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Chronical pancreatitis

Teresa Grzelak, Klaudia Mikołajczyk
Cystic fibrosis - CF - is the most common recessively autosomally and inherited disorder in the Caucasian population. It is incurable, multi-systemic disease with progressive course. CF is caused by CFTR gene mutation, the product of which is Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR). CF patients are exposed to fat-soluble vitamins deficiency, including vitamin D. It is due to the fat malabsorption (caused by exacerbation exocrine pancreatic insufficiency), decreased sun exposure (caused by receiving antibiotics photophobia), reduction of adipose tissue and insufficient supply with food...
August 15, 2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Basel Bandak, Lian Yi, Michael G Roper
Proper release of insulin from pancreatic islets of Langerhans is essential for maintaining glucose homeostasis. For full efficacy, both the pattern and the amount of hormone release are critical. It is therefore important to understand how insulin levels are secreted from single islets in both a quantitative fashion and in a manner that resolves temporal dynamics. In this study, we describe a microfluidic analytical system that can both quantitatively monitor insulin secretion from single islets while simultaneously maintaining high temporal sampling to resolve dynamics of release...
August 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Chema Strik, Barend van den Beukel, Dagmar van Rijckevorsel, Martijn W J Stommel, Richard P G Ten Broek, Harry van Goor
The incidence of chronic postoperative abdominal pain (CPAP) after abdominal surgery is substantial and decreases overall quality of life. One in three patients report to have pain-related interference with mood, sleep and enjoyment of life and 12% visit the emergency department for pain related symptoms. Previous studies lack data on preoperative health and pain status, or are limited by small patient samples. The aim of this study is to assess risk factors for CPAP and gastrointestinal complaints six months after surgery...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Nicholas M Plugis, Nielson Weng, Qinglan Zhao, Brad A Palanski, Holden T Maecker, Aida Habtezion, Chaitan Khosla
Thioredoxin 1 (TRX), an essential intracellular redox regulator, is also secreted by mammalian cells. Recently, we showed that TRX activates extracellular transglutaminase 2 via reduction of an allosteric disulfide bond. In an effort to identify other extracellular substrates of TRX, macrophages derived from THP-1 cells were treated with NP161, a small-molecule inhibitor of secreted TRX. NP161 enhanced cytokine outputs of alternatively activated macrophages, suggesting that extracellular TRX regulated the activity of interleukin 4 (IL-4) and/or interleukin 13 (IL-13)...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Julia B Greer, Phil Greer, Bimaljit S Sandhu, Samer Alkaade, C Mel Wilcox, Michelle A Anderson, Stuart Sherman, Timothy B Gardner, Michele D Lewis, Nalini M Guda, Thiruvengadam Muniraj, Darwin Conwell, Gregory A Cote, Christopher E Forsmark, Peter A Banks, Gong Tang, Kim Stello, Andres Gelrud, Randall E Brand, Adam Slivka, David C Whitcomb, Dhiraj Yadav
BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients frequently experience malabsorption and maldigestion, leading to micronutrient and macronutrient deficiencies. Comorbid diabetes and lifestyle habits, such as alcohol consumption, may impact nutrition status. METHODS: We compared micronutrient antioxidant, bone metabolism, serum protein, and inflammatory marker levels in 301 CP patients and 266 controls with no known pancreatic disease. We analyzed serum prealbumin and retinol binding protein; vitamins A, D, E, and B12; osteocalcin; tumor necrosis factor-α; and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
August 13, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Chiara Oltolini, Marco Ripa, Andrea Andolina, Elena Brioschi, Marta Cilla, Giovanna Petrella, Vanesa Gregorc, Barbara Castiglioni, Chiara Tassan Din, Paolo Scarpellini
The widespread use of T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death (PD)-1 and PD ligand-1 (PDL1)-targeted agents in cancer patients as immunotherapy has raised some issues on their safety profile. Regarding infectious complications, it has emerged that these compounds do not intrinsically increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections, which mainly correlate with the co-administration of systemic immunosuppressive therapy (high-dose corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factors inhibitors) to cure immune-related adverse events (colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis and pancreatitis), well-known complications of these targeted drugs...
August 13, 2018: Mycopathologia
Jean-Frederic Colombel, Andrea Shin, Peter R Gibson
DESCRIPTION: The purpose of this clinical practice update review is to describe key principles in the diagnosis and management of functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: The evidence and best practices summarized in this manuscript are based on relevant scientific publications, systematic reviews, and expert opinion where applicable. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 1: A stepwise approach to rule-out ongoing inflammatory activity should be followed in IBD patients with persistent GI symptoms (measurement of fecal calprotectin, endoscopy with biopsy, cross-sectional imaging)...
August 9, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Biplab Giri, Sananda Dey, Tanaya Das, Mrinmoy Sarkar, Jhimli Banerjee, Sandeep Kumar Dash
Chronic exposure of glucose rich environment creates several physiological and pathophysiological changes. There are several pathways by which hyperglycemia exacerbate its toxic effect on cells, tissues and organ systems. Hyperglycemia can induce oxidative stress, upsurge polyol pathway, activate protein kinase C (PKC), enhance hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), promote the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and finally alters gene expressions. Prolonged hyperglycemic condition leads to severe diabetic condition by damaging the pancreatic β-cell and inducing insulin resistance...
August 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yue Wang, Quan Liu, Yi Huan, Rongcui Li, Caina Li, Sujuan Sun, Nan Guo, Miaomiao Yang, Shuainan Liu, Zhufang Shen
Recently, SIRT5 was reported to be a predominant desuccinylase and demalonylase in mitochondria. Ablation of SIRT5 enhances the systemic succinylation and malonylation of mitochondrial proteins, including various metabolic enzymes; however, its function in pancreatic β cells has not yet been clarified. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SIRT5 overexpression on glucolipotoxicity-induced apoptosis in β cell lines. Full-length SIRT5, which preferentially targeted to mitochondria and partially to the nucleus and cytoplasm, was overexpressed in NIT-1 cells...
August 8, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Tyler M Hoard, Xiao Ping Yang, Anton M Jetten, Gary T ZeRuth
Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) is Krüppel-like transcription factor associated with the transcriptional regulation of insulin. Mutations within the Glis3 locus have been implicated in a number of pathologies including diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism. Despite its clinical significance, little is known about the proteins and posttranslational modifications that regulate Glis3 transcriptional activity. In this report, we demonstrate that the SUMO-pathway associated proteins, PIASy and Ubc9 are capable of regulating Glis3 transactivation function through a SUMO-dependent mechanism...
July 2018: Heliyon
Carlos G Musso, Alejandrina Castañeda, María Giordani, Cesar Mombelli, Silvia Groppa, Nora Imperiali, Guillermo Rosa Diez
Kidney transplant patients (KTPs), and particularly those with advanced chronic kidney rejection, may be affected by opportunistic infections, metabolic alterations and vascular and oncologic diseases that promote clinical conditions that require a variety of treatments, the combinations of which may predispose them to hyponatremia. Salt and water imbalance can induce abnormalities in volemia and/or serum sodium depending on the nature of this alteration (increase or decrease), its absolute magnitude (mild or severe) and its relative magnitude (body sodium:water ratio)...
August 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Rhian L Clissold, Jon Fulford, Michelle Hudson, Beverley M Shields, Timothy J McDonald, Sian Ellard, Andrew T Hattersley, Coralie Bingham
Background: Heterozygous mutations in the HNF1B gene are the most common monogenic cause of developmental kidney disease. Extrarenal phenotypes frequently occur, including diabetes mellitus and pancreatic hypoplasia; the latter is associated with subclinical exocrine dysfunction. We measured faecal elastase-1 in patients with HNF1B-associated disease regardless of diabetes status and assessed the degree of symptoms associated with pancreatic exocrine deficiency. Methods: Faecal elastase-1 was measured in 29 patients with a known HNF1B mutation...
August 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Lisa Suwandhi, Simone Hausmann, Alexander Braun, Tim Gruber, Silke S Heinzmann, Eric J C Gálvez, Achim Buck, Beata Legutko, Andreas Israel, Annette Feuchtinger, Elizabeth Haythorne, Harald Staiger, Martin Heni, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Axel Walch, Cristina García Cáceres, Matthias H Tschöp, Guy A Rutter, Till Strowig, Martin Elsner, Siegfried Ussar
OBJECTIVE: The metabolic role of d-serine, a non-proteinogenic NMDA receptor co-agonist, is poorly understood. Conversely, inhibition of pancreatic NMDA receptors as well as loss of the d-serine producing enzyme serine racemase have been shown to modulate insulin secretion. Thus, we aim to study the impact of chronic and acute d-serine supplementation on insulin secretion and other parameters of glucose homeostasis. METHODS: We apply MALDI FT-ICR mass spectrometry imaging, NMR based metabolomics, 16s rRNA gene sequencing of gut microbiota in combination with a detailed physiological characterization to unravel the metabolic action of d-serine in mice acutely and chronically treated with 1% d-serine in drinking water in combination with either chow or high fat diet feeding...
July 25, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Shih-Wei Lai, Cheng-Li Lin, Kuan-Fu Liao
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The association between chronic pancreatitis and herpes zoster has not been fully investigated. The objective of the study was to investigate whether there is an association between chronic pancreatitis and herpes zoster in Taiwan. METHODS: Using the claim data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, we identified 1545 participants aged 20-84 years with a new diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis from 2000 to 2012 as the chronic pancreatitis group...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
Jiajun Sun, Qicheng Ni, Jing Xie, Min Xu, Jun Zhang, Jie Kuang, Yanqiu Wang, Guang Ning, Qidi Wang
Context: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and pancreatogenic diabetes are both associated with loss of functional β cell mass. Previous studies have proposed β cell dedifferentiation as a mechanism of islet β cell failure, but its significance in humans is still controversial. Objective: To determine whether β-cell dedifferentiation occurs in human T2D with adequate glucose control and in non-diabetic chronic pancreatitis, we examined pancreatic islets from 9 non-diabetic controls, 10 diabetic patients with well-controlled fasting glycemia and 4 non-diabetic chronic pancreatitis individuals...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Tadahiro Yamada, Takeshi Ogura, Atsushi Okuda, Miyuki Imanishi, Rieko Kamiyama, Akira Miyano, Nobu Nishioka, Kazuhide Higuchi
BACKGROUND: Fully-covered, self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS) have been deployed to treat symptomatic chronic pancreatitis (CP) complicated with main pancreatic duct (MPD) stricture. Although this strategy can be effective, it has the disadvantages of stent migration or stent-induced ductal change. Removal of an FCSEMS can also be challenging in the face of distal migration because of MPD stricture. Dumbbell-type FCSEMS have been developed to prevent stent-induced ductal changes and improve removability when treating benign biliary stricture...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Zonghong Li, Hongyang Liu, Zhangjing Niu, Wen Zhong, Miaomiao Xue, Jifeng Wang, Fuquan Yang, Yue Zhou, Yifa Zhou, Tao Xu, Junjie Hou
Chronic hyperlipidemia causes the dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells, such as apoptosis and impaired insulin secretion, which are aggravated in the presence of hyperglycemia. The underlying mechanisms, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders, have been reported before; however, the time sequence of these molecular events is not fully understood. Here, using isobaric labeling-based mass spectrometry, we investigated the dynamic proteomes of INS-1 cells exposed to high palmitate in the absence and presence of high glucose...
August 6, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Charlotte Vestrup Rift, Bojan Kovacevic, John Gásdal Karstensen, Julie Plougmann, Pia Klausen, Anders Toxværd, Evangelos Kalaitzakis, Carsten Palnæs Hansen, Jane Preuss Hasselby, Peter Vilmann
Pancreatic cysts are increasingly diagnosed due to expanding use of cross-sectional imaging, but current diagnostic modalities have limited diagnostic accuracy. Recently, a novel through-the-needle microbiopsy forceps has become available, offering the possibility of obtaining cyst-wall biopsies. We present a case of 41-year-old male with chronic pancreatitis and a 2-cm pancreatic cyst, initially considered a pseudocyst. Subsequently, endoscopic ultrasound guided microbiopsies were successfully obtained, which surprisingly revealed an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of mixed subtype with low grade dysplasia...
July 16, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Martin D Rosenthal, Jayshil Patel, Kyle Staton, Robert G Martindale, Frederick A Moore, Gilbert R Upchurch
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Fish oil (FO) supplementation has historically been used by individuals suffering from cardiovascular disease and other inflammatory processes. However, a meta-analysis of several large randomized control trials (RCTs) suggested FO conferred no benefit in reducing cardiovascular risk. Skeptics surmised that the lack of benefit was related to FO dose or drug interactions; therefore, the widely accepted practice of FO consumption was brought into question. RECENT FINDINGS: Thereafter, Serhan et al...
August 4, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Christopher S King, A Whitney Brown, Shambhu Aryal, Kareem Ahmad, Scott Donaldson
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multi-organ, genetic disease resulting from dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The primary clinical manifestations are bronchiectasis, chronic pulmonary infections with recurrent exacerbations, and pancreatic insufficiency. Advances in CF care have led to improved survival with over half of those affected being adults. As a result, adult pulmonary and critical care physicians will increasingly be involved in the care of these patients. Patients with CF are at risk for numerous conditions that require intensive care unit admission including respiratory failure, massive hemoptysis, pneumothorax, hepatic failure, and bowel obstruction...
August 2, 2018: Chest
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