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infectious and non-infectious

H X Shi, J Z Wu, G B Chen, B Z Zhu, W Y Yan, L Chen, Y J Xiao, L Y Zhang
Objective: To assess the effectiveness in optimizing resources and shortening critical children's waiting time in pediatric emergency department (PED) with five-level pediatric emergency triage system (PETS). Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University after PETS was applied. The data of patients who visited the pediatric emergency department from January 2015 to December 2017 were collected and analyzed, including age, sex, diseases, visiting time, triage rate and destination...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Gustavo Rosa Gameiro, Viktor Sinkunas, Gabriel Romero Liguori, José Otavio Costa Auler-Júnior
Health care has changed since the decline in mortality caused by infectious diseases as well as chronic and non-contagious diseases, with a direct impact on the cost of public health and individual health care. We must now transition from traditional reactive medicine based on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment to a system that targets the disease before it occurs and, if it cannot be avoided, treats the disease in a personalized manner. Precision Medicine is that new way of thinking about medicine. In this paper, we performed a thorough review of the literature to present an updated review on the subject, discussing the impact of the use of genetics and genomics in the care process as well as medical education, clinical research and ethical issues...
December 3, 2018: Clinics
Stamatis Karakonstantis, Niki Gryllou, George Papazoglou, Charalampos Lydakis
INTRODUCTION: Eosinopenia has been previously investigated as a marker to differentiate infectious from non-infectious diagnoses and as a prognostic marker. Most previous studies were conducted in intensive care unit patients. Our study focuses on the value of eosinopenia in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine department. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 271 consecutive patients with infection and 31 patients presenting with fever or inflammatory syndrome and a non-infectious diagnosis...
November 1, 2018: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
J P Haran, E Wilsterman, T Zeoli, M Goulding, E McLendon, M A Clark
The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) publishes guidelines regularly for the management of skin and soft tissue infections; however, the extent to which practice patterns follow these guidelines and if this can affect treatment failure rates is unknown. We observed the treatment failure rates from a multicentre retrospective ambulatory cohort of adult emergency department patients treated for a non-purulent skin infection. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the role of IDSA classification and whether adherence to IDSA guidelines reduced treatment failure...
December 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Erik Tenland, Nitya Krishnan, Anna Rönnholm, Sadaf Kalsum, Manoj Puthia, Matthias Mörgelin, Mina Davoudi, Magdalena Otrocka, Nader Alaridah, Izabela Glegola-Madejska, Erik Sturegård, Artur Schmidtchen, Maria Lerm, Brian D Robertson, Gabriela Godaly
Tuberculosis has been reaffirmed as the infectious disease causing most deaths in the world. Co-infection with HIV and the increase in multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains complicate treatment and increases mortality rates, making the development of new drugs an urgent priority. In this study we have identified a promising candidate by screening antimicrobial peptides for their capacity to inhibit mycobacterial growth. This non-toxic peptide, NZX, is capable of inhibiting both clinical strains of M...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Hari Krishna Ananthula, Scott Parker, Erin Touchette, R Mark Buller, Gopi Patel, Daniel Kalman, Johanna S Salzer, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Victoria Olson, Inger K Damon, Tessa Moir-Savitz, Larry Sallans, Milton H Werner, Catherine M Sherwin, Pankaj B Desai
BACKGROUND: Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) developed as anti-cancer drugs, also have anti-viral activity due to their ability to disrupt productive replication and dissemination in infected cells. Consequently, such drugs are attractive candidates for "repurposing" as anti-viral agents. However, clinical evaluation of therapeutics against infectious agents associated with high mortality, but low or infrequent incidence, is often unfeasible. The United States Food and Drug Administration formulated the "Animal Rule" to facilitate use of validated animal models for conducting anti-viral efficacy studies...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Lara Goscé, Anders Johansson
BACKGROUND: The transmission of infectious diseases is dependent on the amount and nature of contacts between infectious and healthy individuals. Confined and crowded environments that people visit in their day-to-day life (such as town squares, business districts, transport hubs, etc) can act as hot-spots for spreading disease. In this study we explore the link between the use of public transport and the spread of airborne infections in urban environments. METHODS: We study a large number of journeys on the London Underground, which is known to be particularly crowded at certain times...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Xiujuan Zhao, Lin Wang, Qinghua Cui, Ping Li, Yanyan Wang, Yingying Zhang, Yong Yang, Lijun Rong, Ruikun Du
Influenza A viruses (IAV) carrying reporter genes provide a powerful tool to study viral infection and pathogenesis in vivo, however, incorporating a non-essential gene into the IAV genome often results in virus attenuation and genetic instability. Very few studies have systematically compared different reporter IAVs, and most optimization attempts seem to lack authentic directions. In this study, we evaluated the ratio of genome copies to the number of infectious unit of two reporter IAVs, PR8-NS1-Gluc and PR8-PB2-Gluc...
November 30, 2018: Viruses
A Moise, P Nervo, J Doyen, F Kridelka, J Maquet, G Vandenbossche
Acute genital ulcers are painful and distressing to women. Lipchutz Ulcer is an uncommon disease that typically occurs in sexually inactive young women. The main differential diagnosis are sexually-transmitted or non-infectious diseases which cause genital or oro-genital ulcerations. This article aims to review the diagnosis of acute genital ulcers and, through a rare case of acute genital ulcerations, to discuss diagnostic procedures.
March 2018: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Manuel Rojas, Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Diana M Monsalve, Yovana Pacheco, Yeny Acosta-Ampudia, Carolina Ramírez-Santana, Patrick S C Leung, Aftab A Ansari, M Eric Gershwin, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Molecular mimicry is one of the leading mechanisms by which infectious or chemical agents may induce autoimmunity. It occurs when similarities between foreign and self-peptides favor an activation of autoreactive T or B cells by a foreign-derived antigen in a susceptible individual. However, molecular mimicry is unlikely to be the only underlying mechanism for autoimmune responses; other factors such as breach in central tolerance, non-specific bystander activation, or persistent antigenic stimuli (amongst others) may also contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases...
December 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Anna Karolina Matczuk, Małgorzata Skarbek, Natalia Anna Jackulak, Barbara Anna Bażanów
BACKGROUND: Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is one of the main infectious causative agents of abortion in mares and can also be associated with stillbirth, neonatal foal death, rhinopneumonitis in young horses and a neurological disorder called equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). The neuropathogenicity of the virus was shown to be significantly higher in EHV-1 strains that carry a single nucleotide point (SNP) mutation in the ORF30, which encodes a catalytic subunit of viral DNA polymerase (ORF30 D752 )...
December 3, 2018: Virology Journal
Shuai Han, Wei-Ping Wu, Kai Chen, Israyil Osman, Kaisar Kiyim, Jun Zhao, Yan-Yan Hou, Ying Wang, Li-Ying Wang, Can-Jun Zheng
BACKGROUND: Leishmania parasites cause visceral leishmaniasis (VL), an important infectious disease that is endemic to large parts of the world and often leads to epidemics. Sand flies are the primary transmission vector for the parasite in endemic regions. We hypothesized that sheep might serve as an overlooked reservoir for Leishmania transmission to humans due to the asymptomatic nature of infection in many species. As a preliminary test of this hypothesis, the aim of the present study was to investigate sheep in an area of China that is endemic for the desert sub-type of zoonotic VL and establish if they are potential carriers of Leishmania...
December 3, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Teegwendé V Porgo, Susan L Norris, Georgia Salanti, Leigh F Johnson, Julie A Simpson, Nicola Low, Matthias Egger, Christian L Althaus
Mathematical modelling studies are increasingly recognised as an important tool for evidence synthesis and to inform clinical and public health decision-making, particularly when data from systematic reviews of primary studies do not adequately answer a research question. However, systematic reviewers and guideline developers may struggle with using the results of modelling studies, due at least in part to the lack of a common understanding of concepts and terminology between evidence synthesis experts and mathematical modellers...
December 3, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
Erin M Burns, Hana Ahmed, Prescilia N Isedeh, Indermeet Kohli, William Van Der Pol, Abdullah Shaheen, Anum F Muzaffar, Camli Al-Sadek, Thompson M Foy, Mohammad S Abdelgawwad, Sumeira Huda, Henry W Lim, Iltefat Hamzavi, Sejong Bae, Casey D Morrow, Craig A Elmets, Nabiha Yusuf
BACKGROUND: Studies have begun to investigate the complex relationship between host and microorganisms in non-infectious pathologies such as acne, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Though the skin is exposed to environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), no studies exist examining the effects of both UVA and UVB on the skin microbiome. OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of UVA and UVB on human skin microbiome. METHODS: To test whether UV will alter the cutaneous microbiome, participants were exposed to doses of UVA (22-47 J/cm2 ) or UVB (100-350 mJ/cm2 ) and samples were collected...
December 2, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Jeffrey S Hyams, Marla Dubinsky, Joel Rosh, Frank M Ruemmele, Samantha F Eichner, Jen-Fue Maa, Andreas Lazar, Gabriela Alperovich, Nael M Mostafa, Anne M Robinson
BACKGROUND: In the IMAgINE 1 study, adalimumab induced and maintained remission of moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease in children. AIM: To assess the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity and safety of immunomodulator and adalimumab combination therapy vs adalimumab monotherapy in paediatric patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: Patients 6-17 years old with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease (n = 192) received weight-based adalimumab induction at baseline and week 2...
December 2, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
T L F Leung, J Koprivnikar
1.Understanding how parasite communities are assembled, and the factors that influence their richness, can improve our knowledge of parasite-host interactions and help to predict the spread of infectious diseases. Previous comparative analyses have found significant influences of host ecology and life history, but focused on a few select host taxa. 2.Host diet and habitat use play key roles in the acquisition of parasitic helminths as many are trophically-transmitted, making these attributes potentially key indicators of infection risk...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Francisco Airton Castro Rocha, Joaquim Ivo Vasques Dantas Landim, Leila Nascimento da Rocha
Despite resilient inequities, Brazil has seen progressive improvement in health care in the last 25 years. Infectious diseases rendered place to chronic non-communicable diseases as a major cause of death. Existence of traditional schools of medicine and training services in rheumatology helped form a reasonable number of specialists, though irregular distribution due to the economic issues favoring their clustering in major cities. The Brazilian Society of Rheumatology provides continued medical education, helps training rheumatologists, family physicians and other health professionals and has worked to publish national recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of major rheumatic diseases...
December 1, 2018: Rheumatology International
Omer Karti, Ali Osman Saatci
Macular Edema (ME) is a common complication, leading to severe vision loss in patients with Non-Infectious Uveitis (NIU). The treatment of uveitic ME is still very challenging for many ophthalmologists. Various agents, such as corticosteroids, anti-vascular endothelial growth factors, and immune-modulators, have been used for combatting uveitic ME. However, there is not enough evidence to support the efficacy of any of these agents. Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (IDI) (Ozurdex; Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA) is a widely administered corticosteroid for the long-term management of uveitic ME in certain cases...
2018: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
Caroline Barreto Vieira, Yanna Reis Praça, Kaio Luís da Silva Bentes, Paula Beatriz Santiago, Sofia Marcelino Martins Silva, Gabriel Dos Santos Silva, Flávia Nader Motta, Izabela Marques Dourado Bastos, Jaime Martins de Santana, Carla Nunes de Araújo
Triatominae bugs are the vectors of Chagas disease, a major concern to public health especially in Latin America, where vector-borne Chagas disease has undergone resurgence due mainly to diminished triatomine control in many endemic municipalities. Although the majority of Triatominae species occurs in the Americas, species belonging to the genus Linshcosteus occur in India, and species belonging to the Triatoma rubrofasciata complex have been also identified in Africa, the Middle East, South-East Asia, and in the Western Pacific...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Miyako Hiramatsu, Yuji Shiraishi
Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (bronchiectasis) is an abnormal dilatation of the bronchi and bronchioles, resulting from a prolonged recurrent infectious process due to various causes and predisposing factors. This disease has several etiologies and affects a heterogeneous population of patients. The most important viewpoint for the surgical management of bronchiectasis is to select appropriate candidates for surgery and conduct suitable anatomic lung resections at the right time under appropriate conditions...
October 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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