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Knowledge extraction

Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Éva Sivadó, Sabrina Lareure, Valérie Attuil-Audenis, Saïd El Alaoui, Vincent Thomas
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) belongs to the multigene transglutaminase family of Ca(2+)-dependent protein cross-linking enzymes. There is a strong evidence that tTG is involved in pathology, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and celiac disease. To study physiopathological implication of tTG, a sandwich immunoassay has been developed with a new monoclonal antibody for the capture and polyclonal antibody both generated in house. Using this ready to use assay, the tTG protein level can be measured in human tissue homogenates and cells extracts easily in about 4 h...
October 19, 2016: Amino Acids
Sunwon Lee, Donghyeon Kim, Kyubum Lee, Jaehoon Choi, Seongsoon Kim, Minji Jeon, Sangrak Lim, Donghee Choi, Sunkyu Kim, Aik-Choon Tan, Jaewoo Kang
As the volume of publications rapidly increases, searching for relevant information from the literature becomes more challenging. To complement standard search engines such as PubMed, it is desirable to have an advanced search tool that directly returns relevant biomedical entities such as targets, drugs, and mutations rather than a long list of articles. Some existing tools submit a query to PubMed and process retrieved abstracts to extract information at query time, resulting in a slow response time and limited coverage of only a fraction of the PubMed corpus...
2016: PloS One
Aziz Homayouni Rad, Farnaz Sahhaf, Tohid Hassanalilou, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Negar Motayagheni, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Mina Javadi, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Leila Khalili
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, a condition of multifactorial origin, is related to the intestinal microbiota by numerous molecular mechanisms. Controlling the vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes needs a natural and safe solution. Probiotics, known as live microorganisms that exert health benefits to the host, have anti-diabetic property. OBJECTIVE: This review will highlight the current evidences in probiotic effectiveness and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of diabetes...
October 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Zhangjing Yang, Piaopiao Feng, Tian Wen, Minghua Wan, Xunning Hong
Differentiation of glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) and lymphomas using multi-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important task that is valuable for treatment planning. However, this task is a challenge because GBMs and lymphomas may have a similar appearance in MRI images. This similarity may lead to misclassification and could affect the treatment results. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method based on multi-sequence MRI to differentiate these two types of brain tumors. Our method consists of three steps: 1) the key slice is selected from 3D MRIs and region of interests (ROIs) are drawn around the tumor region; 2) different features are extracted based on prior clinical knowledge and validated using a t-test; and 3) features that are helpful for classification are used to build an original feature vector and a support vector machine is applied to perform classification...
October 18, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Ruth Still, Debbie Marais, Jenna Louise Hollis
There is a lack of knowledge and understanding of the term exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among health professionals. The purpose of this review was to examine the best available literature on mothers' understanding of the term EBF. A systematic search of eight electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, CDSR, CENTRAL, Cab Abstracts, Scopus and African Index Medicus) was conducted (Protocol registration in PROSPERO: CRD42015019402). All study designs were eligible for inclusion. Studies were included if they: (1) involved mothers aged 18 years or older; (2) assessed mothers' knowledge/understanding/awareness of the term 'EBF'; (3) used the 1991 WHO definition of EBF and (4) were published between 1988 and 2015...
October 18, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Rouhollah Zaboli, Shahram Tofighi, Ali Aghighi, Seyyed Javad Hosaini Shokouh, Nader Naraghi, Hassan Goodarzi
INTRODUCTION: Clinical practice guidelines are structured recommendations that help physicians and patients to make proper decisions when dealing with a specific clinical condition. Because blunt abdominal trauma causes a various range of mild, single-system, and multisystem injuries, early detection will help to reduce mortality and resulting disability. Emergency treatment should be initiated based on CPGs. This study aimed to determine the variables affecting implementing blunt abdominal trauma CPGs in an Iranian hospital...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Ashfaq Khokhar, Muhammad Kamran Lodhi, Yingwei Yao, Rashid Ansari, Gail Keenan, Diana J Wilkie
Despite an unprecedented amount of health-related data being amassed from various technological innovations, our ability to process this data and extract hidden knowledge has yet to catch up with this explosive growth. Although nursing care plans can be an effective tool to support the achievement of desired patient outcomes, their online collection, storage, and processing is lagging far behind. As a result, the impact of nursing care is not well understood from qualitative as well as quantitative perspectives...
October 18, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Dwayne Van Eerd, Kristine Newman, Ryan DeForge, Robin Urquhart, Evelyn Cornelissen, Katie N Dainty
BACKGROUND: Developing a healthcare delivery system that is more responsive to the future challenges of an aging population is a priority in Canada. The World Health Organization acknowledges the need for knowledge translation frameworks in aging and health. Knowledge brokering (KB) is a specific knowledge translation approach that includes making connections between people to facilitate the use of evidence. Knowledge gaps exist about KB roles, approaches, and guiding frameworks. The objective of the scoping review is to identify and describe KB approaches and the underlying conceptual frameworks (models, theories) used to guide the approaches that could support healthy aging...
October 19, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Shubhangi Rastogi, Raman Soni, Jaspreet Kaur, Sanjeev Kumar Soni
A natural variant of Pyrenophora phaeocomes isolated from natural biodiversity was able to grow on various agricultural residues by co-producing laccase, xylanase and mannanase. Solid state fermentation of rice straw induced the highest productivities corresponding to 10,859.51±46.74, 22.01±1.00 and 10.45±0.128IUgds(-1) for laccase, xylanase and mannanase respectively after 4days. Besides producing the ligno-hemicellulolytic enzyme cocktail, 40days cultivation of P. phaeocomes S-1 on rice straw brought about the 63 and 51% degradation of lignin and hemicellulose...
October 5, 2016: Bioresource Technology
David S Thylur, Russell E Jacobs, John L Go, Arthur W Toga, John K Niparko
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI) at 11.7 T to visualize membranous structures of the human inner ear. SPECIMENS: Three temporal bones were extracted from cadaveric human heads for use with small-bore UHF-MRI. INTERVENTION: Ex vivo cadaveric temporal bone specimens were imaged using an 11.7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner via T1- and T2-weighted-imaging with and without contrast...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Shellene K Dietrich, Coleen M Francis-Jimenez, Melida Delcina Knibbs, Ismael L Umali, Marie Truglio-Londrigan
BACKGROUND: Sleep health is essential for overall health, quality of life and safety. Researchers have found a reduction in the average hours of sleep among college students. Poor sleep has been associated with deficits in attention, reduction in academic performance, impaired driving, risk-taking behaviors, depression, impaired social relationships and poorer health. College students may have limited knowledge about sleep hygiene and the behaviors that supports sleep health, which may lead to poor sleep hygiene behavior...
September 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Gitishree Das, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Endophytic bacteria (EB) are a rich source of secondary metabolites with medicinal importance. In this study, EB were isolated from the bottle brush herb Equisetum arvense and identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Evaluation of its antibacterial potential was conducted using two common foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890. Out of 103 identified EB, three species, Streptomyces albolongus, Dermacoccus sp., and Mycobacterium sp., showed significant antibacterial activity against S...
October 18, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Han Sol Kim, Ha Ra Cho, Myoung Jin Ho, Myung Joo Kang, Yong Seok Choi
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis. To manage OA, in general, oral administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is used. Recently, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of piroxicam (PX), a long-acting NSAID, by intra-articular (IA) administration in OA was reported, and the possibility that PX is distributed in articular tissues at a certain concentration was raised. Thus, herein, novel LC-MS/MS methods to detect PX in rat articular tissue and plasma are presented...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Keiji Matsumoto, Yoshitaka Suetsugu, Yoshiaki Tanaka, Toyomi Kotaki, Shin G Goto, Tetsuro Shinoda, Sakiko Shiga
Juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis is inhibited under short-day conditions in the brown-winged green bug Plautia stali. We investigated allatostatic molecules in the brain of P. stali. Methanol brain extracts strongly inhibited JH biosynthesis. The allatostatic activities of the brain extracts were heat stable but gently suppressed by trypsin treatment, indicating that the allatostatic molecules were peptides. Grybi-MIP1, found in Gryllus bimaculatus as an allatostatic molecule, inhibited JH biosynthesis in P...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Pedro Llinares, Isabel Ruiz, Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Santiago Grau
BACKGROUND: Although in the past decade the management of invasive fungal infections has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding empirical antifungal treatment in critically-ill hematology patients. AIMS: To identify key clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations, with a high level of consensus, necessary for the approach to fungal infections in critically-ill hematology patients. METHODS: A Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists in fungal invasive infections from six scientific national societies; intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases...
October 14, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Wolfgang Kuchinke, Christian Krauth, René Bergmann, Töresin Karakoyun, Astrid Woollard, Irene Schluender, Benjamin Braasch, Martin Eckert, Christian Ohmann
BACKGROUND: In an unprecedented rate data in the life sciences is generated and stored in many different databases. An ever increasing part of this data is human health data and therefore falls under data protected by legal regulations. As part of the BioMedBridges project, which created infrastructures that connect more than 10 ESFRI research infrastructures (RI), the legal and ethical prerequisites of data sharing were examined employing a novel and pragmatic approach. METHODS: We employed concepts from computer science to create legal requirement clusters that enable legal interoperability between databases for the areas of data protection, data security, Intellectual Property (IP) and security of biosample data...
July 7, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Arash Shaban-Nejad, Maxime Lavigne, Anya Okhmatovskaia, David L Buckeridge
Population health decision makers must consider complex relationships between multiple concepts measured with differential accuracy from heterogeneous data sources. Population health information systems are currently limited in their ability to integrate data and present a coherent portrait of population health. Consequentially, these systems can provide only basic support for decision makers. The Population Health Record (PopHR) is a semantic web application that automates the integration and extraction of massive amounts of heterogeneous data from multiple distributed sources (e...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Yue Yang, Haitao Wu, Jian Zhou
BACKGROUND: This research aims to assess the response to acid suppression therapy in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related chronic laryngitis (CL). METHODS: Data were extracted from Web of Knowledge, Embase, and PubMed for English language article published up to March 2016. Pooled overall response rate (ORR) rates were evaluated to determine acid suppression treatment efficacy. Random effects model was used with standard approaches to sensitivity analysis, quality assessment, heterogeneity, and exploration of publication bias...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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