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infectious and non-infectious

Heng Zhou, Degang Zhang, Zhehao Jiang, Peng Sun, Hailong Xiao, Yuxing Wu, Jiangang Chen
The alpine steppe at Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is an important area for conserving water source and grassland productivity; however, knowledge about the microbial community structure and function and the risk to human health due to alpine plant-soil ecosystems is limited. Thus, we used prediction methods, such as Tax4Fun, and performed a metagenome pre-study using 16S rRNA sequencing reads for a small scale survey of the microbial communities at degraded alpine steppes (i.e., non-degraded (ND), lightly degraded (LD), moderately degraded (MD), heavily degraded (HD), and extremely degraded (ED) steppes) by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology...
October 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alaa Atamna, Gida Ayada, Amit Akirov, Tzippy Shochat, Jihad Bishara, Avishay Elis
Background: Limited data are available regarding the association between glucose levels variability (GV) and outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute infectious diseases. Objectives: To determine the association between GV and bacteremia, length of stay (LOS) and mortality. Methods: A retrospective study of patients hospitalized in departments of medicine with respiratory tract, urinary tract and skin and soft tissue infections during 2011-2017...
October 16, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Joan Campbell-Tofte, Aristidis Vrahatis, Knud Josefsen, Jesper Mehlsen, Kaj Winther
In contrast to the insidious and poorly immunogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, vaccination with the HPV virus-like particles (vlps) is non-infectious and stimulates a strong neutralizing-antibody response that protects HPV-naïve vaccinees from viral infection and associated cancers. However, controversy about alleged adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with the vlps have led to extensive reductions in vaccine acceptance, with countries like Japan dropping it altogether. The AEFIs are grouped into chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)...
October 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Robert Flisiak, Waldemar Halota, Jerzy Jaroszewicz, Dariusz Lebensztejn, Wojciech Lisik, Piotr Małkowski, Małgorzata Pawłowska, Anna Piekarska, Krzysztof Simon, Olga Tronina
The Polish Group of Experts for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (PGE-NAFLD) is a multidisciplinary team of hepatology experts established by the Polish Association for the Study of Liver and the Polish Society of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. The recommendations for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease have been developed by a group of experts in hepatology under the auspices of the Polish Association for the Study of Liver and the Polish Society of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases...
September 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Ann-Claire Gourinat, Cécile Cazorla, Anne Pfannstiel, Thomas Tran
Introduction: Dengue fever is a major public health problem in New Caledonia, like in many Pacific Islands Countries and territories. In 2017 New Caledonia faced multiple circulations of arboviruses with a major outbreak of dengue and a co-circulating Zika virus. New Caledonia is considered as a non-endemic territory for measles since the mid 1990's. Case presentation: A 41-year-old male presented fever, headache, sinusitis and exanthematous maculopapular rash. A clinical diagnosis of arbovirus was first suspected due to the local epidemic context...
August 2018: JMM Case Reports
Matthew A Weiss, Marie-Christine Aubry, Benjamin R Pflederer
BACKGROUND IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic inflammatory condition with a myriad of presentations related to the pattern of organ involvement. Diagnostic workup for IgG4-RD requires a high index of suspicion, and further workup often includes the results of serological testing for elevated levels of IgG4. Correlation of presentation, past medical history, and histopathologic analysis are required to make a diagnosis. CASE REPORT In this case, incidental discovery of non-infectious aortitis and pulmonary mass lesions were the specific signs that led to the consideration of IgG4-RD...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Hsiao-Sang Chu, Chun-Ting Lai, Yu-Chih Hou, Hsin-Yu Liu, I-Jong Wang, Wei-Li Chen, Chung-Liang Shih, Fung-Rong Hu
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether corneas from bacteremic donors could be used for corneal transplant. METHODS: Corneas donated to the National Eye Bank of Taiwan between 1 January 2014 and 30 June 2017 were included in this study. All the corneas had corneoscleral rim cultures during the retrieval process and were hypothermic preserved in the Optisol-GS storage medium. A microbial work-up flow chart was used for the sterility check of all grafts. Bacteremic donors were defined as those whose last blood culture before corneal donation was positive...
October 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Thomas Vermeulin, Mélodie Lucas, Hélène Marini, Frédéric Di Fiore, Agnès Loeb, Marion Lottin, Hervé Daubert, Christian Gray, Florian Guisier, David Sefrioui, Pierre Michel, Rémy de Mil, Pierre Czernichow, Véronique Merle
INTRODUCTION: During the last decade, most studies on totally implanted venous access-associated adverse events (TIVA-AE) were conducted retrospectively and/or were based on a limited sample size. The aim of our survey was two-fold: to estimate the incidence of TIVA-AE and to identify risk factors in patients with cancer. METHODS: Data from our routine surveillance of TIVA-AE were collected prospectively between October 2009 and January 2011 in two oncology referral centers in Northern France...
October 12, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Aakash Pandita, Astha Panghal, Girish Gupta, Anup Verma, Anish Pillai, Anita Singh, Kirti Naranje
BACKGROUND: Childhood vaccination is a common procedure and a part of routine medical care during infancy. Although vaccination is the cornerstone for prevention of many infectious diseases, it is associated with significant pain, which is often ignored. Non pharmacological interventions such as breast feeding and kangaroo mother care (KMC) have been used to decrease this procedural pain. However there is paucity of published data on effective use of KMC in term neonates and infants beyond the neonatal age...
October 12, 2018: Early Human Development
Jan Tkadlec, Monika Peckova, Lucie Sramkova, Vilem Rohn, David Jahoda, Dominik Raszka, Jan Berousek, Frantisek Mosna, Tomas Vymazal, Milan Kvapil, Pavel Drevinek
OBJECTIVES: Broad-range PCR has the potential to detect virtually any bacterial species via amplification and nucleotide sequencing of a DNA region common to all bacteria. We aimed to evaluate its usefulness and clinical relevance when applied to a wide variety of primary sterile materials. METHODS: A prospective study including 1370 samples (75 heart valves, 151 joint tissue samples, 230 joint aspirates, 848 whole blood samples and 66 culture negative cerebrospinal fluid samples) were studied by using a commercial PCR system for detecting 16S rDNA (Molzym)...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Sima T Bhatt, Jeffrey J Bednarski, Julia Berg, Kathryn Trinkaus, Lisa Murray, Robert Hayashi, Ginny Schulz, Monica Hente, Michael Grimley, Ka Wah Chan, Naynesh Kamani, David Jacobsohn, Michael Nieder, Gregory Hale, Lolie Yu, Roberta Adams, Jignesh Dalal, Michael A Pulsipher, Paul Haut, Sonali Chaudhury, Jeffrey Davis, Jennifer Jaroscak, Martin Andreansky, Jennifer Willert, Shalini Shenoy
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a therapeutic option for many nonmalignant disorders (NMD) and is curative or prevents disease progression. Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in HSCT for NMD may reduce regimen-related acute toxicities and late complications. Myeloablation is often replaced by immune suppression in RIC regimens to support donor engraftment. The pace of immune reconstitution following immune suppression by RIC regimens is influenced by agents used, donor source, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis/treatment...
October 12, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Pavimol Angsantikul, Soracha Thamphiwatana, Qiangzhe Zhang, Kevin Spiekermann, Jia Zhuang, Ronnie H Fang, Weiwei Gao, Marygorret Obonyo, Liangfang Zhang
Inspired by the natural pathogen-host interactions and adhesion, this study reports on the development of a novel targeted nanotherapeutics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection. Specifically, plasma membranes of gastric epithelial cells (e.g. AGS cells) are collected and coated onto antibiotic-loaded polymeric cores, the resulting biomimetic nanoparticles (denoted AGS-NPs) bear the same surface antigens as the source AGS cells and thus have inherent adhesion to H. pylori bacteria...
June 2018: Advanced therapeutics
Eita Sasaki, Haruka Momose, Yuki Hiradate, Takuo Mizukami, Isao Hamaguchi
Vaccines effectively prevent infectious diseases. Many types of vaccines against various pathogens that threaten humans are currently in widespread use. Recently, adjuvant adaptation has been attempted to activate innate immunity to enhance the effectiveness of vaccines. The effectiveness of adjuvants for vaccinations has been demonstrated in many animal models and clinical trials. Although a highly potent adjuvant tends to have high effectiveness, it also has the potential to increase the risk of side effects such as pain, edema, and fever...
October 11, 2018: Vaccine
B Liu, Y X Zhang, W H Zhang, Y P Han, J Li
Objective: To analyze the changing trends in etiologies of hospitalized patients with liver disease and provide clinical basis for the formulation of medical policy. Methods: Patients who were hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases from 2006 to 2014 were selected as the research subjects. Data of patients with liver diseases were retrospectively analyzed to determine the proportion of main causes of infection, the proportion of different viral infections in viral hepatitis, and the changing trends in proportion of hepatitis B in different age groups...
June 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Thibaud Chazal, Raphael Lhote, Grégoire Rey, Julien Haroche, Mireille Eb, Zahir Amoura, Fleur Cohen Aubart
OBJECTIVES: Giant---cell arteritis (GCA) is a large vessel vasculitis. Data regarding mortality are controversial. We describe the mortality data of the French death certificates for the period of 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Using multiple---cause---of---death (MCOD) analysis, we calculated age---adjusted mortality rates for GCA, examined differences in mortality rates according to age and gender and analyzed the underlying causes of death (UCD). Results We analyzed 4628 death certificates listing a diagnosis of GCA as UCD or non-underlying cause of death (NUCD)...
October 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Milton L Wainberg, Liat Helpman, Cristiane S Duarte, Sten H Vermund, Jennifer J Mootz, Lidia Gouveia, Maria A Oquendo, Karen McKinnon, Francine Cournos
Although psychiatric disorders are classified as non-communicable diseases, we believe this classification is too rigid and limiting. We present evidence of the communicability of psychiatric disorders through three major pathways: infectious and ecological, familial, and sociocultural communicability. Successful strategies developed to control the spread of communicable infectious diseases are relevant to curtailing the communicability of psychiatric disorders, thereby reducing their burden. Current interventions and policies that conceptualise psychiatric illnesses as non-communicable mostly focus on the individual...
October 10, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Wei-Dar Chen, Yao-Hsu Yang, Chung-Yuan Lee, Chien-Hsiung Lai, Chia-Yen Liu, Li-Ju Lai
PURPOSE: To analyze the incidence and risk of non-infectious uveitis among postdelivery women with a history of preeclampsia/eclampsia. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective matched cohort study. Methods SETTING: All participant data were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 STUDY POPULATION: 2073 postdelivery women, aged ≥20 years, diagnosed with preeclampsia/eclampsia were included from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2012. OBSERVATION PROCEDURE(S): A follow-up of 5 years to trace the occurrence of non-infectious uveitis...
October 11, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Corissa A J Miller, James R Young, Sonevilay Nampanya, Syseng Khounsy, Nagendrakumar B Singanallur, Wilna Vosloo, Ronello Abila, Samuel A Hamilton, Russell D Bush, Peter A Windsor
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a significant endemic transboundary animal disease in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). The disease has been shown to perpetuate the cycle of smallholder poverty through reduced animal production, plus limitations on market access for trading in livestock and their products. Despite significant national and multilateral efforts to control FMD over the past two decades, endemic FMD viruses (FMDVs) continue to circulate in Lao PDR...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Joseph H Oved, Yongping Wang, David M Barrett, Ellen M Levy, Yanping Huang, Dimitrios S Monos, Stephan A Grupp, Nancy J Bunin, Timothy S Olson
Unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is increasingly being utilized to cure non-malignant hematologic diseases (NMHD) in patients who lack HLA matched related donors (MRD). Both graft rejection and graft vs host disease (GVHD) remain major barriers to safe and effective transplant for these patients requiring URDs. Partial T cell depletion combined with peripheral stem cell transplantation (pTCD-PSCT), has the potential advantages of providing a high stem cell dose to facilitate rapid engraftment, maintaining cells that may facilitate engraftment, and decreasing GVHD risk compared to T replete HSCT...
October 9, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
F H Verhagen, E C A Stigter, M L Pras-Raves, B M T Burgering, S M Imhof, T R D J Radstake, J H de Boer, J J W Kuiper
PURPOSE: HLA-B27 positive acute anterior uveitis has a higher recurrence rate and shows more anterior chamber cell infiltration compared to HLA-B27-negative patients, suggesting distinct etiology of these clinically overlapping conditions. To advance our understanding of the biology of acute anterior uveitis, we characterized the metabolic profile of aqueous humor (AqH) of patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis (B27-AAU) and non-infectious idiopathic anterior uveitis (idiopathic AAU)...
October 9, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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