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Anne Langsted, Børge G Nordestgaard
Before 2009 essentially all societies, guidelines, and statements required fasting before measuring a lipid profile for cardiovascular risk prediction. This was mainly due to the increase seen in triglycerides during a fat tolerance test. However, individuals eat much less fat during a normal day and nonfasting triglycerides have been shown to be superior to fasting in predicting cardiovascular risk. Lipids and lipoproteins only change minimally in response to normal food intake: in four large prospective studies, maximal mean changes were +0...
December 3, 2018: Pathology
Rozita Naseri, Hamid Reza Mozaffari, Mazaher Ramezani, Masoud Sadeghi
Background: Saliva is a fluid with the complex compound which can be used as diagnostic markers for type 2 diabetes (T2D). This meta-analysis evaluated salivary glucose, immunoglobulin A (IgA), total protein, and amylase levels in adult T2D compared with the controls as well as the correlation of salivary glucose levels with serum glucose and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels in both groups. Materials and Methods: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to July 2017...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Farshid Kompani, Ehsan Valavi, Parisa Amuri, Neda Mohtasham
OBJECTIVE: Considering the predictive role of the relatively low urinary citrate for stone formation, especially in hypercalciuric patients, this study is aimed at comparing urine calcium to citrate (Ca/Cit) ratio in 3 groups of children, including patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria with and without renal stone as well as the healthy children. METHODS: This study was carried out on 96 children (2 to 12 years old) referred to a pediatric nephrology clinic in the city of Ahvaz, Southwest Iran...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Suresh K Agarwal, Bo Tong, Orlando F Bueno, Rajeev M Menon, Ahmed Hamed Salem
INTRODUCTION: Venetoclax, a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is approved for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who have received at least one prior therapy. This study evaluated the effect of azithromycin, a commonly used antibiotic in cancer patients and a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of venetoclax. METHODS: In this single-center, open-label, nonfasting, two-period study, 12 healthy female subjects received a single 100 mg dose of venetoclax on day 1 of period 1 and day 3 of period 2...
September 27, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Amy Zawacki, Ann Dodge, Jens Eickhoff, Wendy Sun, Erin Marriott, J Carter Ralphe, Amy L Peterson
OBJECTIVE: To identify non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL-C thresholds for pediatric nonfasting lipid screens that are more predictive of the need for lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy and estimate numbers of potentially avoidable fasting lipid panels. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective review of children and youths aged 8-21 years presenting for preventive cardiology care, initial lipid results, recommendations for pharmacotherapy, and presence of additional cardiovascular risk factors were noted...
November 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Paul Muntner, Paul K Whelton, Mark Woodward, Robert M Carey
OBJECTIVE: To determine the concordance in the prevalence of hypertension and pharmacological antihypertensive treatment recommendations for U.S. adults with diabetes using definitions from the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) blood pressure (BP) guideline and the 2017 American Diabetes Association (ADA) diabetes and hypertension position statement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data for U.S. adults with diabetes in the U...
November 2018: Diabetes Care
Mariana Machado Matos, Renan Arthur Bosio-Guimarães, Ana Júlia Schmidt Niederauer, Katia Isabel Fercondini Pastre, Ronilson A Moreno, Simone Grigoletto Schramm, Paulo Alexandre Rebelo Galvinas, Gustavo D Mendes, Gilberto De Nucci
Capecitabine is a prodrug and is selectively activated by tumor cells to its cytotoxic moiety, 5-fluorouracil, by thymidine phosphorylase, which is generally expressed at high levels in tumors. Clinical and pharmacokinetic studies of capecitabine have been performed in patients with cancer. This study aims to evaluate the bioequivalence of two capecitabine formulations (150-mg tablet) using healthy male subjects under nonfasting conditions. The study was conducted as an open, randomized, three-period, semi-replicated design with three sequences (RRT, RTR, TRR) with a 1-week washout interval...
October 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Anthony P Morise, Jennifer Tennant, Sari D Holmes, Danyel H Tacker
Background: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have demonstrated significant effects on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and nonhigh density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To date, there have been limited reports on the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on remnant cholesterol. Objectives: Assess the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on nonfasting remnant cholesterol in a real world population. Identify whether pretreatment triglyceride levels are associated with PCSK9 inhibition success as indicated by changes in remnant cholesterol levels...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Jenny Hadrévi, Ingibjörg H Jonsdottir, Per-Anders Jansson, Jan W Eriksson, Anna Sjörs
Exhaustion disorder (ED) is a stress-related disorder that often implies a great burden on the individual patient as well as on society. Previous studies have shown that ED is associated with metabolic deviations, such as lowered fasting glucose. Several mechanisms have been discussed as a plausible explanation of the lack of energy described by these patients. Metabolic processes and reduced ability to mobilize energy have been suggested as important factors. This study investigated metabolomics in 20 patients diagnosed with ED and compared them with 21 healthy controls...
August 7, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Shizuya Yamashita, Hidenori Arai, Koutaro Yokote, Eiichi Araki, Hideki Suganami, Shun Ishibashi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk is negatively correlated with cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) from macrophages to high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and positively correlated with fasting and nonfasting triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). Pemafibrate, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator, robustly decreases the fasting TRL level, increases the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) level, and improves the atherogenic lipoprotein subclass profile, with an adverse event rate comparable to that of placebo treatment in previous clinical studies...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Adeeb Khalifeh, Rebecca Eckler, Laura Felder, Gabriele Saccone, Claudia Caissutti, Vincenzo Berghella
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) using the one-step as compared with the two-step approach. STUDY DESIGN: This was a parallel group nonblinded randomized trial conducted at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (TJUH) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from June 2016 to December 2016. The primary outcome was GDM incidence in the one-step compared to the two-approach. Pregnant women without a history of pregestational diabetes were offered screening for GDM at gestational age 24-28 weeks...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Tae Jin Song, Min Kyung Chu, Jong Hee Sohn, Hong Yup Ahn, Sun Hwa Lee, Soo Jin Cho
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The risk of vitamin D deficiency varies with the season. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency in migraine patients and its association with migraine are unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated first-visit migraine patients between January 2016 and May 2017, and investigated the demographics, season, migraine subtypes, frequency, severity, and impact of migraine, psychological and sleep variables, climate factors, and vitamin D levels...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Hang Su, Junling Tang, Xiaojing Ma, Xingxing He, Lingwen Ying, Yufei Wang, Yuqian Bao, Jian Zhou
In previous epidemiological screening in China, glycated albumin (GA) was mostly detected during the fasting state. This strict restriction causes some problems with diabetes screening. It is unclear if GA could help improve the efficiency of screening for diabetes for subjects who are not in the fasting state. The present study analyzed the differences between fasting and postload (30, 60, 120, and 180 min) GA levels. A total of 691 participants were enrolled in the present study. The Bland-Altman difference plots revealed that 95...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Viktoria Lindberg-Larsen, Henrik Kehlet, Jens Bagger, Sten Madsbad
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of a single preoperative dose of 125 mg methylprednisolone (MP) on glycemic homeostasis early after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty. METHODS: One-hundred thirty-four patients undergoing elective unilateral total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty were randomized (1:1) to preoperative intravenous MP 125 mg (group MP) or isotonic saline intravenous (group C). All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia, using a standardized multimodal analgesic regime...
October 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Rosemary A Stamm, Kaitlin M March, Crystal D Karakochuk, Andrew R Gray, Rachel C Brown, Tim J Green, Lisa A Houghton
Background: Consumption of high-dose folic acid supplements is common throughout pregnancy and lactation in several countries, including Canada, Brazil, and the United States, and may lead to high levels of circulating unmetabolized folic acid. Objective: The objective of the study was to characterize serum and whole-blood folate forms in Canadian lactating women regularly consuming a daily high-dose folic acid supplement. Methods: One-hundred and seventeen Canadian lactating women aged between 18 and 42 y, with a geometric mean ± SD prepregnancy body mass index (kg/m2) of 23...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Arianne N Sweeting, Jencia Wong, Heidi Appelblom, Glynis P Ross, Heikki Kouru, Paul F Williams, Mikko Sairanen, Jon A Hyett
INTRODUCTION: Accurate early risk prediction for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) would target intervention and prevention in women at the highest risk. We evaluated novel biomarker predictors to develop a first-trimester risk prediction model in a large multiethnic cohort. METHODS: Maternal clinical, aneuploidy and pre-eclampsia screening markers (PAPP-A, free hCGβ, mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index) were measured prospectively at 11-13+6 weeks' gestation in 980 women (248 with GDM; 732 controls)...
June 13, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Nayyer-Uz-Zaman, Muhammad Habeel Dar, Yasir Adnan, Lubna Noor, Gul Naz, Zahoor
Background & Objectives: Lipoprotein-A has been recognized as a risk factor for ischemic heart diseases. Myocardial infarction (MI) is common complication of ischemic heart disease. Diabetes play an incremental role in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), however still there are conflicting data regarding the relationship of Lipoprotein-B and MI. We therefore wanted to evaluate the relationship of Lipo-B, MI and diabetes mellitus. Our objective was to determine the non-fasting Apo-lipoprotein B and triglycerides level among type II diabetic patients with ischemic heart disease and to compare with type II diabetic without ischemic heart disease...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Feng Li, Ao Jiao, Xiaohang Li, Chengshuo Zhang, Ning Sun, Jialin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Islet grafts are transplanted into the liver via a portal vein in 90% of the clinical islet transplantations. However, the portal vein is far from being the ideal infusion site due to its unique drawbacks. These issues necessitated the exploration of an alternatively optimized site for clinical islet transplantation. With the widespread clinical application of percutaneous transhepatic puncture technique, we envisioned the possibility of islet transplantation into the hepatic sinus-tract (HST)...
May 22, 2018: Transplantation
Michel R Langlois, M John Chapman, Christa Cobbaert, Samia Mora, Alan T Remaley, Emilio Ros, Gerald F Watts, Jan Borén, Hannsjörg Baum, Eric Bruckert, Alberico Catapano, Olivier S Descamps, Arnold von Eckardstein, Pia R Kamstrup, Genovefa Kolovou, Florian Kronenberg, Anne Langsted, Kari Pulkki, Nader Rifai, Grazyna Sypniewska, Olov Wiklund, Børge G Nordestgaard
BACKGROUND: The European Atherosclerosis Society-European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Consensus Panel aims to provide recommendations to optimize atherogenic lipoprotein quantification for cardiovascular risk management. CONTENT: We critically examined LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and LDL particle number assays based on key criteria for medical application of biomarkers. ( a ) Analytical performance: Discordant LDL cholesterol quantification occurs when LDL cholesterol is measured or calculated with different assays, especially in patients with hypertriglyceridemia >175 mg/dL (2 mmol/L) and low LDL cholesterol concentrations <70 mg/dL (1...
July 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Michel P Hermans, Paul Valensi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to describe in diabetic patients the determinants underlying atherogenic dyslipidemia, a complex dyslipidemia defined as the coexistence of fasting hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Atherogenic dyslipidemia is often comorbid with hyperglycemia in patients with the common form of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), namely that associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and the metabolic syndrome phenotype...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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