, labeled with therapeutic radionuclides, provide an overall response rate of about 30%, despite the high cumulative activity injected per patient. We set out to improve the effectiveness of somatostatin radiotherapy by preparing a chemical analog that would clear more slowly through the urinary tract and, concomitantly, have increased blood circulation half-life and higher targeted accumulation in the tumors...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343868/galectin-13-a-different-prototype-galectin-does-not-bind-%C3%AE-galacto-sides-and-forms-dimers-via-intermolecular-disulfide-bridges-between-cys-136-and-cys-138
#18
Jiyong Su, Yue Wang, Yunlong Si, Jin Gao, Chenyang Song, Linlin Cui, Runjie Wu, Guihua Tai, Yifa Zhou
During pregnancy, placental protein-13 (galectin-13) is highly expressed in the placenta and fetal tissue, and less so in maternal serum that is related to pre-eclampsia. To understand galectin-13 function at the molecular level, we solved its crystal structure and discovered that its dimer is stabilized by two disulfide bridges between Cys136 and Cys138 and six hydrogen bonds involving Val135, Val137, and Gln139. Native PAGE and gel filtration demonstrate that this is not a crystallization artifact because dimers also form in solution...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343798/structural-and-functional-insights-into-s-thiolation-of-human-serum-albumins
#19
Fumie Nakashima, Takahiro Shibata, Kohei Kamiya, Jun Yoshitake, Ryosuke Kikuchi, Tadashi Matsushita, Isao Ishii, Juan A Giménez-Bastida, Claus Schneider, Koji Uchida
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant serum protein, contributing to the maintenance of redox balance in the extracellular fluids. One single free cysteine residue at position 34 is believed to be a target of oxidation. However, the molecular details and functions of oxidized HSAs remain obscure. Here we analyzed serum samples from normal subjects and hyperlipidemia patients and observed an enhanced S-thiolation of HSA in the hyperlipidemia patients as compared to the control individuals. Both cysteine and homocysteine were identified as the low molecular weight thiols bound to the HSAs...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343707/sensory-neuronal-p2rx4-receptors-controls-bdnf-signaling-in-inflammatory-pain
#20
Sarah Lalisse, Jennifer Hua, Manon Lenoir, Nathalie Linck, François Rassendren, Lauriane Ulmann
Chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pains are major public health concerns. Potential therapeutic targets include the ATP-gated purinergic receptors (P2RX) that contribute to these pathological types of pain in several different cell types. The purinergic receptors P2RX2 and P2RX3 are expressed by a specific subset of dorsal root ganglion neurons and directly shape pain processing by primary afferents. In contrast the P2RX4 and P2RX7 are mostly expressed in myeloid cells, where activation of these receptors triggers the release of various pro-inflammatory molecules...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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