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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670912/the-effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-glucose-metabolism-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-goto-kakizaki-rats
#1
Laiyuan Li, Xiaolin Wang, Liangliang Bai, Huichuan Yu, Zenghong Huang, Anpei Huang, Yanxin Luo, Jianping Wang
Purpose: To investigate the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on glucose metabolism and changes in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Methods: GK rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: SG, SG pair-fed plus sham surgery (PF-sham), and ad libitum-fed no surgery (control). Food intake, body weight, blood glucose, GLP-1 and insulin levels, and GLP-1 expression in the jejunum and ileum were compared. Results: The SG rats exhibited lower postoperative food intake, body weight, and fasting glucose than did the control rats ( P < 0...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668924/dietary-protein-reduction-on-microbial-protein-amino-acids-digestibility-and-body-retention-in-beef-cattle-1-digestibility-sites-and-ruminal-synthesis-estimated-by-purine-bases-and-15n-as-markers
#2
L D S Mariz, P M Amaral, S C Valadares Filho, S A Santos, M I Marcondes, L F Prados, M V C Pacheco, D Zanetti, G C C Menezes, A P Faciola
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of reducing dietary CP contents on (1) total and partial nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance, and (2) on microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis and true MCP digestibility in the small intestine obtained with 15N and purine bases (PB) in beef cattle. Eight bulls (4 Nellore and 4 Crossbred Angus × Nellore) cannulated in the rumen and ileum were distributed in duplicated 4 4 Latin squares. The diets consisted of increasing CP contents: 100, 120, or 140 g CP/kg DM offered ad libitum, and restricted intake diet (RI) with 120 g CP/kg DM...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667911/experimental-heat-stress-nephropathy-and-liver-injury-are-improved-by-allopurinol
#3
Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Yuka Sato, Tamara Milagres, Ana Andres-Hernando, Gabriela E Garcia, Petter Bjornstad, Jaime Butler-Dawson, Cecilia Sorensen, Lee Newman, Lyndsay Krisher, Magdalena Madero, Jason Glaser, Ramon Garcia-Trabannino, Emmanuel Jarquin-Romero, Zhilin Song, Thomas Jensen, Masanari Kuwabara, Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe, Laura-Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been observed in Central America among workers in the sugarcane fields. One hypothesis is that the CKD may be caused by recurrent heat stress and dehydration, and potentially by hyperuricemia. Accordingly, we developed a murine model of kidney injury associated with recurrent heat stress. In the current experiment, we tested whether treatment with allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that reduces serum urate) provides renal protection against recurrent heat stress and dehydration...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664132/dialium-seed-coprophagy-in-wild-western-gorillas-multiple-nutritional-benefits-and-toxicity-reduction-hypotheses
#4
Shelly Masi, Thomas Breuer
Unraveling the relationship between the unusual feeding behaviors and the nutritional intake of endangered species may provide crucial information for understanding species response to habitat unpredictable changes. Primates occasionally re-ingest fruit seeds alongside ingestion of feces, a behavior called coprophagy. The nutritional benefit is one of the several non-mutual exclusive hypotheses proposed to explain this behavior. We investigated the ecological correlates of coprophagy in wild western gorillas...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663832/therapeutic-role-of-calcium-and-vitamin-k3-in-chemically-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis-new-tools-for-cancer-treatment
#5
Firoz Anwar, Ruqaiyah Khan, Richa Sachan, Imran Kazmi, Alisha Rawat, Abdullah Sabih, Rajbala Singh, Muhammad Afzal, Aftab Ahmad, Abdulaziz S Al-Orab, F A Al-Abbasi, Prakash Chandra Bhatt, Vikas Kumar
HCC has been reported to be immensely occurring carcinoma worldwide. Recent days the mortality occurred due to liver cancer has also been found to be increased at an alarming speed affecting mostly the young patients. The aim of the current study was to decipher the role of calcium and vitamin K3 in the treatment of chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the male Wistar rats. Liver cancer was induced via a subnecrogenic dose of 160 mg/kg body weight, diethylnitrosamine (DENA) when associated with fasting/refeeding in male Wistar rats...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659960/obese-mice-losing-weight-due-to-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-or-food-restriction-harbor-distinct-gut-microbiota
#6
Laura J den Hartigh, Zhan Gao, Leela Goodspeed, Shari Wang, Arun K Das, Charles F Burant, Alan Chait, Martin J Blaser
Background: trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12-CLA) is a dietary supplement that promotes weight loss by increasing fat oxidation and energy expenditure. We previously reported that in the absence of t10,c12-CLA, mice forced to lose equivalent body weight by food restriction (FR) do not exhibit increases in fat oxidation or energy expenditure but have improved glucose metabolism, consistent with FR as a metabolically healthy weight-loss method. Objective: Because diet is a primary determinant of gut bacterial populations, we hypothesized that the disparate metabolic effects accompanying weight loss from t10,c12-CLA or FR could be related to altered intestinal microbiota...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658313/metabonomic-analysis-of-toxic-action-of-long-term-low-level-exposure-to-acrylamide-in-rat-serum
#7
C Cao, H Shi, M Zhang, L Bo, L Hu, S Li, S Chen, S Jia, Y J Liu, Y L Liu, X Zhao, L Zhang
This study assessed the effects of long-term, low-dose acrylamide (AA) administration in rats using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: control, low-dose AA (0.2 mg/kg BW), middle-dose AA (1 mg/kg BW), and high-dose AA (5 mg/kg BW). AA was administered to rats via drinking water ad libitum. After 16-week treatment, rat serum was collected for metabonomic analysis. Biochemical tests were further conducted to verify metabolic alterations...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658290/dietary-restriction-slightly-affects-glucose-homeostasis-and-delays-plasma-cholesterol-removal-in-rabbits-with-dietary-lipid-lowering
#8
Qi Yu, Ruihan Liu, Lijuan Han, Guangwei Zhang, Hua Guan, Qi Pan, Siwang Wang, Enqi Liu
Dietary restriction (DR) has been reported to promote the beneficial effects on atherosclerotic progression, lipid and glucose metabolism, but little is known about these effects can be enhanced or weakened by dietary lipid lowering. After 12 weeks of the high-cholesterol diet (HCD) feeding, hypercholesterolemic rabbits were fed with either a chow diet ad libitum (AL) or a chow diet with DR for 16 weeks of dietary lipid lowering. Here, we found the DR group exhibited a loss in body weight, small internal organs and the reduced fat mass, but the AL group accumulated more subcutaneous fat than the baseline group...
April 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655564/feeding-reduced-fat-dried-distillers-grains-with-solubles-to-lactating-holstein-dairy-cows-does-not-alter-milk-composition-or-cause-late-blowing-in-cheese
#9
E D Testroet, D C Beitz, M R O'Neil, A L Mueller, H A Ramirez-Ramirez, S Clark
Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to lactating dairy cows has been implicated as a cause of late blowing defects in the production of Swiss-style cheeses. Our objectives were (1) to test the effect of feeding reduced-fat DDGS (RF-DDGS; ∼6% fat) to lactating dairy cows on the composition of milk and on the suitability of the milk for production of baby Swiss cheese and (2) to evaluate the effect of diet on cow lactation performance. Lactating Holstein dairy cows were fed both dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 crossover design...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655558/effects-of-feeding-milk-replacer-at-2-rates-with-pelleted-low-starch-or-texturized-high-starch-starters-on-calf-performance-and-digestion
#10
J D Quigley, T M Hill, T S Dennis, F X Suarez-Mena, R L Schlotterbeck
Milk replacer (MR) feeding programs have traditionally fed at less than ad libitum amounts to promote calf starter (CS) intake and allow early weaning. More recently, increased amounts of MR preweaning have been shown to increase preweaning ADG, although postweaning growth may be reduced. Several studies suggest that limited postweaning digestion of nutrients in CS may contribute to postweaning growth impairment. It is not clear whether CS formulation might also contribute to differences in postweaning nutrient digestion when calves are fed different MR programs...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655555/effects-of-treatment-of-preweaning-dairy-calves-with-recombinant-bovine-somatotropin-on-immune-responses-and-somatotropic-axis
#11
A L Belli, R B Reis, A Veronese, R Moreira, K Flanagan, J Driver, C D Nelson, J A Clapper, M A Ballou, K C Jeong, R C Chebel
Weaning may be associated with negative energy balance and body weight loss when calves are still immunologically immature, predisposing them to infectious diseases. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of treatment of preweaning dairy calves with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on the somatotropic axis, selected immune parameters, and hematology of calves around weaning. Thirty-six Holstein female calves were randomly assigned to receive 1.5 to 1.8 mg of rbST (Posilac, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) per kilogram of body weight or to receive injections of saline (saline solution 0...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649320/strychnos-pseudoquina-modulates-the-morphological-reorganization-of-the-scar-tissue-of-second-intention-cutaneous-wounds-in-rats
#12
Mariáurea Matias Sarandy, Lyvia Lopes Miranda, Luciana Schulthais Altoé, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Virgínia Vinha Zanuncio, João Paulo Viana Leite, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves
Natural substances are used in folk medicines to treat injuries. Strychnos pseudoquina has scarring, antipyretic, and antimalarial actions. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of S. pseudoquina on cutaneous wound healing in rats. The S. pseudoquina extract was submitted to phytochemical prospection. The levels of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds in the extract were 50.7 mg/g and 2.59 mg/g, respectively. Thirty Wistar rats were individualized in cages with food and water ad libitum (registration no...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642681/the-effect-of-nutrition-and-body-condition-of-triplet-bearing-ewes-during-late-pregnancy-on-the-behaviour-of-ewes-and-lambs
#13
Gabriella V Gronqvist, Rene A Corner-Thomas, Paul R Kenyon, Kevin J Stafford, Stephen T Morris, Rebecca Edith Hickson
Objective: Triplet-born lambs are less likely to survive to weaning than twin-born or single-born lambs. Appropriate ewe-lamb bonding behaviours and lamb vigour behaviours are necessary for survival of lambs. The aim of this experiment was to determine whether maternal nutrition during late pregnancy influenced behaviour of the ewe and her lambs soon after birth, and to determine whether mid-pregnancy body condition score (BCS) influenced any behavioural response. Methods: The experiments included ewes that were in BCS 2...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642371/fairness-based-tasks-for-assessing-children-s-perceptions-of-food-quantities-and-associations-with-portion-selection
#14
Aurore Ferrage, Lisa R Fries, Nicolas Godinot, David Labbe, Nathalie Martin
It is critical to develop ecologically valid experimental methods to assess consumers' food-related behaviors. Ad libitum approaches are often used but may not be appropriate for studies with children or with products that are not typically consumed until the individual feels full. The current study presents novel methods to assess children's size perception and portion preference for gummy candies. In the first study, 62 children (30 boys, 32 girls) aged 6 to 9 years completed two matching tasks: one using pictures on a computer screen, and a similar task where the products were physically manipulated...
April 6, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627377/fgf21-a-liver-hormone-that-inhibits-alcohol-intake-in-mice-increases-in-human-circulation-after-acute-alcohol-ingestion-and-sustained-binge-drinking-at-oktoberfest
#15
Susanna Søberg, Emilie S Andersen, Niels B Dalgaard, Ida Jarlhelt, Nina L Hansen, Nina Hoffmann, Tina Vilsbøll, Anne Chenchar, Michal Jensen, Trisha J Grevengoed, Sam A J Trammell, Filip K Knop, Matthew P Gillum
OBJECTIVE: Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. However, knowledge of the biological factors that influence ad libitum alcohol intake may be incomplete. Two large studies recently linked variants in the KLB locus with levels of alcohol intake in humans. KLB encodes β-klotho, co-receptor for the liver-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). In mice, FGF21 reduces alcohol intake, and human Fgf21 variants are enriched among heavy drinkers...
March 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623407/adding-sleep-restriction-to-the-equation-impact-on-wildland-firefighters-work-performance-and-physiology-in-hot-conditions
#16
Grace E Vincent, Sally Ferguson, Brianna Larsen, Nicola D Ridgers, Rod Snow, Brad Aisbett
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of sleep restriction on firefighters' physical task performance, physical activity, and physiological and perceived exertion during simulated hot wildfire conditions. METHODS: 31 firefighters were randomly allocated to either the hot (n = 18, HOT; 33 °C, 8-h sleep opportunity) or hot and sleep restricted (n = 13, HOT + SR; 33 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) condition. Intermittent, self-paced work circuits of six firefighting tasks were performed for 3 days...
April 6, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621327/effects-of-feed-allowance-and-indispensable-amino-acid-reduction-on-feed-intake-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-growing-pigs
#17
Stefano Schiavon, Mirco Dalla Bona, Giuseppe Carcò, Luca Carraro, Lutz Bunger, Luigi Gallo
The hypothesis that pigs placed on diets with reduced indispensable amino acid (AA) content attempts to offset the reduction in the nutrient density with increased feed intake was tested. In the experiment, feeds with a high or a low AA content were administrated to pigs fed ad-libitum or restrictively according to a 2 × 2 factorial design. Ninety-six barrows were housed in 8 pens (12 pigs/pen) equipped with automatic feeders. Within pen, and from 47 body weight (BW) onwards, 6 pigs were fed ad libitum. The others pigs were allowed to consume, as a maximum, the feed amounts indicated by the breeding company feeding plane to optimize the feed efficiency...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620688/effects-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-on-spontaneous-seizures-and-neuronal-viability-in-a-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Shaun E Gruenbaum, Roni Dhaher, Amedeo Rapuano, Hitten P Zaveri, Amber Tang, Nihal de Lanerolle, Tore Eid
BACKGROUND: The essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine have recently emerged as a potential novel treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. Blood-derived BCAAs can readily enter the brain, where they contribute to glutamate biosynthesis and may either suppress or trigger acute seizures. However, the effects of BCAAs on chronic (ie, spontaneous recurrent) seizures and epilepsy-associated neuron loss are incompletely understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen rats with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were randomized into 2 groups that could drink, ad libitum, either a 4% solution of BCAAs in water (n=8) or pure water (n=8)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618984/leptin-intake-at-physiological-doses-throughout-lactation-in-male-wistar-rats-normalizes-the-decreased-density-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactive-fibers-in-the-stomach-caused-by-mild-gestational-calorie-restriction
#19
Nara Szostaczuk, Juana Sánchez, Jadwiga Konieczna, Andreu Palou, Catalina Picó
Introduction: Gestational under nutrition in rats has been shown to decrease expression of sympathetic innervation markers in peripheral tissues of offspring, including the stomach. This has been linked to lower gastric secretion and decreased circulating levels of ghrelin. Considering the critical role of leptin intake during lactation in preventing obesity and reversing adverse developmental programming effects, we aimed to find out whether leptin supplementation may reverse the above mentioned alterations caused by mild gestational calorie restriction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617868/responses-in-the-rumen-microbiome-of-bos-taurus-and-indicus-steers-fed-a-low-quality-rice-straw-diet-and-supplemented-protein
#20
E A Latham, K K Weldon, T A Wickersham, J A Coverdale, W E Pinchak
Bos indicus typically perform better than Bos taurus when consuming a low-quality diet; however, the response to supplementation is generally greater in B. taurus. The underlying mechanisms supporting these responses have not been fully elucidated. Characterization of differences in rumen prokaryotic populations and their functional role in the two subspecies may provide additional insight. Ten cannulated steers (5 Angus and 5 Brahman) were used in concurrent 5 × 5 Latin squares. Animals were offered ad libitum access to rice straw (4...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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