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Ramon Margalef, Marc Sisquella, Marc Bosque, Clara Romeu, Orlando Mayoral, Sonia Monterde, Mercedes Priego, Rafael Guerra-Perez, Nicolau Ortiz, Josep Tomas, Manel M Santafe
Myofascial pain syndrome is one of the most common forms of muscle pain. In this syndrome pain is originated by the so-called trigger points, which consists of a set of palpable contraction knots in the muscle. It has been proposed that a high spontaneous neurotransmission may be involved in the generation of these contraction knots. To confirm this hypothesis, we exposed mouse muscles to an anticholinesterasic agent to increase the neurotransmision in the synaptic cleft in two different conditions, in vivo and ex vivo experiments...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Klara Junker, Gustavo Bravo Ruiz, Alexander Lorenz, Louise Walker, Neil A R Gow, Jürgen Wendland
Candida auris has recently emerged as a multi-drug resistant fungal pathogen that poses a serious global health threat, especially for patients in hospital intensive care units (ICUs). C. auris can colonize human skin and can spread by physical contact or contaminated surfaces and equipment. Here, we show that the mycoparasitic yeast Saccharomycopsis schoenii efficiently kills both sensitive and multi-drug resistant isolates of C. auris belonging to the same clade, as well as clinical isolates of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus suggesting novel approaches for biocontrol...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nancy A Chow, Lalitha Gade, Sharon V Tsay, Kaitlin Forsberg, Jane A Greenko, Karen L Southwick, Patricia M Barrett, Janna L Kerins, Shawn R Lockhart, Tom M Chiller, Anastasia P Litvintseva
BACKGROUND: Transmission of multidrug-resistant Candida auris infection has been reported in the USA. To better understand its emergence and transmission dynamics and to guide clinical and public health responses, we did a molecular epidemiological investigation of C auris cases in the USA. METHODS: In this molecular epidemiological survey, we used whole-genome sequencing to assess the genetic similarity between isolates collected from patients in ten US states (California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Oklahoma) and those identified in several other countries (Colombia, India, Japan, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea, and Venezuela)...
October 4, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
David W Eyre, Anna E Sheppard, Hilary Madder, Ian Moir, Ruth Moroney, T Phuong Quan, David Griffiths, Sophie George, Lisa Butcher, Marcus Morgan, Robert Newnham, Mary Sunderland, Tiphanie Clarke, Dona Foster, Peter Hoffman, Andrew M Borman, Elizabeth M Johnson, Ginny Moore, Colin S Brown, A Sarah Walker, Tim E A Peto, Derrick W Crook, Katie J M Jeffery
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is an emerging and multidrug-resistant pathogen. Here we report the epidemiology of a hospital outbreak of C. auris colonization and infection. METHODS: After identification of a cluster of C. auris infections in the neurosciences intensive care unit (ICU) of the Oxford University Hospitals, United Kingdom, we instituted an intensive patient and environmental screening program and package of interventions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of C...
October 4, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Adrian Galitz, Steve de C Cook, Merrick Ekins, John N A Hooper, Peter T Naumann, Nicole J de Voogd, Muhammad Abdul Wahab, Gert Wörheide, Dirk Erpenbeck
Correct identification and classification of sponges is challenging due to ambiguous or misleading morphological features. A particular case is a blue keratose sponge occasionally referred to as the "Blue Photo Sponge" among aquarists, which appears frequently (and in several cases unintended) in private aquaria. This spicule-less species, occasionally specified as Collospongia auris Bergquist, Cambie & Kernan 1990, not only displays a high phenotypic plasticity in growth form and colour, it also proliferates in aquacultures under standard conditions unlike most other sponges...
2018: PeerJ
Susan Mayor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Pretty Ponnachan, Vivek Vinod, Unnimaya Pullanhi, Parvathy Varma, Sanjeev Singh, Raja Biswas, Anil Kumar
Outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant Candida auris have emerged as a large threat to modern medicine. Since skin colonization and environmental contamination have been identified as a precursor for outbreaks, we evaluated the antifungal activity of ultraviolet-C light using mercury vapor lamp with a peak emission of 254±2 nm and octenidine dihydrochloride against C. auris clinical isolates. Octenidine dihydrochloride was found effective at significantly lower concentrations (0.00005-0.0004%) than those currently used in the clinical setting (0...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Camille Marchet, Lolita Lecompte, Corinne Da Silva, Corinne Cruaud, Jean-Marc Aury, Jacques Nicolas, Pierre Peterlongo
Long-read sequencing currently provides sequences of several thousand base pairs. It is therefore possible to obtain complete transcripts, offering an unprecedented vision of the cellular transcriptome. However the literature lacks tools for de novo clustering of such data, in particular for Oxford Nanopore Technologies reads, because of the inherent high error rate compared to short reads. Our goal is to process reads from whole transcriptome sequencing data accurately and without a reference genome in order to reliably group reads coming from the same gene...
September 27, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Hubertine M E Willems, David J Lowes, Katherine S Barker, Glen E Palmer, Brian M Peters
The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is the major etiological agent of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Despite this fact, other non- albicans Candida (NAC) species have frequently been reported as well. Despite their presence in the vaginal environment, little is known about their capacity to elicit immune responses classically associated with C. albicans -mediated immunopathology, including neutrophil recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling. Therefore, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we undertook a comparative analysis to determine whether a representative panel of NAC species could colonize, induce immunopathological markers, or cause damage at the vaginal mucosa...
September 24, 2018: Infection and Immunity
D Joseph Sexton, Milena Kordalewska, Meghan L Bentz, Rory M Welsh, David S Perlin, Anastasia P Litvintseva
The recent emergence of the multidrug-resistant and pathogenic yeast Candida auris continues to cause public health concern worldwide. C. auris is alarming because it causes healthcare-associated outbreaks and can establish invasive infections with high mortality rates. Transmission between patients is facilitated by the ability of C. auris to persistently colonize multiple body sites, including the skin, and survive for weeks on surfaces in healthcare settings. Rapid identification of colonized patients is needed to implement timely infection control measures...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Eleanor Adams, Monica Quinn, Sharon Tsay, Eugenie Poirot, Sudha Chaturvedi, Karen Southwick, Jane Greenko, Rafael Fernandez, Alex Kallen, Snigdha Vallabhaneni, Valerie Haley, Brad Hutton, Debra Blog, Emily Lutterloh, Howard Zucker
Candida auris is an emerging yeast that causes healthcare-associated infections. It can be misidentified by laboratories and often is resistant to antifungal medications. We describe an outbreak of C. auris infections in healthcare facilities in New York City, New York, USA. The investigation included laboratory surveillance, record reviews, site visits, contact tracing with cultures, and environmental sampling. We identified 51 clinical case-patients and 61 screening case-patients. Epidemiologic links indicated a large, interconnected web of affected healthcare facilities throughout New York City...
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alexander B Aria, Leon Chen, Auris O Huen
Bosutinib is a BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. We report a case of bosutinib-induced interstitial granulomatous drug reaction in a 50-year-old Caucasian female with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Histologic analysis of a punch biopsy showed diffuse interstitial granulomatous infiltrates consisting of histiocytes amid thickened collagen accompanied by eosinophils. Her lesions improved with clobetasol 0.05% cream. No cases describing BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated interstitial granulomatous drug reaction were found in a search of the literature...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
P Puerta-Alcalde, C Cardozo, A Soriano, C García-Vidal
We have clustered the published articles in fungal infection between 2016 and 2017 in four categories. First, the emergence of Candida auris as a nosocomial pathogen associated to high antifungal resistance and high mortality. Second, the growing importance of fungal infections associated to the use of biologic therapies. Third, the approval of isavuconazole for the treatment of filamentous fungi and dymorphic mycoses with positive results and less side effects. And finally, a mix of other important news regarding empiric therapy, fluconazole toxicity and difficult-to-treat fungal infections...
September 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Hassan O J Morad, Anna-Maria Wild, Stefan Wiehr, Genna Davies, Andreas Maurer, Bernd J Pichler, Christopher R Thornton
The human commensal yeast Candida is the fourth most common cause of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, with Candida albicans accounting for the majority of the >400,000 life-threatening infections annually. Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC), a disease encompassing candidemia (blood-borne yeast infection) and deep-seated organ infections, is a major challenge since clinical manifestations of the disease are indistinguishable from viral, bacterial and other fungal diseases, and diagnostic tests for biomarkers in the bloodstream such as PCR, ELISA, and pan-fungal β-D-glucan lack either standardization, sensitivity, or specificity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexander J Lepak, Miao Zhao, David R Andes
Rezafungin (CD101) is a novel echinocandin under development for once-weekly intravenous (IV) dosing. We evaluated the pharmacodynamics (PD) of rezafungin against four Candida auris strains using the neutropenic mouse invasive candidiasis model. AUC/MIC was a robust predictor of efficacy (R2 0.76). The stasis free-drug 24-h AUC/MIC target exposure for the group was 1.88; whereas the 1-log kill free-drug 24-h AUC/MIC target exposure was 5.77. These values are very similar to previous rezafungin PD studies with other Candida spp...
September 4, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sarah Taimur
Invasive candidiasis (IC) remains the most common invasive fungal infection following solid-organ transplant (SOT), but risk factors are evolving. Current challenges include infection due to drug resistant non-albicans and emerging novel species such as Candida auris. Preventive antifungal use in SOT needs to be re-examined in light of these current challenges. Cryptococcosis is the second most common IFI following SOT. Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging pathogen that can have reduced in-vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents...
September 2018: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Hassan E Eldesouky, Xiaoyan Li, Nader S Abutaleb, Haroon Mohammad, Mohamed N Seleem
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen that has been implicated in numerous outbreaks worldwide, with a notably high rate of mortality (∼60%). A significant challenge with treatment of these infections is C. auris is resistant to most antifungal drugs used clinically. Thus, finding co-drugs capable of overcoming resistance to frontline antifungal drugs is of prime clinical importance. Herein, we evaluated the ability of the combination of different sulfa drugs with azole antifungal drugs to inhibit the growth of azole-resistant C...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Tanu Singhal, Abhaya Kumar, Prashant Borade, Sweta Shah, Rajeev Soman
C. auris is an emerging fungal pathogen with high prevalence of resistance to current antifungal agents. Central nervous system infection with C. auris has been infrequently described. We describe here an adult with nosocomial CSF shunt infection due to multi drug resistant C. auris . Systemic therapy with echinocandin and flucytosine failed. Fortunately, administration of daily intraventricular caspofungin 10 mg for 10 days in conjunction with systemic voriconazole resulted in both clinical and microbiological cure...
December 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
Chad J Johnson, J Muse Davis, Anna Huttenlocher, John F Kernien, Jeniel E Nett
Candida auris has recently emerged as the first fungal pathogen to cause a global public health threat. The reason this species is causing hospital-associated outbreaks of invasive candidiasis with high mortality is unknown. In this study, we examine the interaction of C. auris with neutrophils, leukocytes critical for control of invasive fungal infections. We show that human neutrophils do not effectively kill C. auris Compared to Candida albicans , neutrophils poorly recruited to C. auris and failed to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are structures of DNA, histones, and proteins with antimicrobial activity...
August 21, 2018: MBio
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