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Hajer Dahmani, Kaouthar Louati, Adel Hajri, Senda Bahri, Fathi Safta
Several studies have highlighted that nutritional supplements may contain undeclared anabolic steroids that are banned by the International Olympic Committee/World Anti-Doping Agency. Any kind of abuse with these drugs is extremely dangerous because of their side effects. Thus, the control of food additives in order to protect the best consumer health and to limit fraudulent practices in the field of sports is essential. This paper describes a simple and effective qualitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to detect anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): androsterone, nandrolene, dehydroepiandrosterone, 5ɑ-androstane-3β, 17β-diol, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, methenolone acetate, methandienone, boldenone and fluoxymesterone, in food supplements...
August 14, 2018: Steroids
Md Nadim Ferdous Hoque, Rui He, Juliusz Warzywoda, Zhaoyang Fan
Due to the polycrystalline nature, grain boundaries (GBs) in hybrid perovskite thin films play critical roles in determining the charge collection efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), material stability and in particular the ion migration, considering its relatively soft ionic bonds with a low formation energy. Different GB passivation methods are being studied, and introducing PbI2-rich phase at GBs in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) has been found to be useful. In this study, combining macroscale measurements with tip based microscopic probing that includes scanning Kelvin probe microscopy for surface potential mapping and conductive atomic force microscopy for charge transport mapping, we revealed the effects of PbI2-rich phase at GBs, which was introduced in moisture-assisted synthesis of MAPbI3 thin films...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hua-Neng Xu, Ying-Hao Li, Lianfu Zhang
Understanding the adsorption and organization of nanocelluloses at oil/interfaces is crucial to develop a promising route to fabricate functional materials from the bottom-up. Here we prepare acetylated cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with two degrees of substitution and investigate their assembly behavior at the oil/water interface. We study the adsorption process by tracking the dynamic interfacial tension using pendant drop tensiometry, and further characterize the viscoelasticity of the CNF interfacial films as a function of ionic strength...
August 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sanyin Qu, Qin Yao, Bingxue Yu, Kaiyang Zeng, Wei Shi, Yanling Chen, Lidong Chen
Poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films with various molecular weight (MW) were successfully prepared and both of their molecular structure and thermoelectric (TE) properties were investigated. It was found that molecular weight of P3HT can take important effect on the carrier transport properties by affecting the molecular structure and as a result, on the TE performance. The electrical conductivity of the P3HT film first increased with the increase of the molecular weight and then decreased at high molecular weight, whereas the Seebeck coefficient maintained the same level...
August 14, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Jae-Gyeong Kim, Ji-Eun Lee, Sung Min Jo, Byung Doo Chin, Ju-Yeoul Baek, Kyung-Jun Ahn, Seong Jun Kang, Han-Ki Kim
We fabricated W-doped In2 O3 (IWO) films at room temperature on a flexible PET substrate using an in-line arc plasma ion plating system for application as flexible transparent conducting electrodes (FTCEs) in flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and quantum dots light emitting diodes (QDLEDs). Due to the high-energy flux of the sublimated ions generated from the plasma region, the IWO films showed a well-developed crystalline structure with a low sheet resistance of 36.39 Ohm/square and an optical transmittance of 94...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jing Peng, Tao He, Yulian Sun, Yawen Liu, Qianqian Cao, Qiong Wang, Hao Tang
A method is described for the determination of microRNA. It is based on the use of organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) fabricated on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate. A gold electrode was modified with gold nanoparticles to immobilize the capture DNA probe and then served as the gate of the device. The detection of microRNA21 was realized by monitoring the change of the drain-source current after hybridization of capture DNA with microRNA21. Under optimal conditions, this biosensor exhibits good sensitivity and specificity...
August 10, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
James Kerfoot, Vladimir V Korolkov, Anton S Nizovtsev, Ryan Jones, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Igor Lesanovsky, Beatriz Olmos, Nicholas A Besley, Elena Besley, Peter H Beton
We have investigated the influence of the substrate on the fluorescence of adsorbed organic molecules. Monolayer films of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-diimide (PTCDI), a supramolecular network formed from PTCDI and melamine, and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride have been deposited on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). The principal peaks in the fluorescence spectra of these films were red-shifted by up to 0.37 eV relative to published measurements for molecules in helium droplets...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yutaka Sugihara, Daniel Rivas, Johan Malm, Marcell Szasz, HoJeong Kwon, Bo Baldetorp, Håkan Olsson, Christian Ingvar, Melinda Rezeli, Thomas E Fehniger, György Marko-Varga
BACKGROUND: Currently, only a limited number of molecular biomarkers for malignant melanoma exist. This is the case for both diagnosing the disease, staging, and efficiently measuring the response to therapy by tracing the progression of disease development and drug impact. There is a great need to identify novel landmarks of disease progression and alterations. METHODS: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has been developed within our group to study drug localisation within micro-environmental tissue compartments...
August 6, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Mathieu Gaborit, Olivier Dazel, Peter Göransson
A generalization of the commonly used pressure jump modeling of thin porous layers is proposed. The starting point is a transfer matrix model of the layer derived using matrix exponentials. First order expansions of the propagating terms lead to a linear approximation of the associated phenomena and the resulting matrix is further simplified based on physical assumptions. As a consequence, the equivalent fluid parameters used in the model may be reduced to simpler expressions and the transfer matrix rendered sparser...
July 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Yue Lai, Xiao Kuang, Ping Zhu, Miaoming Huang, Xia Dong, Dujin Wang
Robust self-healing thermoplastic elastomers are expected to have repeated healing capability, remarkable mechanical properties, transparency, and superior toughness. The phase-locked design in this work provides excellent tensile mechanical properties and efficient healability at a moderate temperature due to the dynamic disulfide bonds embedded in the hard segments and mainly being locked in the viscoelastic hard microphase region. The self-healing elastomers exhibit a maximum tensile stress of 25 MPa and a fracture strain of over 1600%, which are quite prominent compared to previous reports...
August 2, 2018: Advanced Materials
Sabine M Neumayer, Anton V Ievlev, Liam Collins, Rama Vasudevan, Mohammad A Baghban, Olga Ovchinnikova, Stephen Jesse, Katia Gallo, Brian J Rodriguez, Sergei V Kalinin
Polarization switching in ferroelectric materials underpins a multitude of applications ranging from nonvolatile memories to data storage to ferroelectric lithography. While traditionally considered to be a functionality of the material only, basic theoretical considerations suggest that switching is expected to be intrinsically linked to changes in the electrochemical state of the surface. Hence, the properties and dynamics of the screening charges can affect or control the switching dynamics. Despite being recognized for over 50 years, analysis of these phenomena remained largely speculative...
August 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Evan Silverstein, Sean P Donahue
PURPOSE: To discuss the evolution of instrument-based screening to detect amblyopia and its risk factors, and to summarize the importance of preschool vision screening. DESIGN: Expert commentary. METHODS: Author experiences were supplemented by a review and interpretation of pertinent medical literature. RESULTS: Amblyopia remains a public health problem as it is a common cause of monocular visual impairment. As a disease, amblyopia detection is best obtained by appropriate vision screening rather than by yearly mandated comprehensive eye examinations for all children; the US Preventative Services Task Force recently reaffirmed their recommendations for vision screening in pre-school children...
July 27, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Nathan T Hahn, Trevor Seguin, Ka-Cheong Lau, Chen Liao, Brian J Ingram, Kristin Persson, Kevin R Zavadil
Future energy applications rely on our ability to tune liquid intermolecular interactions and achieve designer electrolytes with highly optimized properties. In this work, we demonstrate rational, combined experimental-computational design of a new carba-closo-dodecaborate based salt with enhanced anodic stability for Mg energy storage applications. We first establish, through a careful examination using a range of solvents, the anodic oxidation of a parent anion; the carba-closo-dodecaborate anion at 4.6 V vs Mg0/2+ (2...
July 30, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Carolina Rodríguez Vásquez, Sebastián Barrera Escobar, Alberto Tobón-Castaño
Background: A screening for malaria parasites was conducted with asymptomatic residents in Colombia. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in December 2012 in four municipalities of Urabá region in Colombia. A convenience sample of 400 subjects was selected. Participants responded to a survey regarding epidemiological data and blood samples were taken from capillary blood obtained by finger prick for thick smear, rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Ana Cláudia Raposo, Ricardo Dias Portela, Ali Masmali, Vinicius Cardoso-Brito, Marcos Bernardo, Dayse Cury Oliveira, Arianne Pontes Oriá
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the composition and characteristics of capuchin monkey (CM) tear film. METHODS: Eleven CM (Sapajus sp.) was evaluated. Strip meniscometry test (SMT), osmolarity, and tear ferning test (TFT) (by Rolando and Masmali scales) were assessed. Tear protein profile (SDS-PAGE), and total protein, albumin, urea, glucose, and cholesterol levels in tear film and blood serum were screened. RESULTS: Median ± semi-interquatil range for SMT and osmolarity values were 8...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Muhammad Azhar Hayat Nawaz, Marjan Majdinasab, Usman Latif, Muhammad Nasir, Gultekin Gokce, Muhammad Waqas Anwar, Akhtar Hayat
In this study, a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor was fabricated by using a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) for detecting cholesterol. MWCNTs were functionalized with benzoic acid moiety by employing diazonium salt chemistry, and, subsequently, a thin film of functionalized CNTs were coated on the surface of SPCE. Afterwards, β-CD was immobilized on functionalized MWCNTs modified SPCE which acts as a host to recognize guest (cholesterol) molecule specifically...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Nikolaos Naziris, Natassa Pippa, Dimitris Stellas, Varvara Chrysostomou, Stergios Pispas, Costas Demetzos, Marcin Libera, Barbara Trzebicka
Chimeric/mixed stimuli-responsive nanocarriers are promising agents for therapeutic and diagnostic applications, as well as in the combinatorial field of theranostics. Herein, we designed chimeric nanosystems, composed of natural phospholipid and pH-sensitive amphiphilic diblock copolymer, in different molar ratios and assessed the polymer lyotropic effect on their properties. Initially, polymer-grafted bilayers were evaluated for their thermotropic behavior by thermal analysis. Chimeric liposomes were prepared through thin-film hydration and the obtained vesicles were studied by light scattering techniques, to measure their physicochemical characteristics and colloidal stability, as well as by imaging techniques, to elucidate their global and membrane morphology...
July 20, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Pensak Jantrawut, Kasidech Boonsermsukcharoen, Kanyanut Thipnan, Tanpong Chaiwarit, Kyu-Mok Hwang, Eun-Seok Park
The purpose of this study was to prepare orange oil microemulsion (ME) and to investigate the antimicrobial activity of film containing orange oil ME. First, surfactants and co-surfactants were screened on their efficiency to form ME using pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. The influences of surfactant and co-surfactant mass ratios were studied and optimized ME-loaded-films were prepared. Then, films containing orange oil ME were characterized by SEM and texture analyzer, and then evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes using an agar disc diffusion method...
July 19, 2018: Nanomaterials
Dhrubojyoti Mukherjee, Bharath Srinivasan, J Anbu, Md Azamthulla, B Venkatesh Teja, S G Ramachandra
OBJECTIVE: In the present study we investigated the potential of thiolated chitosan-based mucoadhesive film, loaded with risedronate sodium in the treatment of osteoporosis. SIGNIFICANCE: Risedronate sodium is a bisphosphonate derivative having very low bioavailability when administered through the oral route. Moreover, the adverse effects associated with the drug when administered through GIT necessitate an alternative and feasible route which can improve its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy...
July 20, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Marcia Reinhart, Lauren M Scarpati, Noam Y Kirson, Cody Patton, Nina Shak, Jennifer G Erensen
BACKGROUND: Abuse of prescription opioids [opioid use disorder (OUD), poisoning, and fatal and non-fatal overdose] is a public health and economic challenge that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in the USA and globally. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and summarize the health economics literature published over the last 5 years that describes the economic burden of abuse of prescription opioids. METHODS: Findings from searches of databases including MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL as well as hand searches of multiple conference abstracts were screened against predefined inclusion criteria to identify studies reporting cost and healthcare resource utilization (HRU) data associated with abuse of prescription opioids...
July 20, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
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