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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031552/agrp-knockdown-blocks-long-term-appetitive-but-not-consummatory-feeding-behaviors-in-siberian-hamsters
#1
REVIEW
M Alex Thomas, Vy Tran, Vitaly Ryu, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
Arcuate hypothalamus-derived agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are critical for maintaining energy homeostasis. Fasting markedly upregulates AgRP/NPY expression and circulating ghrelin, and exogenous ghrelin treatment robustly increases acute food foraging and food intake, and chronic food hoarding behaviors in Siberian hamsters. We previously demonstrated that 3rd ventricular AgRP injection robustly stimulates acute and chronic food hoarding, largely independent of food foraging and intake...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031545/social-modeling-of-eating-mediated-by-mirror-neuron-activity-a-causal-model-moderated-by-frontal-asymmetry-and-bmi
#2
Laura McGeown, Ron Davis
The social modeling of eating effect refers to the consistently demonstrated phenomenon that individuals tend to match their quantity of food intake to their eating companion. The current study sought to explore whether activity within the mirror neuron system (MNS) mediates the social modeling of eating effect as a function of EEG frontal asymmetry and body mass index (BMI). Under the guise of rating empathy, 93 female undergraduates viewed a female video confederate "incidentally" consume either a low or high intake of chips while electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was recorded...
October 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029389/a-ketogenic-diet-supplemented-with-medium-chain-triglycerides-enhances-the-anti-tumor-and-anti-angiogenic-efficacy-of-chemotherapy-on-neuroblastoma-xenografts-in-a-cd1-nu-mouse-model
#3
Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, René Günther Feichtinger, Silvia Vidali, Felix Locker, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnel, Andrea Stöger-Kleiber, Johannes Adalbert Mayr, Wolfgang Sperl, Barbara Kofler
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric malignancy characterized by a marked reduction in aerobic energy metabolism. Recent preclinical data indicate that targeting this metabolic phenotype by a ketogenic diet (KD), especially in combination with calorie restriction, slows tumor growth and enhances metronomic cyclophosphamide (CP) therapy of NB xenografts. Because calorie restriction would be contraindicated in most cancer patients, the aim of the present study was to optimize the KD such that the tumors are sensitized to CP without the need of calorie restriction...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029202/a-metabolomic-signature-of-acute-caloric-restriction
#4
Tinh-Hai Collet, Takuhiro Sonoyama, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Brian Ingram, Sarah Kelway, Lining Guo, I Sadaf Farooqi
Context: The experimental paradigm of acute caloric restriction followed by refeeding can be used to study the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate energy homeostasis, which are relevant to understanding the adaptive response to weight loss. Objective: Metabolomics, the measurement of hundreds of small molecule metabolites, their precursors, derivatives, and degradation products, has emerged as a useful tool for the study of physiology and disease and was used here to study the metabolic response to acute caloric restriction...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028359/complex-interaction-between-circadian-rhythm-and-diet-on-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-rats
#5
Hannah M Eggink, Johanneke E Oosterman, Paul de Goede, Emmely M de Vries, Ewout Foppen, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Anita Boelen, Johannes A Romijn, Susanne E la Fleur, Maarten R Soeters, Andries Kalsbeek
Desynchronization between the master clock in the brain, which is entrained by (day) light, and peripheral organ clocks, which are mainly entrained by food intake, may have negative effects on energy metabolism. Bile acid metabolism follows a clear day/night rhythm. We investigated whether in rats on a normal chow diet the daily rhythm of plasma bile acids and hepatic expression of bile acid metabolic genes is controlled by the light/dark cycle or the feeding/fasting rhythm. In addition, we investigated the effects of high caloric diets and time-restricted feeding on daily rhythms of plasma bile acids and hepatic genes involved in bile acid synthesis...
October 13, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027698/buffalo-heifers-selected-for-lower-residual-feed-intake-have-lower-feed-intake-better-dietary-nitrogen-utilisation-and-reduced-enteric-methane-production
#6
V K Sharma, S S Kundu, C Datt, S Prusty, M Kumar, U B Sontakke
This study was conducted to evaluate the utilisation of the residual feed intake (RFI) as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with methane emissions. Eighteen Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers were fed ad libitum with total mixed ration (TMR) for 120 days. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size (MBW(0.75) ), heifers were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.09 to +0.12 kg DM/day with average RFI of -0...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027098/voluntary-feed-intake-and-growth-performance-of-slow-growing-pigs-fed-on-increasing-levels-of-ensiled-potato-hash-meal
#7
C N Ncobela, A T Kanengoni, R S Thomas, M Chimonyo
The objective of the study was to determine voluntary feed intake and growth performance of Windsnyer pigs fed on increasing levels of potato hash silage meal. Thirty-six growing Windsnyer pigs (19 kg ± 5.59) (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) were individually and randomly assigned to six experimental diets containing 0, 80, 160, 240, 320 and 400 g/kg DM of potato hash silage. Diets containing the potato hash silage were formulated using diet dilution method from 0 g/kg and 400 g/kg. Six pigs were fed on each diet ad libitum for 6 weeks...
October 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026096/plane-of-nutrition-affects-the-phylogenetic-diversity-and-relative-abundance-of-transcriptionally-active-methanogens-in-the-bovine-rumen
#8
Emily McGovern, Matthew S McCabe, Paul Cormican, Milka Popova, Kate Keogh, Alan K Kelly, David A Kenny, Sinead M Waters
Methane generated during enteric fermentation in ruminant livestock species is a major contributor to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. A period of moderate feed restriction followed by ad libitum access to feed is widely applied in cattle management to exploit the animal's compensatory growth potential and reduce feed costs. In the present study, we utilised microbial RNA from rumen digesta samples to assess the phylogenetic diversity of transcriptionally active methanogens from feed-restricted and non-restricted animals...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024089/macronutrient-intake-of-dogs-self-selecting-diets-varying-in-composition-offered-ad-libitum
#9
M T Roberts, E N Bermingham, N J Cave, W Young, C M McKenzie, D G Thomas
The diet of the domestic dog has changed significantly from that of its wolf ancestor, with to date only two studies having examined macronutrient self-selection in dogs. Whilst the first focused solely on protein intake, determining an intake of 30% metabolisable energy (ME), the second investigated dietary protein, fat and carbohydrate (PFC), indicating an intake ratio of 30:63:7% by energy. This study's aim was to further elucidate macronutrient intake by providing greater macronutrient range, energy content, and to investigate over a longer duration than previous studies...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023952/pharmacokinetics-and-electrophysiological-effects-of-sotalol-hydrochloride-in-horses
#10
B Broux, D De Clercq, A Decloedt, L Vera, M Devreese, R Gehring, S Croubels, G van Loon
BACKGROUND: Arrhythmias in horses may require long term anti-arrhythmic therapy. Unfortunately, oral anti-arrhythmic drugs for use in horses are currently scarce. In human patients and small animals, sotalol, a β-blocker with class III anti-arrhythmic properties, is often used for long-term treatment. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pharmacokinetics of sotalol at multiple oral dosages in unfasted horses, as well as the effects on electro- and echocardiographic measurements, right atrial and ventricular monophasic action potential (MAP) and effective refractory period (ERP)...
October 10, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022100/sea-buckthorn-decreases-and-delays-insulin-response-and-improves-glycaemic-profile-following-a-sucrose-containing-berry-meal-a-randomised-controlled-crossover-study-of-danish-sea-buckthorn-and-strawberries-in-overweight-and-obese-male-subjects
#11
Maria Wichmann Mortensen, Camilla Spagner, Cătălina Cuparencu, Arne Astrup, Anne Raben, Lars Ove Dragsted
PURPOSE: Berries and mixed berry products exert acute effects on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, but very few berries have been studied, and primarily in normal weight subjects. Sea buckthorn and strawberry are compositionally widely different berries and may likely produce different responses. The effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia were examined in overweight or obese male subjects. Subjective appetite sensations and ad libitum intake were also examined...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021371/consumption-of-a-double-fortified-salt-affects-perceptual-attentional-and-mnemonic-functioning-in-women-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-india
#12
Michael J Wenger, Laura E Murray-Kolb, Julie Eh Nevins, Sudha Venkatramanan, Gregory A Reinhart, Annie Wesley, Jere D Haas
Background: Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia have been shown to have negative effects on aspects of perception, attention, and memory.Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to assess the extent to which increases in dietary iron consumption are related to improvements in behavioral measures of perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic function.Methods: Women were selected from a randomized, double-blind, controlled food-fortification trial involving ad libitum consumption of either a double-fortified salt (DFS) containing 47 mg potassium iodate/kg and 3...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021272/combined-salt-and-caloric-restrictions-potential-adverse-outcomes
#13
Tsuyoshi Homma, Mika Homma, Yuefei Huang, Korapat Mayurasakorn, Nurul Mahamad Rodi, Anis Amalina Abdul Hamid, Shelley Hurwitz, Tham Yao, Gail K Adler, Luminita H Pojoga, Gordon H Williams, Jose R Romero
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that caloric restriction (CR) and salt restriction (ResS) would have similar effects on reducing cardiovascular risk markers and that combining CR and ResS would be synergistic in modulating these markers. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test our hypothesis, rats were randomized into 2 groups: ad libitum liberal salt diet (ad libitum/high-sodium, 1.6% sodium) or ResS diet (ad libitum/ResS, 0.03% sodium). CR was initiated in half of the rats in each group by reducing caloric intake to 60% while maintaining sodium intake constant (CR/high-sodium, 2...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019954/weight-loss-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-should-we-consider-individualised-qualitative-ad-libitum-diets-a-narrative-review-and-case-study
#14
Capizzi Irene, Teta Luigi, Vigotti Federica Neve, Tognarelli Giuliana, Consiglio Valentina, Scognamiglio Stefania, Piccoli Giorgina Barbara
In advanced chronic kidney disease, obesity may bring a survival advantage, but many transplant centres demand weight loss before wait-listing for kidney graft. The case here described regards a 71-year-old man, with obesity-related glomerulopathy; referral data were: weight 110 kg, Body Mass Index (BMI) 37 kg/m², serum creatinine (sCr) 5 mg/dL, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 23 mL/min, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 75 mg/dL, proteinuria 2.3 g/day. A moderately restricted, low-protein diet allowed reduction in BUN (45-55 mg/dL) and good metabolic and kidney function stability, with a weight increase of 6 kg...
October 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016721/no-impact-of-calorie-or-unit-information-on-ad-libitum-alcohol-consumption
#15
Olivia M Maynard, Tess Langfield, Angela S Attwood, Emily Allen, Imogen Drew, Alex Votier, Marcus R Munafò
Aims: To investigate the impact of unit and calorie information on drinking behaviour in an ad libitum taste test paradigm. Methods: In this experimental human laboratory study, participants were randomized to one of four conditions, balanced by gender, using a 2 (unit information: present vs. absent) × 2 (calorie information: present vs. absent) between-subjects design. The percentage of beer consumed during the taste test was the primary outcome measure. Results: Among this largely undergraduate student population, we found no evidence that either unit or calorie information impacted alcohol consumption in an ad libitum taste test...
September 18, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993009/fenugreek-galactomannan-and-citrus-pectin-improve-several-parameters-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-and-modulate-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#16
Miriam G Shtriker, Michal Hahn, Elise Taieb, Abraham Nyska, Uzi Moallem, Oren Tirosh, Zecharia Madar
OBJECTIVE: Galactomannans derived from fenugreek confer known health benefits; however, there is little information regarding health benefits of citrus pectin (CP) and its association with gut microbiome metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine links between galactomannan and CP consumption, microbiota development, and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Male C57 BL/6 J mice ages 7 to 8 wk were fed ad libitum with a normal diet or one supplemented with 15% of either galactomannan or CP...
August 3, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992903/use-of-purina-pro-plan-veterinary-diet-ur-urinary-st-ox-to-dissolve-struvite-cystoliths
#17
Camille Torres-Henderson, Jamie Bunkers, Elena T Contreras, Emily Cross, Michael R Lappin
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of feeding the commercially available diet, Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets UR Urinary St/Ox, for the dissolution of struvite cystoliths in cats with naturally occurring disease. Twelve cats with clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease and cystoliths confirmed via radiographs were enrolled. The cats were fed the study diet ad libitum and assessed by abdominal radiographs weekly. Cats with cystoliths that resolved based on radiographs and confirmatory ultrasound examination were considered diet successes...
June 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992386/interaction-between-the-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-gene-and-the-number-of-heavy-drinking-peers-on-alcohol-use
#18
Michelle J Zaso, Stephen A Maisto, Stephen J Glatt, John M Belote, Aesoon Park
BACKGROUND: The presence of heavy drinking peers may trigger genetic vulnerabilities to alcohol use. Limited correlational findings, albeit mixed as a function of age, suggest that carriers of a μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) G allele may be more vulnerable than noncarriers to alcohol-promoting perceived peer environments. However, research has not yet examined such genetic susceptibility to actual (rather than perceived) peer environments through an experimental, ad libitum alcohol administration design...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992103/maternal-programming-of-body-weight-in-syrian-hamsters
#19
Jeremy M Brozek, Jill E Schneider, Erin Rhinehart
Maternal programming of offspring energy balance has been viewed as an adaptation in which the gestational environment prepares the offspring to thrive and reproduce in that same postnatal environment. Programming might have the opposite effect, however, when gestational and postnatal environments are mismatched. Gestational programming would represent a trade-off if the mother can maximize fitness in one possible energetic future but cannot maximize fitness in another. The vast majority of research concerns rats, mice, or sheep, and dams are typically food restricted by 30-70% of ad libitum intake resulting in low birth weight and adult obesity in offspring...
September 14, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992017/digestible-metabolizable-and-net-energy-of-camelina-cake-fed-to-growing-pigs-and-additivity-of-energy-in-mixed-diets
#20
J W Kim, B Koo, C M Nyachoti
This experiment was conducted to determine the DE, ME, and NE contents of camelina cake (CC) and to test the hypothesis that dietary glucosinolates originating from CC will affect the additivity of energy in mixed diets containing different inclusion levels of corn, soybean meal (SBM), and CC. A total of 30 growing barrows ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) with a mean BW of 16.8 kg (SD 1.4) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 16 d, including 10 d for adaptation and 6 d for total collection of feces and urine...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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