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Diabetes And Cardio

Othmar Moser, Gerhard Tschakert, Alexander Mueller, Werner Groeschl, Max L Eckstein, Gerd Koehler, Richard M Bracken, Thomas R Pieber, Peter Hofmann
To investigate the heart rate during cardio-pulmonary exercise (CPX) testing in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) compared to healthy (CON) individuals. Fourteen people (seven individuals with T1D and seven CON individuals) performed a CPX test until volitional exhaustion to determine the first and second lactate turn points (LTP1 and LTP2 ), ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2 ), and the heart rate turn point. For these thresholds cardio-respiratory variables and percentages of maximum heart rate, heart rate reserve, maximum oxygen uptake and oxygen uptake reserve, and maximum power output were compared between groups...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Osama Hamdy, Mhd Wael Tasabehji, Taha Elseaidy, Shaheen Tomah, Sahar Ashrafzadeh, Adham Mottalib
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of combined obesity and diabetes has increased dramatically in the last few decades. Although medical and surgical weight management are variably effective in addressing this epidemic, it is essential to parallel these strategies with a hypocaloric diet comprising the appropriate macronutrient composition to induce weight loss, enhance glycemic control, and improve cardiovascular risk factors. This review reports the current evidence of the role of carbohydrates and fat-based diets for weight management in patients with combined type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity...
October 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Georgios Doulaveris, Tomi T Kanninen
Hyperlipidemia is a known cause of atherosclerosis and directly contributes to the current epidemic in cardio-vascular disease. Pregnancy is typified by an increase in serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides pushed by the rise in estrogen, progesterone and lactogen. Mobilization of stored fat depots in late pregnancy may provide a reservoir of fatty acids for fetal growth and placental tissue steroid synthesis. This physiologic increase in lipids performs an essential role during pregnancy; however, elevated levels of lipids in predisposed women or with familiar forms of hyperlipidemia can carry increased risk for maternal-fetal complications...
October 11, 2018: Minerva Ginecologica
L S Wang, B Zhang, H J Wang, C L Guo, Y P Zhang, J G Zhang, W W Du, Z H Wang
Objective: To analyze the prevalence and co-prevalence of cardio-metabolic related risk factors in farmers aged ≥18 years in China, to explore the influence of population economic factors on them. Methods: A total of 3 367 farmers, including fishermen or hunters, aged ≥18 years were selected as study subjects from the database of Nutritional Status and Health Transition of Chinese Residents Project in 2015. Basic information (age, gender), data on anthropometric (body height, weight and waist size), blood biochemical and socioeconomic (occupation, income, education level and living area) were included...
September 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Sam N Scott, Matt Cocks, Rob C Andrews, Parth Narendran, Tejpal S Purewal, Daniel J Cuthbertson, Anton J M Wagenmakers, Sam O Shepherd
AIMS: To investigate whether 1) six weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIT) induces similar improvements in cardio-metabolic health markers as moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in people with type 1 diabetes, and 2) whether HIT abolishes acute reductions in plasma glucose observed following MICT sessions. METHODS: Fourteen sedentary individuals with type 1 diabetes (n=7 per group) completed six weeks of HIT or MICT 3 times per week. Pre- and post-training measurements were made of 24h interstitial glucose profiles (using continuous glucose monitors (CGMS)) and cardio-metabolic health markers (V˙O2peak, blood lipid profile and aortic pulse wave velocity; aPWV)...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Paola Simeone, Andrea Boccatonda, Rossella Liani, Francesca Santilli
Platelet activation plays a key role in atherogenesisis and atherothrombosis. Biochemical evidence of increased platelet activation in vivo can be reliably obtained through non-invasive measurement of thromboxane metabolite (TXM) excretion. Persistent biosynthesis of TXA2 has been associated with several ageing-related diseases, including acute and chronic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic inflammatory diseases...
September 28, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Ohene Opare-Sem, Martin Agyei, John Akassi, Dorcas Owusu, Mayowa Owolabi, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is an emerging vascular risk factor associated with stroke occurrence. The weight of evidence from sub-Saharan Africa in support of this has accrued from countries with high HIV prevalence. Our objective was to assess the contribution of HIV sero-positivity to the occurrence and outcomes of stroke in a West African country with low HIV prevalence. METHODS: A case-control study design conducted at a tertiary medical center in Ghana involved in the Stroke Investigative Research & Educational Networks (SIREN) epidemiological study...
September 20, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Nasheeta Peer, Yusentha Balakrishna, Anniza de Villiers, Pamela Naidoo
AIMS: To describe the distribution and examine the associations of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia across and within population groups, gender and body mass index (BMI) categories. METHODS: This national cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among ≥18-year-old black African, coloured, white and Indian adults self-selected for screening. Data collection included self-reported behavioural risk factors and clinical measurements comprising blood pressure, anthropometry and point-of-care random blood glucose and cholesterol assessments...
2018: PloS One
Gilad Twig, Brian Reichman, Arnon Afek, Estela Derazne, Uri Hamiel, Ariel Furer, Liron Gershovitz, Tarif Bader, Tali Cukierman-Yaffe, Jeremy D Kark, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel
BACKGROUND: Severe obesity is rising among adolescents, but data on the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities among this group are limited. We assessed the secular trend of severe obesity and its association with major cardio-metabolic morbidities. METHODS: A total of 2,785,227 Israeli adolescents (aged 17.2 ± 0.5 years) who underwent a pre-recruitment medical examination including routine measurements of weight, height and blood pressure between 1967 and 2015 were included...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Shibu Marthandam Asokan, Jing Yi Yang, Wan-Teng Lin
Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is a critical pathological phenomenon observed in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Various molecular events including the Calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) mediated signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. While different new therapeutic interventions are investigated in order to overcome pathological hypertrophic effects, recent studies on peptide hydrolysates from common foods have gained interest. In this study the cytoprotective efficiency of two short peptides DIKTNKPVIF (DF) and a dipeptide IF from a potato protein hydrolysate were evaluated for their anti-hypertrophic effects against high glucose (HG) challenge...
November 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yu-Chun Wang, Yi-Chun Chen, Chun-Yu Ko, Yue-Liang Leon Guo, Fung-Chang Sung
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated risks of emergency room visit (ERV) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in 2005-2011, among patients with cardiologic and metabolic syndromes (CMS), in association with ambient environments. METHODS: Pooled and area-specific weather related cumulative six-day (lags 0 to 5) relative risks (RRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of ERV for OHCA were evaluated for CMS cases, using distributed lag nonlinear models and multivariate meta-analytical second-stage model in association with the daily average temperatures and daily concentrations of air pollutants...
2018: PloS One
M Chandrabose, J N Rachele, L Gunn, A Kavanagh, N Owen, G Turrell, B Giles-Corti, T Sugiyama
Built environment attributes may be related to cardio-metabolic diseases (e.g. type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke) and their risk factors, potentially by influencing residents' physical activity. However, existing literature reviews on the built environment and health for the most part focus on obesity as the outcome and rely on cross-sectional studies. This systematic review synthesized current evidence on longitudinal relationships between built environment attributes and cardio-metabolic health outcomes among adults and on the potential mediating role of physical inactivity...
September 25, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Priska Stahel, Shawn K Sud, So Jeong Lee, Timothy Jackson, David R Urbach, Allan Okrainec, Johane P Allard, Anne S Bassett, Andrew D Paterson, Sanjeev Sockalingam, Satya Dash
CONTEXT: Adult extreme obesity (EO) is a growing health concern. The prevalence of known obesity associated co-morbidities namely cardio-metabolic and neuro-psychiatric disease in EO is not fully established. The contribution of pathogenic genetic variants, previously implicated in early childhood onset obesity, to adult EO is also not established. OBJECTIVE: We undertook phenotypic and genetic analysis of adult patients with extreme obesity (EO, BMI > 50)...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Yachana Kataria, Lyvia Gaewsky, Christina Ellervik
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal smoking exposure is associated with obesity and other cardio-metabolic risk factors in children, but no previous meta-analysis has been conducted in adults. METHODS: We investigated the association of prenatal smoking exposure in the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) with BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, gestational type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in adulthood. We subsequently performed a meta-analysis, adding published studies investigating the association between prenatal smoking and the risk of cardio-metabolic outcomes among individuals at least 18 years of age...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Desiree Abdurrachim, Xing Qi Teo, Chern Chiuh Woo, Wei Xin Chan, Janise Lalic, Carolyn S P Lam, Philip Teck Hock Lee
AIM: To investigate the effects of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin on myocardial ketone body utilization in diabetic, obese rats with spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF), after 6 months of treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Myocardial ketone body utilization was measured in vivo real time using a novel ketone probe (hyperpolarized [3-13 C]acetoacetate) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Myocardial glucose utilization and cardiac function were also determined in vivo using hyperpolarized [1-13 C]pyruvate MRS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively...
September 17, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Aditi Jain, Vibha Rani
The present study was designed to compare the cardiotoxicity of two very commonly used anti-diabetic drugs namely pioglitazone (Pio) and metformin (Met); and to study the effects of curcumin (Curc) against these drug-induced cardiotoxicity. Curc, being an anti-oxidant molecule and having cardio-protective potential, can have promising synergistic effects in reducing the cardiac stress induced by anti-diabetic therapies. Various dose and time-dependent cell viability and oxidative stress assays were conducted to study cardiotoxic side-effects and Curc-mediated effects in cardiomyoblasts...
September 2018: 3 Biotech
Michal Laufer-Perl, Matthew Derakhshesh, Assi Milwidsky, Liat Mor, Dor Ravid, Nadav Amrami, Jack Sherez, Gad Keren, Yan Topilsky, Yaron Arbel
Cardiotoxicity from cancer therapy has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The most commonly used definition is cancer therapeutic related cardiac dysfunction defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) reduction of >10%, to a value below 50%. However, according to the recent American and European Society of Echocardiography, global longitudinal strain (GLS) is the optimal parameter for early detection of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of GLS reduction in patients with active cancer and its correlation to other echocardiographic parameters...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
David B Price, Frank Trudo, Jaco Voorham, Xiao Xu, Marjan Kerkhof, Joanna Ling Zhi Jie, Trung N Tran
Purpose: Prior work suggests a threshold of four courses/year of systemic corticosteroid (SCS) therapy is associated with adverse consequences. The objective of this study was to investigate the onset of adverse outcomes beginning at SCS initiation in a broad asthma population. Patients and methods: This historical matched cohort study utilized anonymized, longitudinal medical record data (1984-2017) of patients (≥18 years) with active asthma. Matched patients with first SCS prescription (SCS arm) and no SCS exposure (non-SCS arm) were followed until first outcome event...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Manuela Casula, Lorenza Scotti, Federica Galimberti, Francesco Mozzanica, Elena Tragni, Giovanni Corrao, Alberico L Catapano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A potential increased risk of cardiovascular events has been suggested for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), the most commonly prescribed drugs for the management of upper gastrointestinal disorders. We aimed to estimate the risk of hospitalization for cardio/cerebrovascular (CV) events in a cohort of incident PPI users. METHODS: A nested case-control study was carried out using regional healthcare utilization databases. For each case (hospitalization for non-haemorrhagic CV event), up-to-five controls randomly selected from the cohort were matched by gender, age at cohort entry, and index date...
October 2018: Atherosclerosis
Terumasa Hayashi, Keiko Yasuda, Tomonori Kimura, Koichi Sasaki, Karin Shimada, Nobuhiro Hashimoto, Yoshitaka Isaka
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether asymptomatic elevation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is associated with cardiovascular events (CVEs) or heart failure (HF) in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. METHODS: We measured BNP in 482 asymptomatic predialysis patients with CKD stages 2-5 at nephrology referral between August 2004 and October 2010, and followed them prospectively to investigate the prognostic significance of BNP using Cox models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses...
2018: American Journal of Nephrology
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