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tuberculosis in bronchiectasis

Violaine Dubois, Laura Laencina, Anouchka Bories, Vincent Le Moigne, Alexandre Pawlik, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Fabienne Girard-Misguich
What differentiates Mycobacterium abscessus from other saprophytic mycobacteria is the ability to resist phagocytosis by human macrophages and the ability to multiply inside such cells. These virulence traits render M. abscessus pathogenic, especially in vulnerable hosts with underlying structural lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis or tuberculosis. How patients become infected with M. abscessus remains unclear. Unlike many mycobacteria, M. abscessus is not found in the environment but might reside inside amoebae, environmental phagocytes that represent a potential reservoir for M...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lakshmi Saladi, Bushra Zaidi, Omesh Toolsie, Trupti Vakde, Muhammad Adrish
RATIONALE: Concurrent or sequential coinfections of Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae have been reported in the past though infrequently. Distinguishing a true co-infection from cross reactivity is often challenging as the diagnosis is mostly dependent on serological testing. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 77-year-old male presented with worsening dyspnea, cough with yellow sputum, diarrhea and fever of 2-days duration. Patient had history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on home oxygen, bronchiectasis, rheumatoid arthritis (on methotrexate and leflunomide), treated pulmonary tuberculosis and 30-pack-year smoking...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Guang-Dong Lu, Jin-Xing Zhang, Chun-Gao Zhou, Jin-Guo Xia, Sheng Liu, Qing-Quan Zu, Hai-Bin Shi
Background Previous studies suggest that recurrence of hemoptysis after arterial embolization is associated with the underlying pulmonary disease. Purpose To compare the baseline information and imaging findings in patients with hemoptysis due to either chronic pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) or bronchiectasis and to identify predictors of rebleeding after embolization treatment. Material and Methods Clinical data of all consecutive chronic PTB and bronchiectasis patients who underwent arterial embolization for hemoptysis from January 2010 to January 2017 in a single center were reviewed...
October 3, 2018: Acta Radiologica
F Méchaï, C Fock-Yee, D Bouvry, A Raffetin, O Bouchaud, M Brauner, P Y Brillet
OBJECTIVES: To describe the residual broncho-pulmonary lesions and evaluate the role of CT scanning at the end of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of the initial and end of treatment CT scans of 56 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis according to a reading grid including parenchymatous and airways lesions. The CT data at the end of treatment were analysed in relation to the clinical and microbiological data, and the original CT scan...
September 17, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Ting Luo, Hui Zhou, Jie Meng
BACKGROUND: Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) consists of benign lesions of tracheal and bronchial mucosa with multiple nodular hyperplasia of bone or cartilage protruding into the lumen. METHODS: We diagnosed 73 subjects with TO with the use of bronchoscopy in the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of Xiangya Hospital between January 2000 and April 2017. Clinical manifestations, radiographic characteristics, bronchoscopic manifestations, histopathological findings, and treatments were analyzed retrospectively...
September 4, 2018: Respiratory Care
Ubaid Feroze Seedat, Faheem Seedat
Haemoptysis is concerning for both patient and healthcare provider and points to the presence of severe underlying lung disease warranting investigation. Approximately 8% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) infection will experience haemoptysis at some point during their life [1;2] . The aetiology of haemoptysis in the setting of PTB is diverse and may occur during active or following prior PTB infection due to pulmonary complications. We describe the case of a 33-year-old female who presented with massive haemoptysis on two separate occasions within a five-month period...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Annette Ilg, Ari Moskowitz, Varun Konanki, Parth V Patel, Maureen Chase, Anne V Grossestreuer, Michael W Donnino
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Confusion, uremia, elevated respiratory rate, hypotension, and aged 65 years or older (CURB-65) is a clinical prediction rule intended to stratify patients with pneumonia by expected mortality. We assess the predictive performance of CURB-65 for the proximal endpoint of receipt of critical care intervention in emergency department (ED) patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of electronic health records from a single tertiary center for ED patients admitted as inpatients with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia from 2010 to 2014...
August 2, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Sanne C van Kampen, Amanda Wanner, Miles Edwards, Anthony D Harries, Bruce J Kirenga, Jeremiah Chakaya, Rupert Jones
Introduction: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an important risk factor for chronic respiratory disease due to residual lung damage. Yet, the WHO End TB strategy does not mention post-TB chronic lung disorders (PTBLDs) and programmatic interventions to address PTBLD are lacking. This study assessed the scope of current guidelines and evidence on PTBLD to inform policy and research action. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Wei Li, Amira Yazidi, Amitkumar N Pandya, Pooja Hegde, Weiwei Tong, Vinicius Calado Nogueira de Moura, E Jeffrey North, Jurgen Sygusch, Mary Jackson
Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary infections are emerging as a global health problem and pose a threat to susceptible individuals with structural or functional lung conditions such as cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC) species account for 70-95% of the pulmonary NTM infections worldwide. Treatment options for these pathogens are limited, involve lengthy multidrug regimens of 12-18 months with parenteral and oral drugs, and their outcome is often suboptimal...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Leah N Githinji, Diane M Gray, Heather J Zar
Background: The advent of antiretroviral therapy has led to the improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children to adulthood and to HIV becoming a chronic disease in older children and adolescents. Chronic lung disease is common among HIV-infected adolescents. Lung function measurement may help to delineate the spectrum, pathophysiology and guide therapy for HIV-related chronic lung disease. Aim: The aim of this study was to review the available data on the spectrum and determinants of lung function abnormalities and the impact of antiretroviral therapy on lung function in perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents...
2018: Pneumonia
Ji Won Lee, Hyae Young Kim, Jin Mo Goo, Eun Young Kim, Soo Jung Lee, Tae Jung Kim, Yeol Kim, Juntae Lim
Objective: To report the radiological results of a pilot study for the Korean Lung Cancer Screening project conducted to evaluate the feasibility of lung cancer screening using low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCT) in Korea. Materials and Methods: The National Cancer Center and three regional cancer centers participated in this study. Asymptomatic current or ex-smokers aged 55-74 years with a smoking history of at least 30 pack-years who had used tobacco within the last 15 years were considered eligible...
July 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Maiara Dos Santos Carneiro, Luciana de Souza Nunes, Simone Maria Martini De David, Claudia Fontoura Dias, Afonso Luís Barth, Gisela Unis
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. In Brazil, there are few studies about nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD), and its prevalence is yet to be known. Our objective was to determine the specific etiology of the disease in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as well as the frequency and diversity of NTM species in our sample of patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients diagnosed with NTMLD treated in a referral center located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between 2003 and 2013...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Hong Wang, Xiao-Bin Ji, Cheng-Wei Li, Hai-Wen Lu, Bei Mao, Shuo Liang, Ke-Bin Cheng, Jiu-Wu Bai, Miguel Angel Martinez-Garcia, Jin-Fu Xu
INTRODUCTION: Lung damage related to tuberculosis is a major contributor to the etiology of bronchiectasis in China. It is unknown whether bronchiectasis severity score systems are applicable in these cases. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and validation of bronchiectasis severity score systems for post-tuberculosis bronchiectasis. METHODS: The study enrolled 596 bronchiectasis patients in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2011 and December 2012...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Ravishankar Chandrasekaran, Micheál Mac Aogáin, James D Chalmers, Stuart J Elborn, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Bronchiectasis is a disease associated with chronic progressive and irreversible dilatation of the bronchi and is characterised by chronic infection and associated inflammation. The prevalence of bronchiectasis is age-related and there is some geographical variation in incidence, prevalence and clinical features. Most bronchiectasis is reported to be idiopathic however post-infectious aetiologies dominate across Asia especially secondary to tuberculosis. Most focus to date has been on the study of airway bacteria, both as colonisers and causes of exacerbations...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
So Hyeon Bak, Soohyun Kim, Yoonki Hong, Jeongwon Heo, Myoung-Nam Lim, Woo Jin Kim
Background: Few studies have investigated the quantitative computed tomography (CT) features associated with the severity of bronchiectasis in COPD patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the quantitative CT features and clinical values to determine the extent of bronchiectasis in moderate-to-severe COPD patients. Methods: A total of 127 moderate-to-severe COPD patients were selected from the cohort of COPD in Dusty Areas (CODA). The study subjects were classified into three groups according to the extent of bronchiectasis on CT: no bronchiectasis, mild bronchiectasis, and moderate-to-severe bronchiectasis...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Fernanda Guioti Puga, Renata Helena Candido Pocente, Erica Chimara, Valdes Roberto Bollela
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been identified with increasing frequency in the clinical practice. The aim of this study was to characterize NTM isolates in respiratory specimens from patients with pulmonary disease and to correlate this with clinical/radiological findings, decision to start treatment and outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed and included all patients who had at least one NTM isolated in respiratory specimens between 2011 and 2014...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Yì Xiáng J Wáng, Myung Jin Chung, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Alex Rosenthal, Andrei Gabrielian, Michael Tartakovsky
Background: Despite that confirmative diagnosis of pulmonary drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is determined by microbiological testing, early suspicions of MDR-TB by chest imaging are highly desirable in order to guide diagnostic process. We aim to perform an analysis of currently available literatures on radiological signs associated with pulmonary MDR-TB. Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed on January 29, 2018...
March 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Rahul Chanderhas Goyal, Ruchita Tyagi, Bhavna Garg, Atul Mishra, Neena Sood
Echinococcosis is a common cause of pulmonary cavities. Aspergillus fumigatus, a saprophytic fungus, can colonise pulmonary cavities caused by tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, echinococcosis, bronchiectasis and neoplasms. Infection by Aspergillus is often seen in immunosuppressed cases. However, co-infection of Aspergillus with pulmonary echinococcosis is unexpected and very unusual, especially in an immunocompetent patient. We present the case of a 45-year-old immunocompetent male who came with non-resolving pneumonia and fever for 8 months and dyspnoea since 15 days accompanied by recurrent episodes of hemoptysis since 5 days...
April 9, 2018: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
Ozlem Satırer, Ayse Mete Yesil, Nagehan Emiralioglu, Gökcen Dilsa Tugcu, Ebru Yalcın, Deniz Dogru, Nural Kiper, Ugur Ozcelik
INTRODUCTION: Non-cystic fibrosis(CF) bronchiectasis has been recognized in children for the past 200 years. Early childhood pneumonia and underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency, primary ciliary dyskinesia(PCD), and congenital lung pathology should be considered in the etiology. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory, and radiological findings of a large population of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis at a tertiary center. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical findings of 187 patients diagnosed with non-CF bronchiectasis over a period of 10 years (January 2005-December 2015) at the Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Pulmonology...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
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