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Hypervitaminosis A

Kentaro Ueda, Fumiko Akashi, Motoki Kawasaki, Tohru Matsui
Feed intake and body weight are drastically altered in penguins during peri-molting period, and molting is known to affect the nutritional status of vitamin A and E. Although vitamin D status is not known in penguins during peri-molting period, vitamin D intake is supposed to be remarkably altered. The objective of the present study was to clarify the alterations in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, the most reliable biomarker for assessing vitamin D status, and vitamin D intake during peri-molting period...
October 8, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Malachi J McKenna, Barbara Murray, Rachel K Crowley, Patrick J Twomey, Mark T Kilbane
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is the pre-eminent estimate of vitamin D status that we have been measuring in a hospital laboratory setting since the 1970s. We previously evaluated the trend in 25OHD results in our laboratory from 1993 to 2013. Using a time series analysis of monthly average 25OHD results the trend was modelled, and this was used to forecast monthly average 25OHD from 2014 to 2016. In this study, all 25OHD results from 2014 to 2016 were retrieved (n = 67,922) and trimmed to 40,307 results after duplicates were excluded...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Ewa Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Małgorzata Kupisz-Urbańska, Jacek Łukaszkiewicz, Paweł Płudowski, Glenville Jones
Confusion, apathy, recurrent vomiting, abdominal pain, polyuria, polydipsia, and dehydration are the most often noted clinical symptoms of vitamin D toxicity (VDT; also called vitamin D intoxication or hypervitaminosis D). VDT and its clinical manifestation, severe hypercalcemia, are related to excessive long-term intake of vitamin D, malfunctions of the vitamin D metabolic pathway, or the existence of coincident disease that produces the active vitamin D metabolite locally. Although VDT is rare, the health effects can be serious if it is not promptly identified...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sherry A Tanumihardjo, Chisela Kaliwile, Erick Boy, Muhammad A Dhansay, Martha E van Stuijvenberg
Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a serious public health problem, especially in preschool children who are at risk of increased mortality. In order to address this problem, the World Health Organization recommends periodic high-dose supplementation to children 6-59 months of age in areas of highest risk. Originally, supplementation was meant as a short-term solution until more sustainable interventions could be adopted. Currently, many countries are fortifying commercialized common staple and snack foods with retinyl palmitate...
September 28, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Robin George Manappallil, Sudhin Shylendran, Aryasree Kakkattil, Archana Della Thomas
Renal stone disease is a common and painful condition. Even though it is rarely fatal, patients describe it as the worst pain in their life. While dietary calcium may decrease the risk of stone formation, patients on supplemental calcium are at higher risk. Moreover, patients with diabetes are more prone to develop renal calculi. Hypervitaminosis D is a rare cause of hypercalcaemia. This is a case of an elderly diabetic man who developed multiple calcium oxalate renal stones due to hypercalcaemia following calcium-vitamin D supplementation...
August 20, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Sebastien Ellis, Georgios Tsiopanis, Tanuj Lad
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for calcium homeostasis and bone health. Vitamin D toxicity or hypervitaminosis D is extremely rare. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man who presented with life-threatening hypervitaminosis D and hypercalcaemia resulting from self-medicated doses of vitamin D supplements. This case, alongside other global case reports, highlights the potential dangers of unlicensed vitamin D replacement. We discuss the evidence for vitamin D replacement and remind readers of the current guidance on daily intake and supplementation...
August 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Vikte Lionikaite, Anna Westerlund, H Herschel Conaway, Petra Henning, Ulf H Lerner
Increased intake of vitamin A (retinoids) is associated with decreased bone mass and increased fracture risk in humans. Mechanistic studies in rodents have shown that hypervitaminosis A results in decreased bone mass caused by an increase in periosteal osteoclasts while simultaneously decreasing endocortic osteoclasts. In vivo and ex vivo bone organ cultures have demonstrated that excess retinoids increase osteoclast formation due to increased receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B-ligand (RANKL) expression...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Celia Rodd, AbdulRazaq Sokoro, Lisa M Lix, Laurel Thorlacius, Michael Moffatt, Jim Slater, Eric Bohm
INTRODUCTION: Laboratories have noted marked increases in the analysis of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) in recent decades. Our objectives were to describe the annual number of 25(OH)D tests, examine the characteristics of those tested and those ordering them, and determine the proportion of potentially unnecessary tests in Manitoba. METHODS: Manitoba residents who were tested between 2006/7 and 2012/13 had their data anonymously linked to Manitoba Centre for Health Policy comprehensive administrative datasets...
September 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Stephanie J Mondloch, Sherry A Tanumihardjo, Christopher R Davis, Paul J van Jaarsveld
Commonly used in biomedical research, vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops) are omnivorous but primarily meet their vitamin A requirements from provitamin A carotenoids. Hypervitaminosis A has occurred in vervets that consume feed high in preformed vitamin A. We investigated the vitamin A status of vervets supplemented daily with various antioxidants derived from palm oil. Male vervets (n = 40) were placed for 23 wk on a high-fat diet (34.9% energy) containing 645 μ g retinol activity equivalents (RAE), with 515 μ g RAE from preformed vitamin A...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Thomas Lind, Roberta Lugano, Ann-Marie Gustafson, Maria Norgård, Arie van Haeringen, Anna Dimberg, Håkan Melhus, Stephen P Robertson, Göran Andersson
Angulated femurs are present prenatally both in CYP26B1 deficient humans with a reduced capacity to degrade retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A), and mice overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor a (Vegfa). Since excessive ingestion of vitamin A is known to induce spontaneous fractures and as the Vegfa-induced femur angulation in mice appears to be caused by intrauterine fractures, we analyzed bones from a CYP26B1 deficient human and rats with hypervitaminosis A to further explore Vegfa as a mechanistic link for the effect of vitamin A on bone...
December 2018: Bone Reports
Andoni Echaniz-Laguna, Rachel Mourot-Cottet, Esther Noel, Jean-Baptiste Chanson
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is an essential vitamin playing a crucial role in amino acid metabolism. Pyridoxine is used for isoniazid side-effects prevention, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy treatment and cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (homocystinuria) treatment. However, vitamin B6 hypervitaminosis is neurotoxic and may provoke a progressive sensory neuronopathy (sensory ganglionopathy), usually when daily uptake is above 50 mg. We describe the case of a 30-year-old patient with homocystinuria who was treated with pyridoxine 1250-1750 mg/day for 20 years and developed progressive sensory neuropathy with ataxia and impaired sensation in the extremities...
June 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Thomas Lind, P Monica Lind, Lijuan Hu, Håkan Melhus
BACKGROUND: The most prominent features of hypervitaminosis A in rats are spontaneous fractures and anorexia. Since caloric restriction induces alterations in bone, some effects could be secondary to loss of appetite. To clarify the mechanisms behind vitamin A-induced bone fragility it is necessary to distinguish between direct and indirect effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study we compared rats fed high doses of vitamin A both with pair-fed controls, which were fed the same amount of chow as that consumed by the vitamin A group to keep food intake the same, and to controls with free access to food...
June 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Kristen M Williams, Margaret T Lee, Maureen Licursi, Gary M Brittenham, Ilene Fennoy
Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for bone fragility from multiple factors including vitamin D deficiency. To date, no studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of long-term vitamin D therapy for bone disease in children with SCD. We report a cohort of 4 children with SCD found to have severe vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and abnormal bone mineral density treated with monthly high-dose oral cholecalciferol over 2 years. All patients exhibited a positive response to therapy without hypervitaminosis D or hypercalcemia...
August 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Kadie M Anderson, Albert Lewandowski, Patricia M Dennis
An 8 yr, intact male red-rumped agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina) was evaluated for weight loss. Examination revealed poor body condition, hypercalcemia, elevated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, metastatic calcification of soft tissues, and hyperechoic kidneys. The diet, formulated for laboratory rodents, contained elevated levels of vitamin D3 . Histopathology from a female conspecific that died 5 mo prior identified dystrophic mineralization and nephrosclerosis, suggestive of a vitamin D3 toxicity. The male agouti responded well to a dietary reduction in vitamin D3 and calcium...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Agazi Gebreselassie, Alem Mehari, Rahel Dagne, Firehiwet Berhane, Angesom Kibreab
RATIONALE: The usual presentation of sarcoidosis is hilar adenopathy, pulmonary reticular opacities, skin, joint, or eye lesions. Pancreatic involvement is unusual and hypercalcemic pancreatitis as initial manifestation is very rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case that presented with 1-day history of vomiting, diffuse abdominal pain, and altered mental status. DIAGNOSES: Initial investigations showed highly elevated calcium levels, acute pancreatitis, and kidney failure...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aliaa Al-Mutawa, Alfred Kojo Anderson, Salman Alsabah, Mohammad Al-Mutawa
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
Ibrahim O Farah, Carlene Holt-Gray, Joseph A Cameron, Michelle Tucci, Hamed Benghuzzi
The role of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) in the development of hypervitaminosis A pathophysiology is not well understood or established in the literature. As well, the role of Citral (inhibitor of retinoid function; a non-toxic chemical that exists in two forms (diethyl; C1 or cis-trans dimethyl; C2).) in the reversal of pathophysiological implications is also not ascertained under an in vivo setting. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ovalbumin exposure will sensitize the body to supra-physiologic levels of retinoic acid leading to a negative pathophysiological impact and that Citrals 1 and 2 will reverse or ameliorate the related damage to the body's pathophysiology...
March 2017: Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation
Victoria J Stokes, Morten F Nielsen, Fadil M Hannan, Rajesh V Thakker
Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than two standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive, and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms...
November 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Chih-Hao Chang, Chun-Wei Lu, Wen-Hung Chung, Hsin-Chun Ho
INTRODUCTION: Acute fish liver intoxication, including hypervitaminosis A and hypervitaminosis D, may result from the ingestion of certain fish livers. The typical symptoms of hypervitaminosis A include nausea, headache, blurred vision, and cutaneous manifestations, such as flushing, vesicles formation, and desquamation. Hypervitaminosis D may result in hypercalcemia. We report a case of acute fish liver intoxication with systemic and cutaneous manifestations. CASE: A 63-year-old male presented to the clinic with generalized desquamation and multiple clear-fluid filled flaccid vesicles after eating approximately two fist-sized portions (about 300-400 g) of cooked seerfish (Scomberomorus spp...
February 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Sollip Kim, Laura D Stephens, Robert L Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: In this report, we describe 2 contrasting cases of hypervitaminosis D. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient 1 was a 75-y old man who developed symptomatic hypercalcemia (peak serum calcium concentration of 15.3mg/dl; reference range: 8.5-10.6mg/dl), cardiac injury, and a high total serum vitamin D concentration of 243ng/ml (30-80ng/ml) as a result of daily consumption of prescribed 50,000IU ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and 500mg calcium-citrate for 1y. Patient 2 was a 60-y old woman who consumed 40,000IU of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) daily for >10months with a peak total serum vitamin D concentration of 479ng/ml (30-80ng/ml), but did not present with symptoms related to vitamin D toxicity...
October 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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