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infectious and non-infectious

Nobuo Watanabe, Kirill Kryukov, So Nakagawa, Junko S Takeuchi, Meiko Takeshita, Yukiko Kirimura, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Toru Ishihara, Hiromichi Aoki, Sadaki Inokuchi, Tadashi Imanishi, Shigeaki Inoue
Prompt identification of causative pathogenic bacteria is imperative for the treatment of patients suffering from infectious diseases, including sepsis and pneumonia. However, current culture-based methodologies have several drawbacks including their limitation of use to culturable bacterial species. To circumvent these problems, we attempted to detect bacterial DNA in blood using next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technology. We conducted metagenomic and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from bacteria-spiked blood using an Ion Personal Genome Machine...
2018: PloS One
Siti Kurniawati, Soedarsono Soedarsono, Aulanni'am Aulanni'am, Ni Made Mertaniasih
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) is a group of Mycobacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). TB is an infectious disease that remains a global health problem. Indonesia is one of the five countries in the world where TB is the most prevalent and became the country with tle second largest rate of TB in 2014 and 2015. MTBC has high pathogenicity that can cause infections in animals and humans. The most common route of transmission is via airborne droplet nuclei and contact with animals or humans infected with TB...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Zubair Shanib Bhat, Hafiz Ul Lah, Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Mubashir Maqbool, Tabassum Ara, Zahoor Ahmad, Syed Khalid Yousuf
Tuberculosis is an ever-evolving infectious disease that urgently needs new drugs. In the search for new antituberculosis agents, a library of 3-cinnamoyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2 H -pyran-2-ones (CHPs) ( 2a-2y ) was synthesized and evaluated against a standard virulent laboratory strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Out of 25 compounds, 11 , 5 , 7 and 2 ( 2a and 2u ) showed least, moderate, good and appreciable activities, respectively, based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Both 2a and 2u exhibited an MIC value of 4 μg ml-1 , which was close to those of standard antituberculosis drugs ethambutol, streptomycin and levofloxacin...
January 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Munira Nasser Hassen, Abyot Bekele Woyessa, Mekonen Getahun, Berhane Beyene, Lucy Buluanger, Ayesheshem Ademe, Alemayehu Bekele, Adamu Addissie, Amha Kebede, Daddi Jima
BACKGROUND: Measles is a highly infectious and serious respiratory viral disease which caused by a virus. It is a significant cause of illness and death worldwide. This data analysis was conducted to describe the trend and determine the reporting rate of measles cases in Addis Ababa to make recommendation for the government of the city to strengthening measles control interventions. METHODS: We obtained and extracted ten years (2005-2014) Addis Ababa city's measles surveillance data from national database...
August 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Gholamreza Azizi, Reza Yazdani, Wiliam Rae, Hassan Abolhassani, Manuel Rojas, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) consist of a large group of genetic disorders that affect distinct components of the immune system. PID patients are susceptible to infection and non-infectious complications, particularly autoimmunity. A specific group of monogenic PIDs are due to mutations in genes that are critical for the regulation of immunological tolerance and immune responses. This group of monogenic PIDs is at high risk of developing polyautoimmunity (i.e., the presence of more than one autoimmune disease in a single patient) because of their impaired immunity...
August 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Melissa Bello-Pérez, Alberto Falcó, Vicente Galiano, Julio Coll, Luis Perez, José Antonio Encinar
Introduction: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes serious losses in several fish species of commercial interest. IPNV is a non-enveloped double-stranded RNA virus with a genome consisting of two segments A and B. Segment B codes for the VP1 protein, a non-canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that can be found both in its free form and linked to the end of genomic RNA, an essential enzyme for IPNV replication. Materials and methods: We take advantage of the knowledge over the allosteric binding site described on the surface of the thumb domain of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) polymerase to design new non-nucleoside inhibitors against the IPNV VP1 polymerase...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Nikhilesh Joardar, Shovan Mondal, Andrea Schiefer, Achim Hoerauf, Kenneth Pfarr, Santi P Sinha Babu
Search of potent antifilarial drugs has been a major thrust area in tropical medicine research over the decades. Herein, we report 4,7-dimethyl-3,4,7,8-tetrahydro-3λ6 -[1,2]thiazino[4,3-f]quinoline-3,3,8-trione (8l) as a new class of antifilarial agent which is extremely potent, with lethality against all the developmental stages (oocyte, microfilaria and adult) of the filarial parasite Setaria cervi. Molecular investigation on its mode of action revealed that 8l is a typical inducer of reactive oxygen species that triggers oxidative stress inside the filarid and further signals induction of apoptosis by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shogo Nakano, Shin-Ichi Megro, Tadashi Hase, Takuji Suzuki, Mamoru Isemura, Yoriyuki Nakamura, Sohei Ito
Epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that green tea and green tea catechins exert beneficial effects on a variety of diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. In most cases, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been shown to play a central role in these effects by green tea. Catechins from other plant sources have also shown health benefits. Many studies have revealed that the binding of EGCG and other catechins to proteins is involved in its action mechanism...
August 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sang-Im Yun, Byung-Hak Song, Jordan C Frank, Justin G Julander, Aaron L Olsen, Irina A Polejaeva, Christopher J Davies, Kenneth L White, Young-Min Lee
Zika virus (ZIKV) causes no-to-mild symptoms or severe neurological disorders. To investigate the importance of viral and host genetic variations in determining ZIKV infection outcomes, we created three full-length infectious cDNA clones as bacterial artificial chromosomes for each of three spatiotemporally distinct and genetically divergent ZIKVs: MR-766 (Uganda, 1947), P6-740 (Malaysia, 1966), and PRVABC-59 (Puerto Rico, 2015). Using the three molecularly cloned ZIKVs, together with 13 ZIKV region-specific polyclonal antibodies covering nearly the entire viral protein-coding region, we made three conceptual advances: (i) We created a comprehensive genome-wide portrait of ZIKV gene products and their related species, with several previously undescribed gene products identified in the case of all three molecularly cloned ZIKVs...
August 11, 2018: Viruses
Sridhar Jarugula, Siddarame Gowda, William O Dawson, Rayapati A Naidu
Infectious cDNA clones were developed for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3, genus Ampelovirus, family Closteroviridae). In vitro RNA transcripts generated from cDNA clones showed replication via the production of 3'-coterminal subgenomic (sg) mRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts. The detection of sgRNAs and the recovery of progeny recombinant virions from N. benthamiana leaves agroinfiltrated with full-length cDNA clones confirmed RNA replication and virion formation. The 5' non-translated region (5' NTR) of GLRaV-3 was exchangeable between genetic variants and complement the corresponding cognate RNA functions in trans...
August 10, 2018: Virology
Christopher K Burghuber, Miriam Manook, Brian Ezekian, Adriana C Gibby, Frank V Leopardi, Minqing Song, Jennifer Jenks, Frances Saccoccio, Sallie Permar, Alton B Farris, Neal N Iwakoshi, Jean Kwun, Stuart J Knechtle
Previous evidence suggests that a homeostatic germinal center (GC) response may limit bortezomib desensitization therapy. We evaluated the combination of costimulation blockade with bortezomib in a sensitized non-human primate kidney transplantation model. Sensitized animals were treated with bortezomib, belatacept and anti-CD40 mAb twice weekly for a month (n=6) and compared to control animals (n=7). Desensitization therapy mediated DSA reductions approached statistical significance (p=0.07) and significantly diminished bone marrow PCs, lymph node follicular helper T cells, and memory B cell proliferation...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Lindy Zhang, Allison M Martin, Kathy Ruble
Pediatric oncology patients treated with antineoplastic therapy have impaired immune systems that lead to loss of protective antibodies. They require reimmunization to protect against vaccine-preventable diseases. There are a paucity of studies on the clinical practice of pediatric oncologists and the available recommendations are heterogenous. This study describes current reimmunization practices among pediatric oncologists. We surveyed the Children's Oncology Group (COG)-identified principle investigators to capture clinical practices among pediatric oncologists within their institutions regarding reimmunization of non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Seigo Ishii, Akihiro Tamiya, Yoshihiko Taniguchi, Tsunehiro Tanaka, Yuko Abe, Shun-Ichi Isa, Kazunari Tsuyuguchi, Katsuhiro Suzuki, Shinji Atagi
Nivolumab has become the standard second-line chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. A 73-year-old man with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer received 6 cycles of chemotherapy with nab-paclitaxel/carboplatin/bevacizumab followed by 11 cycles of nab-paclitaxel/bevacizumab; however, treatment was stopped due to pneumothorax. One year after therapy started, a nodule appeared in the left upper lung and increased in size. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense disease was diagnosed by a sputum analysis...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
Ying Xu, Yachen Hu, Yaxin Guo, Zihao Zhou, Dan Xiong, Chuang Meng, Qiuchun Li, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) and biovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) are gram-negative bacteria, members of the most important infectious pathogens, and have caused common problems in the poultry industry, especially in the developing countries. O- and H-antigen specific anti-sera are commonly for slide and tube agglutination tests to identify Salmonella serovars. However, it is both labor intensive and time consuming, so there is an urgent need for a new technique for the rapid detection of the major Salmonella serovars...
August 7, 2018: Poultry Science
Jennifer Meddings, Ted A Skolarus, Karen E Fowler, Steven J Bernstein, Justin B Dimick, Jason D Mann, Sanjay Saint
BACKGROUND: Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used for patients undergoing general and orthopaedic surgery. Despite infectious and non-infectious harms of urinary catheters, there is limited guidance available to surgery teams regarding appropriate perioperative catheter use. OBJECTIVE: Using the RAND Corporation/University of California Los Angeles (RAND/UCLA) Appropriateness Method, we assessed the appropriateness of indwelling urinary catheter placement and different timings of catheter removal for routine general and orthopaedic surgery procedures...
August 12, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Claudia Fabiani, Antonio Vitale, Donato Rigante, Giacomo Emmi, Alice Bitossi, Giuseppe Lopalco, Jurgen Sota, Silvana Guerriero, Ida Orlando, Stefano Gentileschi, Florenzo Iannone, Bruno Frediani, Mauro Galeazzi, Lorenzo Vannozzi, Gian Marco Tosi, Luca Cantarini
To compare the efficacy of adalimumab (ADA) and infliximab (IFX) in patients with non-infectious intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, and panuveitis. Demographic, clinical, instrumental, and therapeutic data from patients enrolled were collected at the start of treatment, at 12-month follow-up, and at the last follow-up assessment. One hundred seven patients (46 females, 187 eyes) were enrolled, 66 (61.7%) treated with ADA and 41 (38.3%) with IFX. Bilateral involvement was observed in 80 cases. The mean follow-up was 26...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Qian Wang, Ya-Ming Li, Yuan Li, Feng-Chun Hua, Quan-Shi Wang, Xiao-Li Zhang, Chao Cheng, Hua Wu, Zhi-Ming Yao, Wei-Fang Zhang, Qing-Yi Hou, Wei-Bing Miao, Xue-Mei Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical value of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT for the diagnosis of fever of unknown origin (FUO) and inflammation of unknown origin (IUO) in Chinese population, as well as the characteristics of PET/CT in different category of etiological disease. METHODS: A total of 376 consecutive patients with FUO/IUO who underwent FDG-PET/CT at 12 hospitals were retrospectively studied. FDG uptake was quantitatively and visually evaluated, by using SUVmax and a 4-grade scale respectively...
August 11, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Boris I Palamar, Tetiana S Gruzeva
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Today, Ukraine is among the five largest European countries in terms of population, ranking fifth after Germany, Great Britain, France and Italy. Over the past decades, the number of people in Ukraine has been decreasing, mainly due to the excess of deaths over births. The high mortality rate in Ukraine is burdened by the fact that it concerns people of working age - the standardized mortality rate of the working-age population is 2.4 times higher than that of the EU countries and 1...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Sandhya R Panch, Thejaswi Bikkani, Vanessa Vargas, Jolynn Procter, James W Atkins, Virginia Guptill, Karen M Frank, Anna F Lau, David F Stroncek
BACKGROUND: Product safety assurance is crucial for the clinical use of manufactured cellular therapies. A rational approach for delivering products which fail release criteria (due to potentially false-positive sterility results) is important to avoid unwarranted wastage of highly personalized and costly therapies in critically ill patients where benefits may outweigh risk. Accurate and timely interpretation of microbial sterility assays represents a major challenge in cell therapies...
August 8, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Wei-Boon Khor, Venkatesh N Prajna, Prashant Garg, Jodhbir S Mehta, Lixin Xie, Zuguo Liu, Ma Dominga B Padilla, Choun-Ki Joo, Yoshitsugu Inoue, Panida Goseyarakwong, Fung-Rong Hu, Kohji Nishida, Shigeru Kinoshita, Vilavun Puangsricharern, Ai-Ling Tan, Roger Beuerman, Alvin Young, Namrata Sharma, Benjamin Haaland, Francis S Mah, Elmer Y Tu, Fiona J Stapleton, Richard L Abbott, Donald Tiang-Hwee Tan
PURPOSE: To survey the demographics, risk factors, microbiology and outcomes for infectious keratitis in Asia. DESIGN: Prospective, non-randomized clinical study METHODS: Thirteen study centers and 30 sub-centers recruited consecutive subjects over 12 - 18 months, and performed standardized data collection. A microbiological protocol standardized the processing and reporting of all isolates. Treatment of the infectious keratitis was decided by the managing ophthalmologist...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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