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Zhiwen Chen, Mingfeng Wang, Enchen Jiang, Donghai Wang, Ke Zhang, Yongzhi Ren, Yang Jiang
Pyrolysis, one of the most promising thermal conversion technologies for biomass conversion, can decompose biomass into solid bio-char, liquid bio-oil, and combustible gas to meet different energy needs. However, pyrolysis efficiency and product quality are not as good as expected when raw biomass is used owing to the properties of raw biomass (e.g., high moisture, oxygen, and alkali metal contents). Torrefaction is an emerging biomass pretreatment technology that can improve the physical and chemical properties of raw biomass, and pyrolysis efficiency and final product quality can therefore be improved by using torrefied biomass...
August 10, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
V Hariram, S Prakash, S Seralathan, T Micha Premkumar
This data article presents the experimental values pertaining to the bio-oil extraction, optimizing biodiesel production and formulation of emulsified fuel blends of E.tereticornisis bio-oil for its use in compression ignition engine. The E.tereticornisis leaves were collected from the interior region of Puducherry, India. Soxhlet extraction process, in the presence of n-hexane, yielded 5.2% of bio-oil. Based on the free fatty acid content, base catalysed transesterification process was adopted along with use of sodium hydroxide and methanol...
October 2018: Data in Brief
Walaa M S Gomaa, Quanhui Peng, Luciana L Prates, Gamal M Mosaad, Hazem Aamer, Peiqiang Yu
The principal objective of this study was to apply FT/IR-ATR vibrational spectroscopy to inspect the relationship between rumen dry matter (DM) and protein degradation, rumen undegraded protein (RUP) intestinal digestion and processing induced protein molecular structure changes in feedstock (canola oil seeds) and co-products (canola meal) from bio-oil processing from different crushing plants in Canada and China. The rumen DM and protein degradation, rumen undegraded protein intestinal digestion and protein molecular structure affected by bio-oil processing were examined using in situ, three step in vitro digestion and Fourier transform infrared (FT/IR) molecular spectroscopy techniques, respectively...
November 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Shaoqing Wang, Zhihe Li, Xueyuan Bai, Weiming Yi, Peng Fu
This study aimed to explore the influence of inherent hierarchical porous char with alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) during pyrolysis of lignin derived from agricultural crop residues in a laboratory fixed-bed at 550 °C. A catalytic strategy was implemented to investigate volatile-char interactions based on ex situ lignin pyrolysis. The physico-chemical properties of the AAEMs-loaded char were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDX and N2 nitrogen adsorption analyses. Results indicated that AAEMs-loaded char had a large specific surface area, hierarchical porosity, amorphous carbon structure, surface-active functional groups and highly dispersed metal species...
July 25, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Polykarpos A Lazaridis, Apostolos P Fotopoulos, Stamatia A Karakoulia, Konstantinos S Triantafyllidis
The valorization of lignin that derives as by product in various biomass conversion processes has become a major research and technological objective. The potential of the production of valuable mono-aromatics (BTX and others) and (alkyl)phenols by catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignin is investigated in this work by the use of ZSM-5 zeolites with different acidic and porosity characteristics. More specifically, conventional microporous ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 11.5, 25, 40), nano-sized (≤20 nm, by direct synthesis) and mesoporous (9 nm, by mild alkaline treatment) ZSM-5 zeolites were tested in the fast pyrolysis of a softwood kraft lignin at 400-600°C on a Py/GC-MS system and a fixed-bed reactor unit...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Kuan Ding, Aoxi He, Daoxu Zhong, Liangliang Fan, Shiyu Liu, Yunpu Wang, Yuhuan Liu, Paul Chen, Hanwu Lei, Roger Ruan
The excessive oxygen content in biomass obstructs the production of high-quality bio-oils. In this work, we developed a tandem catalytic bed (TCB) of CeO2 and HZSM-5 in an analytical pyrolyzer to enhance the hydrocarbon production from co-pyrolysis of corn stover (CS) and LDPE. Results indicated that CeO2 could remove oxygen from acids, aldehydes and methoxy phenols, producing a maximum yield of hydrocarbons of 85% and highest selectivity of monocyclic aromatics of 73% in the TCB. The addition of LDPE exhibited a near-complete elimination of oxygenates, leaving hydrocarbons as the overwhelming products...
July 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Liangliang Fan, Paul Chen, Nan Zhou, Shiyu Liu, Yaning Zhang, Yuhuan Liu, Yunpu Wang, Muhammad Mubashar Omar, Peng Peng, Min Addy, Yanling Cheng, Roger Ruan
In-situ and ex-situ catalytic upgrading with HZSM-5 of vapors from microwave-assisted pyrolysis of lignin were studied. The in-situ process produced higher bio-oil and less char than ex-situ process. The gas yield was similar for both processes. The ex-situ process had higher selectivity to aromatics and produced more syngas and less CO2 than the in-situ process. Additional experiments on ex-situ process found that the bio-oil yield and coke deposition decreased while the gas yield increased at higher catalyst-to-lignin ratios and catalytic upgrading temperatures...
January 2018: Bioresource Technology
N S Shamsul, S K Kamarudin, N A Rahman
Treated sludge, goat manure, sugarcane bagasse, empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFBP) and dry leaves are agro wastes that have high potential for use as feedstocks for the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The focus of this study is to investigate the production of 5-HMF from agro wastes via co-hydrothermal (CHT) treatment and extraction. Present study include examine on agro waste's physical and chemical properties and also their thermal degradation behaviour. The analysis of the bio-oil products is conducted by FTIR and GC-MS...
January 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ruoyu Fan, Chun Chen, Miaomiao Han, Wanbing Gong, Haimin Zhang, Yunxia Zhang, Huijun Zhao, Guozhong Wang
Highly dispersed copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) supported on activated carbon (AC) are effectively synthesized by one-pot carbothermal method at temperature range of 400-700 °C. The X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis reveal that Cu NPs with diameters of 20-30 nm are evenly anchored in carbon matrix. The 15 wt%-Cu/AC-600 catalyst (derived at 600 °C) exhibits best bifunctional catalysis of aqueous-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and organic-phase transfer-hydrogenation reaction (THR) to selectively transform vanillin to 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (MMP)...
July 29, 2018: Small
Shamshad Ahmad, Vinayak V Pathak, Richa Kothari, Ashwani Kumar, Suresh Babu Naidu Krishna
The present study illustrates optimization and synergetic potential of alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa for lipid production and remediation of Dairy industry wastewater (DIWW) through response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum lipid productivity of 34.41% was obtained under 50% DIWW supplemented with 0 mg L-1 nitrate (NO3 - ), and 50 mg L-1 phosphate (PO4 -3 ). While maximum biomass productivity (1.54 g L-1 ) was obtained with 50% DIWW supplemented with 100 mg L-1 NO3 - , and 50 mg L-1 , PO4 -3 . Maximum removal of COD (43...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Wei Chen, Haiping Yang, Yingquan Chen, Kaixu Li, Mingwei Xia, Hanping Chen
Algae are extremely promising sustainable feedstock for fuels and chemicals, while they contain high nitrogen content, which may cause some serious nitrogen emission during algae pyrolysis utilization. In this study, we proposed a feasible method to control the nitrogen emission during algae pyrolysis by introducing lignocellulosic biomass and biochar addition. Nitrogen transformation mechanism was investigated through quantitative analysis of N-species in the pyrolysis products. Results showed that copyrolysis of algae and lignocellulosic biomass greatly increased nitrogen in solid char with large amount of NH3 and HCN releasing (∼20 wt %), while nitrogen in bio-oil decreased largely...
August 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Nan Zhou, Shiyu Liu, Yaning Zhang, Liangliang Fan, Yanling Cheng, Yunpu Wang, Yuhuan Liu, Paul Chen, Roger Ruan
Considering a series of issues facing the application of catalysts in large scale catalytic fast pyrolysis systems, a novel composite catalyst of ZSM-5 coatings on SiC foam supports was developed and tested for ex-situ catalytic upgrading of the pyrolytic vapors. Different configurations of catalysts placement were compared and the results showed the composite catalyst could significantly improve the bio-oil quality without significantly reducing the yield. The effect of catalyst to biomass ratio on the product yields and bio-oil composition was studied and the results showed that increasing catalyst to biomass ratio could improve the quality of bio-oil at the cost of its yield...
July 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jing Li, Xudong Fang, Junjie Bian, Yuehong Guo, Chunhu Li
In this study, a novel route was proposed for microalgae biofuel production by catalytic upgrading of Chlorella hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) derived biocrude. Al-SBA-15, CuO/Al-SBA-15, ZuO/Al-SBA-15, and CuO-ZnO/Al-SBA-15 catalysts were synthesized in a facile, one-pot way, and tested for methyl palmitate decarboxylation and biocrude upgrading without H2 addition. These modified SBA-15 catalysts enhanced alkane selectivity of methyl palmitate decarboxylation from 7.6 wt% up to 79.6 wt% at 340-350 °C...
October 2018: Bioresource Technology
Elias Feghali, Kirk M Torr, Daniel J van de Pas, Pablo Ortiz, Karolien Vanbroekhoven, Walter Eevers, Richard Vendamme
Lignin is the most abundant source of renewable ready-made aromatic chemicals for making sustainable polymers. However, the structural heterogeneity, high polydispersity, limited chemical functionality and solubility of most technical lignins makes them challenging to use in developing new bio-based polymers. Recently, greater focus has been given to developing polymers from low molecular weight lignin-based building blocks such as lignin monomers or lignin-derived bio-oils that can be obtained by chemical depolymerization of lignins...
July 10, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Qing Dong, Huaju Li, Miaomiao Niu, Chuping Luo, Jinfeng Zhang, Bo Qi, Xiangqian Li, Wa Zhong
Microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo over bamboo-based biochar catalyst was conducted to achieve the bio-oil upgrading and high quality syngas production. The influence of the biochar on bamboo pyrolysis involving the temperature rise, product yield, and bio-oil and gas compositions was studied. The gas production was facilitated by the biochar mainly at the cost of the bio-oil, indicating the biochar had an excellent activity for the bio-oil cracking. The main compositions in bio-oil were acetic acid and phenol with the total contents ranging from 73...
October 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jinbo Chen
Hyper-accumulator biomass, Pteris vittata L., was hydrothermally converted into bio-oils via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in sub-supercritical water. The distributions and characterizations of various products as well as energy recovery under different temperatures (250-390 °C) were investigated. The highest bio-oil yield of 16.88% was obtained at 350 °C with the hydrothermal conversion of 61.79%, where the bio-oil was dominated by alcohols, esters, phenols, ketones and acidic compounds. The higher heating values of bio-oil were in the range of 19...
October 2018: Bioresource Technology
Agnès Le Masle, Sandra Santin, Léa Marlot, Ludovic Chahen, Nadège Charon
Biomass fast pyrolysis oils contain molecules having a large variety of chemical functions and a wide range of molecular weights (from several tens to several thousand grams per mole). The good knowledge of their complex composition is essential for optimizing the conversion of bio-oils to biofuels, thereby requiring powerful separation techniques. In this work, we investigate the interest of centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) as a first dimension for the analysis of a bio-oil. A CPC method is proposed to separate oxygen containing compounds according to their partition coefficients in the solvent system...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yunpu Wang, Qiuhao Wu, Dengle Duan, Yayun Zhang, Roger Ruan, Yuhuan Liu, Guiming Fu, Shumei Zhang, Yunfeng Zhao, Leilei Dai, Liangliang Fan
Fast microwave-assisted co-pyrolysis of pretreated bamboo sawdust and soapstock was conducted. The pretreatment process was carried out under microwave irradiation. The effects of microwave irradiation temperature, irradiation time, and concentration of hydrochloric acid on product distribution from co-pyrolysis and the relative contents of the major components in bio-oil were investigated. A maximum bio-oil yield of 40.00 wt.% was obtained at 200 °C for 60 min with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid. As pretreatment temperature, reaction time and acid concentration increased, respectively, the relative contents of phenols, diesel fraction (C12 + aliphatics), and other oxygenates decreased...
October 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ioannis-Dimosthenis Adamakis, Polykarpos A Lazaridis, Evangelia Terzopoulou, Stylianos Torofias, Maria Valari, Photeini Kalaitzi, Vasilis Rousonikolos, Dimitris Gkoutzikostas, Anastasios Zouboulis, Georgios Zalidis, Konstantinos S Triantafyllidis
A systematic study of the effect of nitrogen levels in the cultivation medium of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae grown in photobioreactor (PBR) on biomass productivity, biochemical and elemental composition, fatty acid profile, heating value (HHV), and composition of the algae-derived fast pyrolysis (bio-oil) is presented in this work. A relatively high biomass productivity and cell concentration (1.5 g of dry biomass per liter of cultivation medium and 120 × 106 cells/ml, respectively) were achieved after 30 h of cultivation under N-rich medium...
June 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lupeng Shao, Qilin Zhang, Tingting You, Xueming Zhang, Feng Xu
Microwave-assisted degradation of alkaline lignin in methanol/formic acid media was investigated, concerning the effect of formic acid (FA) amount, reaction temperature, and reaction time on lignin depolymerization. The highest bio-oil yield of 72.0 wt% including 6.7 wt% monomers was achieved at 160 °C and a FA-to-lignin mass ratio of 4 after a reaction time of 30 min. Among the monomers, the yield of 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran was the highest (3.00 wt%), followed by p-coumaric acid (1.59 wt%). Formic acid acted mainly through acid-catalyzed cleavage of the linkages in lignin...
September 2018: Bioresource Technology
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