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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819730/creep-feeding-effects-on-male-nellore-calves-influencing-behavior-and-performance-of-their-dams
#1
Leandro Soares Martins, Mário Fonseca Paulino, Luciana Navajas Rennó, Edenio Detmann, Daniel Mageste de Almeida, Roman Maza Ortega, Deilen Paff Sotelo Moreno, Javier Enrique Garces Cárdenas
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different schemes of calves' supplementation in a creep feeding system, on the behavior of Bos indicus calves and dams, and also the influence of the calves' supplementation on dams' performance. Forty-eight Nellore male calves (147 ± 7 kg body weight and 3 months of age) in the suckling phase and their dams (476 ± 9 kg and 6 years of age) were studied in a completely randomized design. The experiment was divided into two periods of 71 days...
August 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818158/adverse-effects-of-caffeine-on-development-of-femur-of-balb-c-mice-and-protective-role-of-vitamin-d3
#2
Maimoona Khan, Shadab Ahmed Butt
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on the development of femur and role of vitamin D3 in preventing these effects in BALB/c mice. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, in cooperation with NIH (National Institute of Health), Islamabad, from October 2014 to October 2015. METHODOLOGY: Thirty (100%) BALB/c mice, 50% male and female each, three weeks old, weighing 12-14 grams were taken and divided equally and randomly into three groups, each having 10 (33...
July 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817066/consistency-of-eating-rate-oral-processing-behaviours-and-energy-intake-across-meals
#3
Keri McCrickerd, Ciaran G Forde
Faster eating has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and the current study tested whether eating rate is consistent within an individual and linked to energy intake across multiple meals. Measures of ad libitum intake, eating rate, and oral processing at the same or similar test meal were recorded on four non-consecutive days for 146 participants (117 male, 29 female) recruited across four separate studies. All the meals were video recorded, and oral processing behaviours were derived through behavioural coding...
August 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814530/a-high-fat-diet-decreases-bone-mass-in-growing-mice-with-systemic-chronic-inflammation-induced-by-low-dose-slow-release-lipopolysaccharide-pellets
#4
Jay J Cao, Brian R Gregoire, Chwan-Li Shen
Background: Chronic inflammation is associated with increased bone resorption and is linked to osteopenia, or low bone mass. Obesity is also associated with low-grade chronic upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.Objective: This study investigated the effect of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity on bone structure changes in growing mice with existing systemic chronic inflammation induced by low-dose, slow-release lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods: Forty-eight 6-wk-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 12/group) in a 2 × 2 factorial design-control (placebo) or LPS treatment (1...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813611/intrauterine-growth-restricted-yucatan-miniature-pigs-experience-early-catch-up-growth-leading-to-greater-adiposity-and-impaired-lipid-metabolism-as-young-adults
#5
Semone B Myrie, Leslie L McKnight, J Christopher King, John J McGuire, Bruce N Van Vliet, Sukhinder K Cheema, Robert F Bertolo
Early nutrition has critical influences on cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. The study objectives were to evaluate the impact of low birth weight on fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism and endothelium function in Yucatan miniature pigs. Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets (n = 6, 3 d old, 0.73 ± 0.04 kg) were paired with normal weight (NW) same-sex littermates (n = 6, 1.11 ± 0.05 kg) and fed milk replacer ad libitum for 4 wk. Thereafter, all pigs were fed a standard diet ad libitum for 5 h/d with growth, intakes and blood samples collected for 8 mo...
August 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810196/tobacco-demand-delay-discounting-and-smoking-topography-among-smokers-with-and-without-psychopathology
#6
Samantha G Farris, Elizabeth R Aston, Ana M Abrantes, Michael J Zvolensky
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco demand (i.e., relative value attributed to a given reinforcer) and delay discounting (i.e., relative preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) are two behavioral economic processes that are linked to the progression of problematic substance use. These processes have not been studied among those with psychopathology, a vulnerable group of smokers. The current study examined differences in tobacco demand and delay discounting, and their association with smoking topography among smokers with (n=43) and without (n=64) past-year psychopathology...
August 3, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809837/protocol-for-assessing-the-relative-effects-of-environment-and-genetics-on-antler-and-body-growth-for-a-long-lived-cervid
#7
Eric S Michel, Emily B Flinn, Stephen Demarais, Bronson K Strickland, Guiming Wang, Chad M Dacus
Cervid phenotype can be placed into one of two categories: efficiency, which promotes survival over extravagant morphometric growth, and luxury, which promotes growth of large weaponry and body size. Populations of the same species display each phenotype depending on environmental conditions. Although antler and body size of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) varies by physiographic region in Mississippi, USA and is strongly correlated with regional variation in nutritional quality, the effects of population-level genetics from native stocks and previous re-stocking efforts cannot be disregarded...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805920/ground-juniperus-pinchotii-and-urea-in-supplements-fed-to-rambouillet-ewe-lambs-i-feedlot-growth-traits-blood-serum-parameters-and-fecal-characteristics
#8
T R Whitney
Ground woody products and urea are low-cost roughage and N sources. Rambouillet ewe lambs ( = 48, 6 lambs/treatment; initial BW = 42 kg ± 3.8) were used to evaluate effects of using ground (juniper) and urea in supplements on feedlot lamb growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics. In a randomized complete block design (40 d), lambs were individually fed an ad libitum basal sorghum-Sudangrass hay diet, which was fed separate from 1 of 8 supplemental diets (6 lambs/diet; 533 g of supplement/d, as-fed basis)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805913/feeding-distillers-grains-soybean-hulls-or-a-mixture-of-both-to-cows-as-a-forage-replacement-effects-on-intake-digestibility-and-ruminal-fermentation-characteristics
#9
W B Smith, K P Coffey, R T Rhein, E B Kegley, D Philipp, J G Powell, J D Caldwell, A N Young
Coproduct feedstuffs offer a unique and potentially profitable avenue for cattle feeding strategies. However, research is lacking in the evaluation of varying coproducts on ruminal fermentation and digestive characteristics when included as the major component of the diet of cows. Our objective was to determine the effect of coproduct feedstuffs as a forage replacement on digestive and fermentative characteristics of cows. Eight ruminally fistulated cows (672 ± 32.0 kg initial BW and approximately 9 yr of age) were stratified by BW and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 diets (2 cows∙diet∙period) in a 2-period study: soybean hulls (SH), distillers' dried grains with solubles (DG), an isoenergetic mixture of soybean hulls and distillers' dried grains with solubles (MX), or ad libitum hay plus 0...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805907/evaluation-of-essential-oils-and-prebiotics-for-newborn-dairy-calves
#10
K A Froehlich, K W Abdelsalam, C Chase, J Koppien-Fox, D P Casper
A blend of essential oils (EO; carvacrol, caryophyllene, -cymene, cineole, terpinene, and thymol) and prebiotics (arabinogalactans; Stay Strong; Ralco, Inc., Marshall, MN) was designed to promote immunity and stimulate appetite to diminish health challenges and stresses experienced by newborn calves. It was hypothesized that calves supplemented with the medium dose (2.5 g/feeding) of the commercial EO would demonstrate the optimal response. The study objective was to determine the optimal feeding rate of EO when added to a milk replacer (MR) compared with feeding a control or a yeast cell wall additive (YCW)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805902/enteric-methane-emissions-from-low-and-high-residual-feed-intake-beef-heifers-measured-using-greenfeed-and-respiration-chamber-techniques
#11
A W Alemu, D Vyas, G Manafiazar, J A Basarab, K A Beauchemin
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between residual feed intake (RFI; g/d) and enteric methane (CH) production (g/kg DM) and to compare CH and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions measured using respiration chambers (RC) and the GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) system (C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD). A total of 98 crossbred replacement heifers were group housed in 2 pens and fed barley silage ad libitum and their individual feed intakes were recorded by 16 automated feeding bunks (GrowSafe, Airdrie, AB, Canada) for a period of 72 d to determine their phenotypic RFI...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805899/effects-of-forage-types-on-digestibility-methane-emissions-and-nitrogen-utilization-efficiency-in-two-genotypes-of-hill-ewes
#12
Y G Zhao, R Annett, T Yan
Thirty-six nonpregnant hill ewes (18 pure Scottish Blackface and 18 Swaledale × Scottish Blackface) aged 18 mo and weighing 48 ± 4.8 kg were allocated to 3 forage treatments balanced for genotype and BW. Each genotype was offered 3 forages (pelleted ryegrass, fresh lowland grass, and fresh hill grass) ad libitum with 6 ewes for each of the 6 genotype × diet combination treatments. Pelleted ryegrass was sourced from a commercial supplier (Drygrass South Western Ltd, Burrington, UK). Fresh lowland grass was harvested daily in the morning from a third regrowth perennial ryegrass () sward...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805891/increasing-corn-distillers-solubles-alters-the-liquid-fraction-of-the-ruminal-microbiome
#13
J C McCann, J R Segers, H Derakhshani, T L Felix, E Khafipour, D W Shike
Five ruminally fistulated steers were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design to determine the effects of increasing dietary fat and sulfur from condensed distiller's solubles (CDS) on the ruminal microbiome. Treatments included a corn-based control (CON) and 4 levels of CDS (0, 10, 19, and 27%) in a coproduct-based (corn gluten feed and soybean hulls) diet. Fat concentrations were 1.79, 4.43, 6.80, and 8.91% for diets containing 0, 10, 19, and 27% CDS, respectively. Steers were fed for ad libitum intake once daily...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805890/effect-of-forage-source-included-in-total-mixed-ration-on-intake-sorting-and-feeding-behavior-of-growing-heifers-fed-high-concentrate-diets
#14
A Madruga, E Mainau, L A González, M Rodríguez-Prado, J L Ruíz de la Torre, X Manteca, A Ferret
The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of using 2 different forage sources on intake and sorting and feeding behavior in growing heifers fed a high-concentrate diet offered as a total mixed ration (TMR). Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW of 148.1 ± 4.83 kg) were used in a crossover design experiment. Treatment diets were a TMR with either barley straw (BS) or alfalfa hay (AH) as forage source. Diets were offered on an ad libitum basis, with a forage to concentrate ratio of 8 to 92. The experiment was performed in two 28-d periods, with 3 wk of diet adaptation and 1 wk of sampling in each period...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805883/a-novel-objective-chute-score-interacts-with-monensin-to-affect-growth-of-receiving-cattle
#15
K A Bruno, E S Vanzant, A W Altman, M Kudupoje, K A Vanzant, K R McLeod
Growth in cattle may be related to animal temperament via alterations in intake or feed conversion. However, temperament is ill-defined, and different temperament measures may relate differently to production traits or interact with dietary factors in their effects. To examine relationships between diet, temperament, growth, and health, 160 crossbred steers (262 ± 22 kg) were used in a 56-d RCBD experiment with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial treatment structure with 5 pens/treatment. Steers were pen fed a corn silage-based diet with or without monensin (41...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804858/effect-of-feed-restriction-on-intake-of-moringa-oleifera-and-leucaena-leucocephala-and-growth-performance-of-rabbits
#16
R Santos-Ricalde, E Gutiérrez-Ruiz, W Novelo-Ucan, P Martinez-Romero, J Segura-Correa
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on intake of Moringa oleifera (MO) or Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and growth of rabbits. In experiment one, 45 rabbits (male and female) weighing 1.18 ± 0.15 kg were used. They were randomly distributed to three feed restriction treatments (20, 30, and 40%) with 15 rabbits each (9 females and 6 males) and they were offered M. oleifera (MO) ad libitum. In experiment two, 45 growing male rabbits weighing 0.63 ± 0.113 kg were used...
August 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804612/effect-of-genistein-on-expression-of-pancreatic-sirt1-inflammatory-cytokines-and-histological-changes-in-ovariectomized-diabetic-rat
#17
Hadi Yousefi, Alireza Alihemmati, Pouran Karimi, Mohammad Reza Alipour, Parisa Habibi, Nasser Ahmadiasl
OBJECTIVES: Genistein is reported to have anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory functions, in particular, direct effects on β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of genistein on the pancreatic β-cells in ovariectomized diabetic rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty female rats were divided into four groups: sham, bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), OVX.D (OVX+diabetes) and OVX.D.G (OVX.D+genistein). After bilateral ovariectomy, rats in the diabetic groups were fed high-fat diet (HFD), ad libitum for 4 weeks, and then a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (30 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804009/effects-of-timing-of-whey-protein-intake-on-appetite-and-energy-intake-in-healthy-older-men
#18
Caroline Giezenaar, Zoé Coudert, Abdul Baqeri, Caroline Jensen, Trygve Hausken, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
BACKGROUND: Protein-rich supplements are used widely to prevent and manage malnutrition in older adults. We previously showed that 30 g whey protein ingestion, 3 hours before a buffet meal, suppressed energy intake in young, but not in older men. Information about the impact of the timing of ingestion of protein drinks on the suppression of energy intake in older adults is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the timing of whey protein ingestion on appetite and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy older men...
August 10, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803214/self-defensive-antibiotic-loaded-layer-by-layer-coatings-imaging-of-localized-bacterial-acidification-and-ph-triggering-of-antibiotic-release
#19
Victoria Albright, Iryna Zhuk, Yuhao Wang, Victor Selin, Betsy van de Belt-Gritter, Henk J Busscher, Henny C van der Mei, Svetlana Sukhishvili
Self-defensive antibiotic-loaded coatings have shown promise in inhibiting growth of pathogenic bacteria adhering to biomaterial implants and devices, but direct proof that their antibacterial release is triggered by bacterially-induced acidification of the immediate environment under buffered conditions remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli adhering to such coatings generate highly localized acidification, even in buffered conditions, to activate pH-triggered, self-defensive antibiotic release...
August 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802039/circadian-reprogramming-in-the-liver-identifies-metabolic-pathways-of-aging
#20
Shogo Sato, Guiomar Solanas, Francisca Oliveira Peixoto, Leonardo Bee, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Selma Masri, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
The process of aging and circadian rhythms are intimately intertwined, but how peripheral clocks involved in metabolic homeostasis contribute to aging remains unknown. Importantly, caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in several organisms and rewires circadian metabolism. Using young versus old mice, fed ad libitum or under CR, we reveal reprogramming of the circadian transcriptome in the liver. These age-dependent changes occur in a highly tissue-specific manner, as demonstrated by comparing circadian gene expression in the liver versus epidermal and skeletal muscle stem cells...
August 10, 2017: Cell
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