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Klaas Dewaele, Johan Frans, Annick Smismans, Erwin Ho, Tim Tollens, Katrien Lagrou
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Candida auris is a relatively new yeast species and an emerging opportunistic pathogen. It was first reported in 2009 in East Asia, as a difficult-to-identify Candida species of uncertain clinical relevance. In recent years, it has appeared globally as a cause of invasive infections, not infrequently eliciting nosocomial outbreaks. Species identification in clinical laboratories has been challenging, as traditional phenotypic and biochemical methods have been generally unreliable...
December 4, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Hironobu Nishijima, Sayaka Suzuki, Kenji Kondo, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shintaro Yanagimoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Ilya Noginskiy, Abraham Samra, Kendra Nielsen, Madhumati R Kalavar
Multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell neoplasm, has a typical presenting pattern consisting of bone pain, renal failure, anemia, and/or hypercalcemia. Even though MM is a cancer that impairs the immune system, rarely is a systemic infection the first sign of disease. In this case report, our patient presented with altered mental status due to meningitis and was later diagnosed with MM. Furthermore, we display a case of a rare but emerging and serious fungus, Candida auris , that the patient developed during his inpatient stay...
September 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Huizhen Yue, Jian Bing, Qiushi Zheng, Yulong Zhang, Tianren Hu, Han Du, Hui Wang, Guanghua Huang
Morphological plasticity has historically been an indicator of increased virulence among fungal pathogens, allowing rapid adaptation to changing environments. Candida auris has been identified as an emerging multidrug-resistant human pathogen of global importance. Since the discovery of this species, it has been thought that C. auris is incapable of filamentous growth. Here, we report the discovery of filamentation and three distinct cell types in C. auris: typical yeast, filamentation-competent (FC) yeast, and filamentous cells...
November 28, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Maria Helena Mazzoni Baldini, Júlio César Câmara Rosa, Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Zalmir Silvino Cubas, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Wanderlei de Moraes, Marcos José de Oliveira, Daniel Angelo Felippi, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato, Aury Nunes de Moraes
Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (RBV) is a protected area of Itaipu Binacional, a hydroelectric power company located on the border of Brazil and Paraguay. A captive population of Brazilian dwarf brocket deer (Mazama nana, Cervidae, Artiodactyla) is maintained for conservation purposes. Despite the reproductive success of the animals, outbreaks of a fatal hemorrhagic disease have been registered over the years, compromising conservation efforts. In order to identify the etiological agents of these hemorrhagic diseases, 32 captive Brazilian dwarf brockets were sampled to investigate bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD), and adenovirus hemorrhagic disease (AHD), in 2015...
December 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Yosuke Takemoto, Yoshinobu Hirose, Kazuma Sugahara, Makoto Hashimoto, Hirotaka Hara, Hiroshi Yamashita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Federico Maria Gioacchini, Ettore Cassandro, Matteo Alicandri-Ciufelli, Shaniko Kaleci, Claudia Cassandro, Alfonso Scarpa, Massimo Re
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Guillermo Quindós
The landscape of invasive mycoses is in a continuous evolution with important implications for their diagnosis and treatment. The overall burden remains high, particularly in neonates and the elderly, patients admitted to intensive care units, using prostheses, catheters or other intravenous devices, those receiving different immunosuppressant treatments or antineoplastic chemotherapy, or transplant recipients. In addition, opportunistic mycoses can be associated with HIV infection. Many fungal infections are acquired by inhalation, direct contact or ingestion, but fungi can also enter into the bloodstream through needles or catheters...
November 19, 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Ferdinand Marlétaz, Panos N Firbas, Ignacio Maeso, Juan J Tena, Ozren Bogdanovic, Malcolm Perry, Christopher D R Wyatt, Elisa de la Calle-Mustienes, Stephanie Bertrand, Demian Burguera, Rafael D Acemel, Simon J van Heeringen, Silvia Naranjo, Carlos Herrera-Ubeda, Ksenia Skvortsova, Sandra Jimenez-Gancedo, Daniel Aldea, Yamile Marquez, Lorena Buono, Iryna Kozmikova, Jon Permanyer, Alexandra Louis, Beatriz Albuixech-Crespo, Yann Le Petillon, Anthony Leon, Lucie Subirana, Piotr J Balwierz, Paul Edward Duckett, Ensieh Farahani, Jean-Marc Aury, Sophie Mangenot, Patrick Wincker, Ricard Albalat, Èlia Benito-Gutiérrez, Cristian Cañestro, Filipe Castro, Salvatore D'Aniello, David E K Ferrier, Shengfeng Huang, Vincent Laudet, Gabriel A B Marais, Pierre Pontarotti, Michael Schubert, Hervé Seitz, Ildiko Somorjai, Tokiharu Takahashi, Olivier Mirabeau, Anlong Xu, Jr-Kai Yu, Piero Carninci, Juan Ramon Martinez-Morales, Hugues Roest Crollius, Zbynek Kozmik, Matthew T Weirauch, Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez, Ryan Lister, Boris Lenhard, Peter W H Holland, Hector Escriva, Jose Luis Gómez-Skarmeta, Manuel Irimia
Vertebrates have greatly elaborated the basic chordate body plan and evolved highly distinctive genomes that have been sculpted by two whole-genome duplications. Here we sequence the genome of the Mediterranean amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) and characterize DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility, histone modifications and transcriptomes across multiple developmental stages and adult tissues to investigate the evolution of the regulation of the chordate genome. Comparisons with vertebrates identify an intermediate stage in the evolution of differentially methylated enhancers, and a high conservation of gene expression and its cis-regulatory logic between amphioxus and vertebrates that occurs maximally at an earlier mid-embryonic phylotypic period...
November 21, 2018: Nature
Fabien Dutreux, Corinne Da Silva, Léo d'Agata, Arnaud Couloux, Elise J Gay, Benjamin Istace, Nicolas Lapalu, Arnaud Lemainque, Juliette Linglin, Benjamin Noel, Patrick Wincker, Corinne Cruaud, Thierry Rouxel, Marie-Hélène Balesdent, Jean-Marc Aury
Leptosphaeria maculans and Leptosphaeria biglobosa are ascomycete phytopathogens of Brassica napus (oilseed rape, canola). Here we report the complete sequence of three Leptosphaeria genomes (L. maculans JN3, L. maculans Nz-T4 and L. biglobosa G12-14). Nz-T4 and G12-14 genome assemblies were generated de novo and the reference JN3 genome assembly was improved using Oxford Nanopore MinION reads. The new assembly of L. biglobosa showed the existence of AT rich regions and pointed to a genome compartmentalization previously unsuspected following Illumina sequencing...
November 6, 2018: Scientific Data
Andrea Cortegiani, Giovanni Misseri, Teresa Fasciana, Anna Giammanco, Antonino Giarratano, Anuradha Chowdhary
Candida spp . infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Candida auris is an emerging multi-drug-resistant fungus that is rapidly spreading worldwide. Since the first reports in 2009, many isolates across five continents have been identified as agents of hospital-associated infections. Independent and simultaneous outbreaks of C. auris are becoming a major concern for healthcare and scientific community. Moreover, laboratory misidentification and multi-drug-resistant profiles, rarely observed for other non-albicans Candida species, result in difficult eradication and frequent therapeutic failures of C...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
Xin Hou, Annie Lee, Cristina Jiménez-Ortigosa, Milena Kordalewska, David S Perlin, Yanan Zhao
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that can cause serious invasive infections. Accurate and rapid assessment of antifungal resistance is important for effective patient management. A novel and highly accurate diagnostic platform was established for rapid identification of ERG11 mutations conferring azole resistance and FKS1 mutations associated with echinocandin resistance in C. auris Using allele-specific molecular beacons and DNA melting curve analysis following asymmetric PCR, a duplex ERG11 assay and a simplex FKS1 HS1 assay were developed to identify the most prominent resistance-associated mutations (Y132F and K143R in ERG11 ; S639F in FKS1 HS1) within 2 h...
November 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Caroline Belser, Benjamin Istace, Erwan Denis, Marion Dubarry, Franc-Christophe Baurens, Cyril Falentin, Mathieu Genete, Wahiba Berrabah, Anne-Marie Chèvre, Régine Delourme, Gwenaëlle Deniot, France Denoeud, Philippe Duffé, Stefan Engelen, Arnaud Lemainque, Maria Manzanares-Dauleux, Guillaume Martin, Jérôme Morice, Benjamin Noel, Xavier Vekemans, Angélique D'Hont, Mathieu Rousseau-Gueutin, Valérie Barbe, Corinne Cruaud, Patrick Wincker, Jean-Marc Aury
Plant genomes are often characterized by a high level of repetitiveness and polyploid nature. Consequently, creating genome assemblies for plant genomes is challenging. The introduction of short-read technologies 10 years ago substantially increased the number of available plant genomes. Generally, these assemblies are incomplete and fragmented, and only a few are at the chromosome scale. Recently, Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore sequencing technologies were commercialized that can sequence long DNA fragments (kilobases to megabase) and, using efficient algorithms, provide high-quality assemblies in terms of contiguity and completeness of repetitive regions1-4 ...
November 2018: Nature Plants
Zeinab Mamouei, Abdullah Alqarihi, Shakti Singh, Shuying Xu, Michael K Mansour, Ashraf S Ibrahim, Priya Uppuluri
Invasive fungal infections due to Candida albicans , Aspergillus fumigatus , and Cryptococcus neoformans constitute a substantial threat to hospitalized immunocompromised patients. Further, the presence of drug-recalcitrant biofilms on medical devices and emergence of drug-resistant fungi, such as Candida auris , introduce treatment challenges with current antifungal drugs. Worse, currently there is no approved drug capable of obviating preformed biofilms, which increase the chance of infection relapses. Here, we screened a small-molecule New Prestwick Chemical Library, consisting of 1,200 FDA-approved off-patent drugs against C...
October 31, 2018: MSphere
Alison M Day, Megan M McNiff, Alessandra da Silva Dantas, Neil A R Gow, Janet Quinn
Candida auris has recently emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen of humans. Comparative studies indicate that despite high levels of genetic divergence, C. auris is as virulent as the most pathogenic member of the genus, Candida albicans However, key virulence attributes of C. albicans , such as morphogenetic switching, are not utilized by C. auris , indicating that this emerging pathogen employs alternative strategies to infect and colonize the host. An important trait required for the pathogenicity of many fungal pathogens is the ability to adapt to host-imposed stresses encountered during infection...
October 24, 2018: MSphere
Nelesh P Govender, Rindidzani E Magobo, Ruth Mpembe, Mabatho Mhlanga, Phelly Matlapeng, Craig Corcoran, Chetna Govind, Warren Lowman, Marthinus Senekal, Juno Thomas
To determine the epidemiology of Candida auris in South Africa, we reviewed data from public- and private-sector diagnostic laboratories that reported confirmed and probable cases of invasive disease and colonization for October 2012-November 2016. We defined a case as a first isolation of C. auris from any specimen from a person of any age admitted to any healthcare facility in South Africa. We defined probable cases as cases where the diagnostic laboratory had used a nonconfirmatory biochemical identification method and C...
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sarah Farhat, Isabelle Florent, Benjamin Noel, Ehsan Kayal, Corinne Da Silva, Estelle Bigeard, Adriana Alberti, Karine Labadie, Erwan Corre, Jean-Marc Aury, Stephane Rombauts, Patrick Wincker, Laure Guillou, Betina M Porcel
Understanding factors that generate, maintain, and constrain host-parasite associations is of major interest to biologists. Although little studied, many extremely virulent micro-eukaryotic parasites infecting microalgae have been reported in the marine plankton. This is the case for Amoebophrya , a diverse and highly widespread group of Syndiniales infecting and potentially controlling dinoflagellate populations. Here, we analyzed the time-scale gene expression of a complete infection cycle of two Amoebophrya strains infecting the same host (the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella acuminata ), but diverging by their host range (one infecting a single host, the other infecting more than one species)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Meghan L Bentz, D Joseph Sexton, Rory M Welsh, Anastasia P Litvintseva
Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant yeast that can spread rapidly in healthcare settings. Phenotypic switching has been observed in other Candida species and can potentially interfere with correct identification. The aim of this study is to address misidentification of C. auris by describing alternate phenotypes after broth enrichment and subculturing on CHROMagar Candida. Each isolate displayed different frequencies of phenotypic switching, suggesting a strain to strain variability. Increased knowledge of the multiple phenotypes of C...
October 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Jaroslava Dekkerová, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Helena Bujdáková
Fungal biofilm has remained a serious medical problem that complicates treatment of mycoses. In particular, once biofilms are formed, they display high levels of resistance against most common antifungals. Candida auris is currently considered as a serious emerging fungal pathogen frequently exhibiting high levels of resistance to antifungals. Recent studies have confirmed that C. auris shares similarity with Candida albicans in regards to virulence-associated proteins involved in adherence and biofilm development...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ramon Margalef, Marc Sisquella, Marc Bosque, Clara Romeu, Orlando Mayoral, Sonia Monterde, Mercedes Priego, Rafael Guerra-Perez, Nicolau Ortiz, Josep Tomas, Manel M Santafe
Myofascial pain syndrome is one of the most common forms of muscle pain. In this syndrome pain is originated by the so-called trigger points, which consists of a set of palpable contraction knots in the muscle. It has been proposed that a high spontaneous neurotransmission may be involved in the generation of these contraction knots. To confirm this hypothesis, we exposed mouse muscles to an anticholinesterasic agent to increase the neurotransmision in the synaptic cleft in two different conditions, in vivo and ex vivo experiments...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
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