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Kristen Murray, Elizabeth Rieger, Don Byrne
INTRODUCTION: Depression rises significantly in adolescence, with females reporting twice the prevalence of males into adulthood. In accordance with cognitive vulnerability theories, eating and weight-related disturbances have been implicated in this increase, but a broader assessment of body image constructs within this framework is needed. METHODS: The current prospective study examined body importance, body dissatisfaction, and body change strategies to lose weight and increase muscularity as predictors of depressive symptoms over one year in N = 298 adolescents in Canberra, Australia (at Time 2, the sample comprised n = 161 female adolescents, Mage  = 15...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Jesús García-Rubio, Josefa León, Anaïs Redruello-Romero, Esther Pavón, Antonio Cozar, Francisco Tamayo, Mercedes Caba-Molina, Javier Salmerón, Ángel Carazo
Obesity-related comorbidities are, in large part, originated from the dysfunction of adipose tissue. Most of them revert after the normalization of body mass. Adipose tissue is essentially occupied by adipocytes. However, different populations of immunological cells and adipocyte precursor cells (AdPCs) are the main cellular components of tissue. During obesity, body fat depots acquire a low-level chronic inflammation and adipocytes increase in number and volume. Conversely, weight loss improves the inflammatory phenotype of adipose tissue immune cells and reduces the volume of adipocytes...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thomas L Webb, Marta Krasuska, Zsuzsanna Toth, Hugues Ruault du Plessis, Laurence Colliard
The present research sought to (i) understand the challenges that dog owners encounter in helping their pet lose weight, and (ii) develop and test an intervention designed to help dog owners to deal with these challenges. A series of focus groups (N = 79 dog owners, veterinarians, and industry experts) informed the content of an intervention designed to prompt owners to form if-then plans (or "implementation intentions") identifying challenges (e.g., inclement weather) and specifying how to respond (e...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Dahu Li, Houjiu Wu, Huating Dou, Li Guo, Wei Huang
Obesity is associated with the changes in gut microbiota. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of sweet orange essential oil (SOEO) microcapsules on body weight and gut microbiota in obese rats induced by high-fat diet. By analyzing the body weight, fat rate and the sequence of cloned microbial small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA) in rats fecal samples, we found that SOEO microcapsules decreased the body weight and increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium (genus-level) in gut microbiota...
October 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mariana Camara Martins Bezerra Furtado, Karina Marques Vermeulen, Paula Emília Nunes Ribeiro Bellot, Cynthia Meira de Almeida Godoy, Daniel Coelho, Eudes Paiva de Godoy, Antonio Manuel Gouveia de Oliveira, Josemberg Marins Campos
INTRODUCTION: bariatric surgery is a favorable option for the treatment of obesity, resulting in long-term weight loss. OBJECTIVES: to analyze whether feeding behavior, evaluated by caloric intake, dietary preferences and tolerance, can be considered as a determinant factor for weight loss in obese patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: cross-sectional study of 105 patients with at least two years post-RYGB surgery with a preoperative body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 35 kg/m²...
October 5, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Aisha T Langford, Craig A Solid, Laura C Gann, Emily P Rabinowitz, Stephen K Williams, Azizi A Seixas
OBJECTIVE: To describe behavioral and genetic beliefs about developing hypertension (HTN) by sociodemographic factors and self-reported HTN status, and among those with a history of HTN, evaluate associations between HTN-related causal beliefs and behavior change attempts. METHOD: Data from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey were evaluated. HTN causal beliefs questions included (a) "How much do you think health behaviors like diet, exercise, and smoking determine whether or not a person will develop high blood pressure/HTN?"; and (b) "How much do you think genetics, that is characteristics passed from one generation to the next, determine whether or not a person will develop high blood pressure/HTN?" Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between HTN causal beliefs and behavior change attempts including diet, exercise, and weight management...
October 11, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Min Li, Jun Zhang, Bo Wu, Zhongliang Zhou, Yongdong Xu
In microbial communities, the keystone species have a greater impact on the performance and dynamics of ecosystem than that of other species, in which we can see from the results losing gut microbiome causes some specific diseases. A mass of ongoing studies aim at identifying links between microbial community structure and human diseases. In this paper, we are introducing a valid keystone species identification method, in which a new Spread Intensity (SI) algorithm is used. Because the accuracies of current keystone species identification algorithms are difficult to evaluate for the high diversity and uncultivated status of microbial communities, we simulated cross-sectional data of microbial communities with known interactions and set up standard keystoneness rankings using Generalized Lotka-Volterra(GLV) model...
October 8, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
Lei Zhang, Haihong Qian, Hua Fu
An increasing number of young girls have attached great importance to their body-image in China. Body-image dissatisfaction has resulted in increased weight loss behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that were associated with underweight body-image in female college students. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 2,023 young female participants from eight Chinese universities. In addition, 160 participants were involved in a qualitative study. The ideal body-image and the factors that influence weight were determined using descriptive and analytical statistics...
2018: PloS One
Suleiman Furmli, Rami Elmasry, Megan Ramos, Jason Fung
This case series documents three patients referred to the Intensive Dietary Management clinic in Toronto, Canada, for insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. It demonstrates the effectiveness of therapeutic fasting to reverse their insulin resistance, resulting in cessation of insulin therapy while maintaining control of their blood sugars. In addition, these patients were also able to lose significant amounts of body weight, reduce their waist circumference and also reduce their glycated haemoglobin level.
October 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Ben Britton, Amanda L Baker, Luke Wolfenden, Chris Wratten, Judith Bauer, Alison K Beck, Kristen McCarter, Jane Harrowfield, Elizabeth Isenring, Colin Tang, Chris Oldmeadow, Gregory Carter
PURPOSE: Malnutrition in head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment is common and associated with poorer morbidity and mortality outcomes. This trial aimed to improve nutritional status during radiotherapy using a novel method of training dietitians to deliver psychological techniques to improve HNC patients' nutritional behaviours. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This trial used a stepped wedge randomised controlled design to assess the efficacy of Eating As Treatment (EAT). Based on Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, EAT was designed to be delivered by oncology dietitians and integrated into their clinical practice...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Rowan T Chlebowski, Juhua Luo, Garnet L Anderson, Wendy Barrington, Kerryn Reding, Michael S Simon, JoAnn E Manson, Thomas E Rohan, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Dorothy Lane, Howard Strickler, Yasmin Mosaver-Rahmani, Jo L Freudenheim, Nazmus Saquib, Marcia L Stefanick
BACKGROUND: Although obesity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer, the results of weight loss and breast cancer studies are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated associations between weight change and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. METHODS: Postmenopausal women (n = 61,335) who had no prior breast cancer and a normal mammogram had body weight and height measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated at baseline and year 3...
October 8, 2018: Cancer
Natalie Stein, Kevin Brooks
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is the most expensive chronic disease in the United States. Two-thirds of US adults have prediabetes or are overweight and at risk for type 2 diabetes. Intensive in-person behavioral counseling can help patients lose weight and make healthy behavior changes to improve their health outcomes. However, with the shortage of health care providers and associated costs, such programs do not adequately service all patients who could benefit. The health care system needs effective and cost-effective interventions that can lead to positive health outcomes as scale...
November 1, 2017: JMIR diabetes
Thomas Lung, Stephen Jan, Eng Joo Tan, Anagha Killedar, Alison Hayes
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adult obesity has been shown to substantially heighten the risk of adverse health outcomes but its impact on life expectancy (LE) has not been quantified in Australia. Our aim is to estimate reductions in LE and years of life lost (YLL) associated with overweight and obesity, relative to those at a healthy weight for Australian adults aged 20-69 years. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used a microsimulation model of obesity progression in Australia that integrates annual change in BMI based on age and sex, with Australian life-table data and published relative risk of all-cause mortality for different BMI categories...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Ayelet Fishbach, Angela L Duckworth
Typically, individuals struggling with goal achievement seek advice. However, in the present investigation ( N = 2,274), struggling individuals were more motivated by giving advice than receiving it. In a randomized, controlled, double-blind field experiment, middle-school students who gave motivational advice to younger students spent more time on homework over the following month than students who received motivational advice from expert teachers (Experiment 1). This phenomenon was replicated across self-regulatory domains: Strugglers who gave advice, compared with those who received expert advice, were more motivated to save money, control their tempers, lose weight, and seek employment (Experiments 2 and 3)...
October 3, 2018: Psychological Science
John C Mathers
The purpose of this review article is to examine the evidence of the mechanisms linking obesity with bowel cancer risk and to comment on the development of interventions that may lower risk of this common age-related disease. The choice of topics for inclusion reflects my personal research on the etiology and prevention of bowel cancer over the past 3 decades. I have cited literature which addresses each of these topics, but because of the breadth of the review article, I have not attempted to do this systematically...
September 1, 2018: Nutrition Research
Rosenda Murillo, Bozena J Katic, Tailisha Gonzalez, Elizabeth Vasquez, Sandra Echeverria
PURPOSE: To examine the association of perceived risk of prediabetes and diabetes with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and weight loss, and determine whether the association of risk perception with LTPA and weight loss varies by race/ethnicity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014. SUBJECTS: Non-Latino white, non-Latino black, and Latino nondiabetic and nonprediabetic NHANES participants ≥18 years of age who were not underweight (n = 9550)...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Will Cook
Using a regression-discontinuity approach on a U.K. longitudinal dataset, this research analyses whether personalised weight feedback resulted in individuals losing weight over a period of between 2 and 7 years. The analysis presented here finds that being told one was "overweight" had, on average, no effect on subsequent weight loss; however, being told one was "very overweight" resulted in individuals losing, on average, approximately 1% of their bodyweight. The effect of feedback was found to be strongly moderated by household income, with those in higher income households accounting for seemingly all of the estimated effect due, in part, to increased physical activity...
September 27, 2018: Health Economics
Nerys M Astbury, Paul Aveyard, Alecia Nickless, Kathryn Hood, Kate Corfield, Rebecca Lowe, Susan A Jebb
OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness and safety of a total diet replacement (TDR) programme for routine treatment of obesity in a primary care setting. DESIGN: Pragmatic, two arm, parallel group, open label, individually randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 10 primary care practices in Oxfordshire, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 278 adults who were obese and seeking support to lose weight: 138 were assigned to the TDR programme and 140 to usual care...
September 26, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Aisha M Alwosaifer, Salwa A Alawadh, Moataza M Abdel Wahab, Leila A Boubshait, Bader A Almutairi
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of eating disorders among Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University (IAU) in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, female students and to investigate the associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at IAU, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in 2016 with 670 participants. Data was collected by self-administered questionnaires, including the Eating attitude test 26 (EAT-26) and the sociocultural attitudes toward appearance questionnaire (SATAQ-4)...
September 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Shih-Chiang Shen, Weu Wang, Ka-Wai Tam, Hsin-An Chen, Yen-Kuang Lin, Shih-Yun Wang, Ming-Te Huang, Yen-Hao Su
INTRODUCTION: Many risk prediction models of diabetes remission after bariatric and metabolic surgery have been proposed. Most models have been created using Roux-en-Y gastric bypass cohorts. However, validation of these models in sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is limited. The objective of our study is to validate the performance of risk prediction models of diabetes remission in obese patients with diabetes who underwent SG. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study included 128 patients who underwent SG with at least 1 year follow-up from Dec 2011 to Sep 2016 as the validation cohort...
September 24, 2018: Obesity Surgery
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