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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096203/cognitive-and-behavioural-strategies-for-weight-management-in-overweight-adults-results-from-the-oxford-food-and-activity-behaviours-oxfab-cohort-study
#1
Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Paul Aveyard, Carmen Piernas, Constantinos Koshiaris, Carmelo Velardo, Dario Salvi, Susan A Jebb
BACKGROUND: Though many overweight and obese adults attempt to lose weight without formal support, little is known about the strategies used in self-directed weight loss attempts. We set out to assess cognitive and behavioural strategies for weight loss and their associations with weight change. METHODS: Prospective, web-based cohort study of overweight UK adults (BMI≥25kg/m2) trying to lose weight through behaviour change. Strategy use was assessed using the OxFAB questionnaire and evaluated (1) at the domain level, (2) through exploratory factor analysis, and (3) in a model of strategies deemed a priori to be "essential" to weight management...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095567/nonmedical-use-of-stimulants-is-associated-with-riskier-sexual-practices-and-other-forms-of-impulsivity
#2
Jon E Grant, Sarah A Redden, Katherine Lust, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: This study sought to examine the occurrence of the nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (amphetamines and methylphenidate) in a university sample and their associated physical and mental health correlates, including potential relationships with risky sexual practices. METHODS: A 156-item anonymous online survey was distributed via e-mail to a sample of 9449 university students. Current use of alcohol and drugs, psychological and physical status, and academic performance were assessed, along with questionnaire-based measures of impulsivity and compulsivity...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095286/how-communicating-misleading-information-dilutes-public-understanding-of-weight-loss-mechanisms
#3
John Gastil, Robert Marriott
The biomedical literature describes clearly the direct mechanisms influencing weight gain, but broader public discourse on the subject is rife with misleading claims about the factors that cause people to gain or lose weight. We examine how such misleading claims can dilute accurate information to the point that people arrive at poor judgments about the direct causes of weight gain. We adapt the conventional experimental paradigm used in dilution research (Nisbett, Zukier, & Lemley, 1981) to measure the effect of different information levels of dilution...
August 10, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084705/determinants-of-successful-weight-loss-in-low-income-african-american-women-a-positive-deviance-analysis
#4
Elaine Seaton Banerjee, Sharon J Herring, Katelyn Hurley, Katherine Puskarz, Kyle Yebernetsky, Marianna LaNoue
OBJECTIVE: We set out to investigate the behaviors of low-income African American women who successfully lost weight. METHODS: From an urban, academic, family medicine practice, we used a mixed methods positive deviance approach to evaluate 35 low-income African American women who were obese and lost at least 10% of their maximum weight, and maintained this loss for 6 months, comparing them with 36 demographically similar control participants who had not lost weight...
January 2018: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081279/a-comprehensive-spatial-temporal-analysis-of-driving-factors-of-human-caused-wildfires-in-spain-using-geographically-weighted-logistic-regression
#5
Marcos Rodrigues, Adrián Jiménez-Ruano, Dhais Peña-Angulo, Juan de la Riva
Over the last decades, authorities responsible on forest fire have encouraged research on fire triggering factors, recognizing this as a critical point to achieve a greater understanding of fire occurrence patterns and improve preventive measures. The key objectives of this study are to investigate and analyze spatial-temporal changes in the contribution of wildfire drivers in Spain, and provide deeper insights into the influence of fire features: cause, season and size. We explored several subsets of fire occurrence combining cause (negligence/accident and arson), season (summer-spring and winter-fall) and size (<1 Ha, 1-100 Ha and >100 Ha)...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079320/nutritional-intervention-for-a-patient-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-on-allogeneic-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
Suhyun Kim, Soyoun Kim, Youngmi Park, Ah-Reum Shin, Hyeseun Yeom
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) causes many complications such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and mucositis. Most patients undergoing HSCT have risk for malnutrition in the process of transplantation so artificial nutrition support is required. The purpose of this case report is to share our experience of applying nutrition intervention during the transplantation period. According to HSCT process, the change of the patient's gastrointestinal symptoms, oral intake and nutritional status was recorded...
July 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077396/self-reported-intentional-weight-loss-and-risk-of-death-in-moderate-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-united-states
#7
Shweta Bansal, Guo Wei, Robert E Boucher, Srinivasan Beddhu
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that intentional weight loss is associated with lower mortality risk, whereas unintentional weight loss is associated with higher mortality risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD). DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined this hypothesis in 872 participants with age >20 years, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 and CKD from 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who reported their 1 year prior and current weights and the intent to lose weight...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077203/gut-microbial-carbohydrate-metabolism-hinders-weight-loss-in-overweight-adults-undergoing-lifestyle-intervention-with-a-volumetric-diet
#8
David A Muñiz Pedrogo, Michael D Jensen, Carol T Van Dyke, Joseph A Murray, Jeffrey A Woods, Jun Chen, Purna C Kashyap, Vandana Nehra
The rising incidence of obesity requires the reevaluation of our current therapeutic strategies to optimize patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether compositional and functional characteristics of the gut microbiota in adults predict responses to a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program in overweight and obese adults. We recruited 26 participants from the Mayo Clinic Obesity Treatment Research Program between August 6, 2013, and September 12, 2013, to participate in a lifestyle intervention program for weight loss...
August 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073949/assessing-effectiveness-and-cost-benefit-of-the-trinity-hospital-twin-city-fit-for-life-program-for-weight-loss-and-diabetes-prevention-in-a-rural-midwestern-town
#9
Timothy McKnight, Jennifer R Demuth, Natalie Wilson, Jonathon P Leider, Alana Knudson
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a top public health priority in the United States. This article reports on the Fit For Life (FFL) health education program designed to address the determinants of obesity in rural settings and help participants lose weight. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the implementation of the original FFL program, a replication program, and a diabetes-focused program. INTERVENTION APPROACH: The original FFL program (2006 to 2012) was a 12-week session of classes meeting once weekly...
August 2, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072328/inductive-multi-hypergraph-learning-and-its-application-on-view-based-3d-object-classification
#10
Zizhao Zhang, Haojie Lin, Xibin Zhao, Rongrong Ji, Yue Gao
The wide 3D applications have led to increasing amount of 3D object data, and thus effective 3D object classification technique has become urgent requirement. One important and challenging task for 3D object classification is how to formulate the 3D data correlation and exploit it. Most of previous works focus on learning optimal pairwise distance metric for object comparison, which may lose the global correlation among 3D objects. Recently, transductive hypergraph learning has been investigated for classification, which can jointly explore the correlation among multiple objects, including both the labeled and unlabeled data...
August 2, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066637/the-effect-of-weight-loss-intervention-programme-on-health-related-quality-of-life-among-low-income-overweight-and-obese-housewives-in-the-mybff-home-study
#11
Rashidah Ambak, Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor, Norhanizam Puteh, Azmi Mohd Tamil, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Suzana Shahar, Noor Ani Ahmad, Tahir Aris
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an emerging global public health concern as it is related to chronic diseases and its impact to health related quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of weight reduction on health related quality of life (HRQOL) among obese and overweight housewives. METHODS: Data on 123 obese and overweight housewives in the intervention group from the MyBFF@home study were utilised. A validated Malaysian Malay version of Obesity Weight Loss Quality of Life (OWLQOL) questionnaire was administered at baseline and 6 months after intervention...
July 19, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30063959/the-duration-of-intermittent-access-to-preferred-sucrose-rich-food-affects-binge-like-intake-fat-accumulation-and-fasting-glucose-in-male-rats
#12
A D Kreisler, M Mattock, E P Zorrilla
Many people restrict their palatable food intake. In animal models, time-limiting access to palatable foods increases their intake while decreasing intake of less preferred alternatives; negative emotional withdrawal-like behavior is sometimes reported. In drug addiction models, intermittent extended access drives greater changes in use than brief access. When it comes to palatable food, the impact of briefer vs. longer access durations within intermittent access conditions remains unclear. Here, we provided male rats with chow or with weekday access to a preferred, sucrose-rich diet (PREF) (2, 4, or 8 h daily) with chow otherwise available...
July 28, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30063435/long-term-treatment-of-severe-obesity-are-lifestyle-interventions-still-an-option
#13
Maria Letizia Petroni, Maria Turchese Caletti, Simona Calugi, Riccardo Dalle Grave, Giulio Marchesini
Following lifestyle intervention programs based on dietary restriction and habitual physical activity, weight loss, however large, is reported to peak within six months. Despite maintenance protocols, only few cases continue to lose weight thereafter. The majority of cases regain weight and adherence to lifestyle changes are fostered by long-term contact with a supportive team. In general, surgical procedures are reported to produce much larger weight loss and to impact more favorably on long-term weight loss maintenance...
November 2017: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057399/-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-current-state-of-knowledge
#14
REVIEW
Aleksandra Marciniak, Katarzyna Lejman-Larysz, Jolanta Nawrocka-Rutkowska, Agnieszka Brodowska, Dorota Songin
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder, affecting 5-10% women of reproductive age. It is one of the most common causes of functional infertility and a clinical problem that can be faced by doctors of many specialities. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligoovulations and metabolic disorders. ESHRE/ASRM (2003) or AES (2006) criteria are used to diagnose a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome. Although a lot of studies are carried out, ethiology and pathogenesis of PCOS is still not clear...
June 27, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055275/dissolution-and-regeneration-of-wool-keratin-in-the-deep-eutectic-solvent-of-choline-chloride-urea
#15
Zhe Jiang, Jiugang Yuan, Ping Wang, Xuerong Fan, Jin Xu, Qiang Wang, Lianbing Zhang
Wool keratin is a kind of renewable protein which has great potential in environment-friendly materials. In this paper, the dissolution of wool fiber and the regeneration of wool keratin in the deep eutectic solvent (DES) of choline chloride-urea was detailed studied. The results showed that 35.1 mg wool completely dissolved in 1 g DES at 130 °C in 5 h. The polarizing microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images along with the amino acid analysis suggested that the DES mainly dissolved the wool cortex layer...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054886/capsule-commentary-on-kurtzman-et-al-social-incentives-and-gamification-to-promote-weight-loss-the-lose-it-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Samuel G Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048259/an-update-on-research-examining-the-implications-of-stigma-for-access-to-and-utilization-of-bariatric-surgery
#17
Sean M Phelan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent literature examining the relationship between stigma and utilization of surgical treatments for obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: The stigma of obesity and stigma associated with surgical treatments for obesity can affect both healthcare providers' recommendations of these options and patients' likelihood of considering and choosing these treatments. Presurgical requirements of healthcare and insurance organizations and a lack of postsurgical support reflect the stigmatizing attitudes that bariatric/metabolic surgery is an 'easy fix' and 'last resort' for patients too undisciplined to lose weight in other ways...
July 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046901/half-dose-versus-full-dose-macrocyclic-gadolinium-at-3-t-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-paediatric-bone-and-soft-tissue-disease
#18
Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Enrica Rossi, Chiara Carducci, Simone Piga, Ioan Paul Voicu, Angela Mastronuzzi, Paolo Tomà
BACKGROUND: Given the recent concerns about gadolinium-based contrast agent safety, dose reduction strategies are being investigated. OBJECTIVE: To compare half-dose and standard full-dose gadoterate meglumine at 3-tesla (T) MRI in paediatric bone and soft-tissue diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 45 children (age range 2.7 months to 17.5 years, median age 8.7 years, 49 total anatomical segments) with bone and soft-tissue diseases (neoplastic, inflammatory/infectious, ischaemic and vascular) imaged at 3-T MRI...
July 25, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045674/an-approach-to-revolutionize-cataract-treatment-by-enhancing-drug-probing-through-intraocular-cell-line
#19
Ling Wang, Weixian Liu, Xionggao Huang
The purpose of this study is to prepare and characterize solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of N-Acetyl Carnosine (NAC) to treat cataract since surgery necessitates equipments and professional help. Cataract is believed to be formed by the biochemical approach where the crystalline eye proteins lose solubility and forms high molecular weight masses. Added advantages of SLN of NAC (henceforth referred as SLN-NAC) in the study are reduced size, sustained release and better corneal penetration of drug. The method of preparation of SLN-NAC by Mill's method is unique in itself...
December 2018: Libyan Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045258/partial-small-intestinal-resection-for-successful-surgical-management-of-refractory-protein-losing-gastroenteropathy-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Kazuma Iwasaki, Mitsuaki Morimoto, Gaku Ota, Koji Koinuma, Hisanaga Horie, Naohiro Sata, Takeo Nakaya
RATIONALE: Although systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be complicated by various gastrointestinal tract diseases, it is rarely associated with lupus enteritis and protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). We report here the successful surgical treatment of lupus enteritis and therapy-resistant and refractory PLE in a patient with SLE. We also provide a review of relevant literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 16-year-old girl presenting with polyarthritis, malar rash, and palmar erythema was indicated for steroid therapy on the basis of positive results for antinuclear, anti-Smith, and antiphospholipid antibodies, which confirmed the diagnosis of SLE...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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