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Diabetes And Cardio

Hong Kyu Lee
Cardio-renal protective effect of Sodium Glucose Co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is well established by three large clinical trials; Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcome Events Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study (CANVAS), and most recently Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events Trial 58 by the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Study Group (DECLARE-TIMI 58). Three different SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, were proven effective not only for their glucose lowering effect, but in reducing deterioration of renal function and prevented hospitalization due to heart failure...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
L D'Elia, P Strazzullo, R Iacone, O Russo, F Galletti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Leptin (LPT) is associated with unfavourable cardio-metabolic risk profile. Although a number of studies have found a positive association between LPT and insulin resistance (IR), no observational study has evaluated a prospective association to detect a predictive role of LPT in IR. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the role of LPT on the incidence of IR in an 8-year follow-up of a sample of adult men (The Olivetti Heart Study). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 527 not diabetic men without IR (homeostasis model assessment - HOMA index < 2...
October 13, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Xiuping Chen, Jie Yu, Jingshan Shi
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become one of the most challenging public health problems globally. The increasing prevalence and mortality rates call for more effective therapeutic agents, especially for DM complications. Traditional herbs have a long clinical application history for DM treatment. Puerarin is a natural isoflavone from Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi which has been consumed both as a functional food and herb in Eastern Asia countries. Documented data has shown that puerarin has cardio-protective, neuroprotective, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and many other effects...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
William G Herrington, David Preiss, Richard Haynes, Maximilian von Eynatten, Natalie Staplin, Sibylle J Hauske, Jyothis T George, Jennifer B Green, Martin J Landray, Colin Baigent, Christoph Wanner
Diabetes is a common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but in aggregate, non-diabetic diseases account for a higher proportion of cases of CKD than diabetes in many parts of the world. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system reduces the risk of kidney disease progression and treatments that lower blood pressure (BP) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk in this population. Nevertheless, despite such interventions, considerable risks for kidney and CV complications remain...
December 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Kim A Connelly, Deepak L Bhatt, Subodh Verma
Heart failure and renal disease remain significant complications in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent outcome studies with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have provided increasing insights, with the latest reporting trial DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Wiviott et al., 2018), pointing toward a role for these agents in the primary prevention of cardio-renal complications in T2D.
December 4, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Yasemin Behram Kandemir, Ünal Guntekin, Veysel Tosun, Necmettin Korucuk, Mehmet Nuri Bozdemir
The aim of the present study is to investigate if the melatonin has any protective effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy and antioxidant enzymes via phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). A total of 40 male Wistar rats were enrolled in the study. Rats were divided into four groups: group 1 (control, n=10), group 2 (DM, n=10), group 3 (melatonin, n=10), and group 4 (melatonin+DM, n=10). Melatonin was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 56 days to group 3 and group 4...
November 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Hirokatsu Niwa, Kiyohiko Takahashi, Midori Dannoura, Kazuno Oomori, Arina Miyoshi, Toshihiro Inada, Hideaki Miyoshi
AIMS: This study elucidates the association of macroangiopathy development in type 2 diabetes patients with various arteriosclerosis risk factors (ARFs) and results of cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). METHODS: The correlation between current and past macroangiopathy development, with ARFs or CAVI/ABI data, was retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression in 816 patients with type 2 diabetes at a single center...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Deksha Kapoor, Romaina Iqbal, Kalpana Singh, Lindsay M Jaacks, Roopa Shivashankar, Vasudevan Sudha, R M Anjana, Masood Kadir, Viswanathan Mohan, Mohammed K Ali, K Mv Narayan, Nikhil Tandon, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Anwar T Merchant
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of dietary patterns and dietary diversity with cardiometabolic disease risk factors among South Asians. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: In a population based study conducted in 2010-11, we recruited 16,287 adults aged >20 years residing in Delhi, Chennai, and Karachi. Diet was assessed using an interviewer-administered 26-item food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis identified three dietary patterns: Prudent, Indian, and Non-Vegetarian...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Satoru Kuriyama
This communication provides a current overview on the renal protective effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in diabetics. Following the epoch-making publications, the CANVAS Program and the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, numerous literature has discussed the mechanisms by which SGLT2 inhibition exerts its cardio-renal protective effects. Some of them reached agreement, while others did not. This review focuses on the hemodynamic aspect and the remaining potential factors relevant to the renal protection which have not been so much taken up by other review papers...
November 26, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Niraj Tripathi, Divya Shrivastava, Bilal Ahmad Mir, Shailesh Kumar, Sumit Govil, Maryam Vahedi, Prakash S Bisen
BACKGROUND: Withania somnifera, a high value medicinal plant is a major source of pharmaceutically important active compounds withanolides. Withania somnifera has been used in ayurveda as health restorative and anabolic agent besides having anti-arthritic, antidepressant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-stress, neuroprotective and cardio-protective activities. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The mining of the compound(s) of interest offers opportunity to identify desired attributes in the therapeutic area of interest...
November 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Aiping Wu, Pengfei Hu, Jian Lin, Wan Xia, Rui Zhang
Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 ) has been reported to produce a cardio-protective effect in cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Here in this study, we investigated the role of CB2 in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and its underlying mechanisms. HU308 was used for the selective activation of CB2 . Bafilomycin A1 was used for the blockade of autophagy and compound C was used to inhibit AMPK signaling. An streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mice model and high glucose (HG)-challenged cardiomyocytes were applied for study...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
F-J Neumann, W Hochholzer, M Siepe
The guidelines on myocardial revascularization published in 2018 are a joint initiative of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. To establish indications for myocardial revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), evidence of the functional relevance of coronary artery stenoses is needed either by non-invasive imaging function tests or intravascular hemodynamic measurements. The prognostic and symptomatic benefits of myocardial revascularization depend on whether complete revascularization can be achieved...
November 19, 2018: Herz
Yusuf Olgar, Belma Turan
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2)-inhibitors showed significant effect in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome, MetS with high cardiovascular-risk. Although the increased intracellular Zn2+ level ([Zn2+]i), oxidative stress and alterated cardiac matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in diabetic cardiomyopathy can intersect with different signaling pathways, the exact mechanisms are not known yet. Since either MMPs or SGLT2 have important role in cardiac-fibrosis under hyperglycemia, we aimed to examine the role of SGLT2-inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAP) on cardiac Zn2+-transporters responsible from [Zn2+]i-regulation, comparison to insulin (INS), together with MMP levels and systemic oxidative-stress-status in MetS-rats...
November 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Ryohei Yamamoto, Maki Shinzawa, Yoshitaka Isaka, Etsuko Yamakoshi, Enyu Imai, Yasuo Ohashi, Akira Hishida
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shorter or longer sleep duration and poor sleep quality are risk factors for numerous cardio-metabolic diseases, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in subjects with normal kidney function. The association of sleep duration and sleep quality with health outcomes in patients with CKD remains uncertain. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A 4-year prospective cohort study in 17 nephrology centers in Japan, the CKD Japan Cohort (CKD-JAC) Study, assessed an association of self-reported sleep duration and sleep quality, on the basis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, with incidence of ESKD in 1601 patients with eGFR 10-59 ml/min per 1...
November 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Wei Chen, Qilin Sun, Jing Ju, Wenjie Chen, Xuelan Zhao, Yu Zhang, Yehong Yang
Introduction: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic cardio-myopathy (DCM). Previously, we reported that Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) improved DCM by inhibition of cardiac oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of APS on high glucose-induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes in vitro. Materials and methods: H9C2 cells were cultured in the presence of high concentration of glucose or transfected with siRNASOD2, followed by APS treatment...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Wedad Rahman, Paul Joseph Solinsky, Kashif M Munir, Elizabeth M Lamos
Clinicians have many safe and effective options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that can improve glycemic control and effect other cardio-metabolic parameters. Sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2) are the most recent class of therapies, have a novel mechanism of action, and provide good glycemic efficacy and a favorable cardiovascular risk profile. Cost-effectiveness data can play an important role in assessing the benefits of this class of therapy in anti-diabetes treatment regimens. Areas covered: This review summarizes all the available evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of SGLT-2 inhibitors...
November 9, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Hasham Saeed, Fahad Khan, Syeda Fatima Mohsin, Farwa Haider Qizilbash, Tayyab Raza Fraz, Qirat Jawed, Nawaz Lashari
Background Depression is a well-known risk factor that aggravates the chances of having various complications of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) such as cardiovascular collapse, heart failure, arrhythmia, recurrent myocardial infarction, and stroke among patients of ACS. ACS is a broad term which includes unstable angina as well as myocardial infarction (MI). The purpose of this study is to analyze the prevalence of depression among the patients of MI admitted to the tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan...
August 24, 2018: Curēus
Gunjan Sharma, Md Umama Ashhar, Vidhu Aeri, Deepshikha Pande Katare
Preclinical investigation is the key mark of medical research, as the major breakthroughs including treatment of devastating diseases in biomedical research have been led by animal studies. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a predominant metabolic disorder having high prevalence of morbidity worldwide which create an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis, complication and other possible influences by development of appropriate animal model. High-fat diet (HFD) fed animals (21 days) were treated with single cycle of repetitive dose (SCRD) of streptozotocin (STZ; 40, 30 and 20 mg/kg/per day in three respective group at 1st, 3rd, and 5th day) and double cycle of repetitive dose (DCRD) of streptozocin (STZ) (20, 10 and 5 mg/kg/per day in three respective group at 1st, 3rd, and 5th day in one cycle and 21st, 23rd, 25th day in second cycle of treatment) to induce late-stage diabetic complications...
November 5, 2018: Life Sciences
Christopher L Axelrod, Ciarán E Fealy, Anny Mulya, John P Kirwan
AIMS: Mitochondria exist as a morphologically plastic network driven by cellular bioenergetic demand. Induction of fusion and fission machinery allows the organelle to regulate quality control and substrate flux. Physiologic stressors promote fragmentation of the mitochondrial network, a process implicated in the onset of metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. It is well known that exercise training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume, number, and density...
November 8, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Te Du, Liu Yang, Xu Xu, Xiaofan Shi, Xin Xu, Jian Lu, Jianlu Lv, Xi Huang, Jing Chen, Heyao Wang, Ji-Ming Ye, Lihong Hu, Xu Shen
Vincamine, a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid extracted from madagascar periwinkle, is clinically used for the treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, while also treated as a dietary supplement with nootropic function. Given the neuronal protection of vincamine and the potency of β-cell amelioration in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we investigated the potential of vincamine in protecting β-cells and ameliorating glucose homeostasis in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, we found that vincamine could protect INS-832/13 cells function by regulating G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40)/cAMP/Ca2+/IRS2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, while increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) via modulating GPR40/cAMP/Ca2+/CaMKII pathway, which reveals a novel mechanism underlying GPR40-mediated cell protection and GSIS in INS-832/13 cells...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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