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Henn Ojaveer, Bella S Galil, James T Carlton, Heidi Alleway, Philippe Goulletquer, Maiju Lehtiniemi, Agnese Marchini, Whitman Miller, Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Melita Peharda, Gregory M Ruiz, Susan L Williams, Anastasija Zaiko
The human-mediated introduction of marine non-indigenous species is a centuries- if not millennia-old phenomenon, but was only recently acknowledged as a potent driver of change in the sea. We provide a synopsis of key historical milestones for marine bioinvasions, including timelines of (a) discovery and understanding of the invasion process, focusing on transfer mechanisms and outcomes, (b) methodologies used for detection and monitoring, (c) approaches to ecological impacts research, and (d) management and policy responses...
2018: PloS One
C Miller, D Grynspan, L Gaudet, E Ferretti, S Lawrence, F Moretti, A Lafreniere, A McGee, S Lattuca, A Black
The epidemic of prescription and non-prescription opioid misuse is of particular importance in pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada currently recommends opioid replacement therapy with methadone or buprenorphine for opioid-dependent women during pregnancy. This vulnerable segment of the population has been shown to be at increased risk of blood-borne infectious diseases, nutritional insecurity and stress. The objective of this study was to describe an urban cohort of pregnant women on opioid replacement therapy and to evaluate potential effects on the fetus...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Jie Yang, Mengru Zhang, Hongshik Ahn, Qing Zhang, Tony B Jin, Ien A Li, Matthew Nemesure, Nandita Joshi, Haoran Jiang, Jeffrey M Miller, Robert Todd Ogden, Eva Petkova, Matthew S Milak, Mary Elizabeth Sublette, Gregory M Sullivan, Madhukar H Trivedi, Myrna Weissman, Patrick J McGrath, Maurizio Fava, Benji T Kurian, Diego A Pizzagalli, Crystal M Cooper, Melvin McInnis, Maria A Oquendo, Joseph John Mann, Ramin V Parsey, Christine DeLorenzo
This study aimed to identify biomarkers of major depressive disorder (MDD), by relating neuroimage-derived measures to binary (MDD/control), ordinal (severe MDD/mild MDD/control), or continuous (depression severity) outcomes. To address MDD heterogeneity, factors (severity of psychic depression, motivation, anxiety, psychosis, and sleep disturbance) were also used as outcomes. A multisite, multimodal imaging (diffusion MRI [dMRI] and structural MRI [sMRI]) cohort (52 controls and 147 MDD patients) and several modeling techniques-penalized logistic regression, random forest, and support vector machine (SVM)-were used...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
T S Park, Brandon A Miller, Junsang Cho
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) administration via an implanted programmable pump and selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) are both used for the treatment of cerebral palsy (CP) spasticity. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether SDR can improve ambulation in children who have been receiving ITB therapy for spastic cerebral palsy. METHODS: We reviewed 13 patients who received prior ITB placement with subsequent simultaneous SDR and ITB removal...
June 12, 2018: Curēus
Vikalp Vishwakarma, Jacob New, Dhruv Kumar, Vusala Snyder, Levi Arnold, Emily Nissen, Qingting Hu, Nikki Cheng, David Miller, Ahia Rael Thomas, Yelizaveta Shnayder, Kiran Kakarala, Terance Ted Tsue, Douglas A Girod, Sufi Mary Thomas
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is associated with low survival, and the current aggressive therapies result in high morbidity. Nutraceuticals are dietary compounds with few side effects. However, limited antitumor efficacy has restricted their application for cancer therapy. Here, we examine combining nutraceuticals, establishing a combination therapy that is more potent than any singular component, and delineate the mechanism of action. Three formulations were tested: GZ17-S (combined plant extracts from Arum palaestinum, Peganum harmala and Curcuma longa); GZ17-05...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric Miller, Amit Vikram, Getahun E Agga, Terrance M Arthur, John W Schmidt
Approximately 20% of U.S. beef cattle receive prophylactic in-feed administration of chlortetracycline (CTC) to reduce bovine respiratory disease (BRD) incidence during the transition into feedlots. To determine the impact of prophylaxis on selected antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), 300 beef cattle were placed into 10 pens (30 head/pen). Five "CTC group" pens received in-feed CTC (10 mg/lb of body weight/d) from the fifth to ninth day after feedlot arrival, whereas the five "Control group" pens received no CTC...
August 15, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Betsy E P Ostrander, Russell J Butterfield, Brent S Pedersen, Andrew J Farrell, Ryan M Layer, Alistair Ward, Chase Miller, Tonya DiSera, Francis M Filloux, Meghan S Candee, Tara Newcomb, Joshua L Bonkowsky, Gabor T Marth, Aaron R Quinlan
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) is a devastating epilepsy syndrome with onset in the first months of life. Although mutations in more than 50 different genes are known to cause EIEE, current diagnostic yields with gene panel tests or whole-exome sequencing are below 60%. We applied whole-genome analysis (WGA) consisting of whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive variant discovery approaches to a cohort of 14 EIEE subjects for whom prior genetic tests had not yielded a diagnosis. We identified both de novo point and INDEL mutations and de novo structural rearrangements in known EIEE genes, as well as mutations in genes not previously associated with EIEE...
2018: NPJ Genomic Medicine
Winnie S Liang, Jo-Anne Vergilio, Bodour Salhia, Helen J Huang, Yasuhiro Oki, Ignacio Garrido-Laguna, Haeseong Park, Jason R Westin, Funda Meric-Bernstam, David Fabrizio, Vincent A Miller, Philip J Stephens, Michelle A Fanale, Jeffrey S Ross, Filip Janku
BACKGROUND: The genomic landscape of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been difficult to characterize due to the paucity of neoplastic cells and an abundant microenvironment. Such characterization is needed in order to improve treatment strategies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) using targeted next-generation sequencing on archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor samples from 63 patients to analyze the landscape of HL. RESULTS: CGP was successful for 49/63 archival specimens (78%), and revealed aberrations impacting genes including B2M , TP53 , and XPO1 (E571)...
August 14, 2018: Oncologist
Sally S Chan, Thomas H Gindling, Nancy A Miller
PURPOSE: This study examined the impact of the 2010 Affordable Care Act's dependent coverage provision on gaps in insurance coverage for young adults with special healthcare needs (YASHCN). METHODS: We used the 2008 Survey on Income and Program Participation, a longitudinal survey covering 2008-2013. Our sample was comprised of 3,316 YASHCN ages 19-29. We used a difference-in-difference regression approach to assess the effect of the dependent coverage provision on the probability that a YASHCN experienced a gap in insurance coverage...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Elissa M Schechter-Perkins, Patricia M Mitchell, Kerrie P Nelson, James H Liu, Angela Shannon, Jean Ahern, Beverley Orr, Nancy S Miller
INTRODUCTION: Availability of anti-viral agents and need to isolate infected patients increases the need to confirm the diagnosis of influenza before determining patient disposition. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine if time-to-disposition (TTD) was shorter among patients tested for influenza using an Emergency Department (ED) Point-of-care (POC) test compared to core laboratory (lab) test and to determine difference in antibiotic use between groups. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a convenience sample of ED patients for whom influenza testing was ordered during influenza season 2017...
August 7, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Quin R S Miller, Eugene S Ilton, Odeta Qafoku, David A Dixon, Monica Vasiliu, Christopher J Thompson, Herbert Todd Schaef, Kevin M Rosso, John S Loring
Reaction pathways and kinetics in highly structured H2O adsorbed as Ångstroms to nanometers thick layers on mineral surfaces are distinct from those facilitated by bulk liquid water. We investigate the role of interfacial H2O structure in the reaction of H2O and CO2 to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) in thin H2O films condensed onto silica nanoparticles from humidified supercritical CO2. Rates of carbonic acid formation are correlated to spectroscopic signatures of H2O structure using oxygen isotopic tracers and infrared spectroscopy...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
M Craig Miller, Peggy S Robinson, Christopher Wagner, Daniel J O'Shannessy
Cancer cells from solid tumors can enter the circulatory system and survive to subsequently form distant metastases. The CellSearch® system (Menarini-Silicon Biosystems, Huntingdon Valley, PA) was the first, FDA-cleared system that provided a reliable tool for the investigation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which have been shown to be strongly associated with poor survival and therapy failure. Since that time, a number of new technologies have been introduced to improve CTC detection and/or isolation for further characterization...
August 14, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Erika Hoff, Meredith L Rowe, Catherine S Tamis-LeMonda, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek
Sperry, Sperry, and Miller (2018) aim to debunk what is called the 30-million-word gap by claiming that children from lower income households hear more speech than Hart and Risley () reported. We address why the 30-million-word gap should not be abandoned, and the importance of retaining focus on the vital ingredient to language learning-quality speech directed to children rather than overheard speech, the focus of Sperry et al.'s argument. Three issues are addressed: Whether there is a language gap; the characteristics of speech that promote language development; and the importance of language in school achievement...
August 13, 2018: Child Development
Aneesha Varrey, Roberto Romero, Bogdan Panaitescu, Derek Miller, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Manasi Patwardhan, Jonathan Faro, Percy Pacora, Sonia S Hassan, Chaur-Dong Hsu, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
PROBLEM: Human β-defensins (HBDs) are antimicrobial peptides that participate in the soluble innate immune mechanisms against infection. Herein, we determined whether HBD-1 was present in amniotic fluid during normal pregnancy and whether its concentrations change with intra-amniotic inflammation and/or infection. METHOD OF STUDY: Amniotic fluid was collected from 219 women in the following groups: (a) midtrimester who delivered at term (n = 35); (b) term with (n = 33) or without (n = 17) labor; (c) preterm labor with intact membranes who delivered at term (n = 29) or who delivered preterm with (n = 19) and without (n = 29) intra-amniotic inflammation and infection or with intra-amniotic inflammation but without infection (n = 21); and (d) preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (pPROM) with (n = 19) and without (n = 17) intra-amniotic inflammation/infection...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Ben A Potter, James F Baichtal, Alwynne B Beaudoin, Lars Fehren-Schmitz, C Vance Haynes, Vance T Holliday, Charles E Holmes, John W Ives, Robert L Kelly, Bastien Llamas, Ripan S Malhi, D Shane Miller, David Reich, Joshua D Reuther, Stephan Schiffels, Todd A Surovell
Some recent academic and popular literature implies that the problem of the colonization of the Americas has been largely resolved in favor of one specific model: a Pacific coastal migration, dependent on high marine productivity, from the Bering Strait to South America, thousands of years before Clovis, the earliest widespread cultural manifestation south of the glacial ice. Speculations on maritime adaptations and typological links (stemmed points) across thousands of kilometers have also been advanced. A review of the current genetic, archeological, and paleoecological evidence indicates that ancestral Native American population expansion occurred after 16,000 years ago, consistent with the archeological record, particularly with the earliest securely dated sites after ~15,000 years ago...
August 2018: Science Advances
Brandon S Baksh, Namita Sinha, Afshin Salehi, Rowland H Han, Brandon A Miller, Sonika Dahiya, Karen M Gauvain, David D Limbrick
BACKGROUND: Choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) is a rare, malignant tumor occurring more commonly in children than adults. This case report describes the clinical course of a 3-year-old boy with a rare case of metastatic CPC with a novel TP53 mutation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 3-year-old boy presented with post-concussive symptoms after a fall. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed lesions in the suprasellar cistern, left lateral ventricle and cauda equina...
August 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Andrea L Johnstone, Jiaqi J O'Reilly, Annika J Patel, Zhihong Guo, Nadja S Andrade, Marco Magistri, Lubov Nathanson, Rustam Esanov, Brooke H Miller, Gustavo Turecki, Shaun P Brothers, Zane Zeier, Claes Wahlestedt
BACKGROUND: With the capacity to modulate gene networks in an environmentally-sensitive manner, the role of epigenetic systems in mental disorders has come under intense investigation. Dysregulation of epigenetic effectors, including microRNAs and histone-modifying enzymes, may better explain the role of environmental risk factors and the observed heritability rate that cannot be fully attributed to known genetic risk alleles. Here, we aimed to identify novel epigenetic targets of the schizophrenia-associated microRNA 132 (miR-132)...
August 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
N E Akalan, G Karaca, A Apti, S Kuchimov, F Bilgili, Y Temelli, F Miller, G Leblebici, K Onerge, G Erturk, H Evrendilek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Margaret Ragland, Katrina F Trivers, C Holly A Andrilla, Barbara Matthews, Jacqueline Miller, Denise Lishner, Barbara Goff, Laura-Mae Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: Routine ovarian cancer screening is ineffective; therefore, no professional organization recommends this screening in asymptomatic patients. However, many physicians have recommended screening, exposing patients to unnecessary risk. Little research exists on how nonprofessional experience with cancer influences physicians' screening practices. This study examines the association between physicians' nonprofessional experience with cancer and reported adherence to ovarian cancer screening guidelines...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Jingjing Jia, Edward R White, Adam J Clancy, Noelia Rubio Carrero, Theo Suter, Thomas S Miller, Paul M McMillan, Veronika Brázdová, Furio Corà, Chris A Howard, Cecilia Mattevi, Milo Shaffer
2D layered graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets offer tunable electronic and chemical properties. However, exfoliation and functionalisation of gCN for specific applications remains challenging. We report a scalable one-pot reductive method to produce solutions of single and few layer 2D gCN nanosheets with excellent stability in a high mass yield (35%) from polytriazine imide. High resolution imaging confirms the intact crystalline structure and identifies an AB stacking. The first successful deliberate organic functionalisation of dissolved gCN is illustrated, providing a general route to adjust their properties...
August 10, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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