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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830137/clinical-applications-of-interferon-%C3%AE-releasing-assays-for-cytomegalovirus-to-differentiate-cytomegalovirus-disease-from-bystander-activation-a-pilot-proof-of-concept-study
#1
Sung-Han Kim, Ho-Su Lee, Hyun-Jung Lee, Sun-Mi Kim, Sung Shin, Sang-Hyoung Park, Kyung-Jo Kim, Young-Hoon Kim, Heungsup Sung, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Suk-Kyun Yang, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Duck-Jong Han
Background/Aims: We evaluated the proposed clinical application of the combined interpretation of host factors and viral factors in two different cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection models. Methods: We prospectively enrolled all human immunodeficiency virus non-infected patients with confirmed Pneumocystitis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) and those with suspected gastrointestinal CMV disease in a tertiary hospital. All patients underwent CMV interferon-γ releasing assay (IGRA) for CMV (T-track CMV, Lophius Biosciences)...
August 23, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830136/-the-diagnosis-of-metastatic-malignant-melanoma-incidentally-found-during-a-national-health-screening-endoscopy-a-case-report
#2
Jeong Seok Lee, Su Jin Kim, Dae Hwan Kang, Hyung Wook Kim, Cheol Woong Choi, Su Bum Park, Chang Woo Yeo, Hyeong Jin Kim
Malignant melanoma is one of the most common malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It has been reported that the malignant melanoma metastasizes not only to the small intestine due to the abundant blood supply, but also to the stomach, colon, and esophagus. Gastrointestinal metastasis is usually suspected depending on the clinical symptoms, as well as based on radiological or endoscopic findings. Imunohistochemical stains, such as Melan-A/Melanoma antigen recognized by T cell-1 or human melanoma black-45, are useful for confirming the diagnosis of malignant melanoma...
August 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830120/detection-of-carfentanil-by-lc-ms-ms-and-reports-of-associated-fatalities-in-the-usa
#3
Kevin G Shanks, George S Behonick
Carfentanil is a mu (μ) opioid receptor agonist and is estimated to be ~10,000 times more potent than morphine in animal (non-human) models. It is not approved for human use and is only used to immobilize large exotic animals in veterinary medicine. In mid-2016, carfentanil emerged as a contaminant in street heroin in the USA and was central to a large number of emergency department visits and deaths. We describe an analytical method for the detection and quantification of carfentanil in whole blood specimens via a protein precipitation extraction with acetonitrile and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830119/confirmation-of-carfentanil-u-47700-and-other-synthetic-opioids-in-a-human-performance-case-by-lc-ms-ms
#4
Joshua Seither, Lisa Reidy
Recently, it has been documented that there has been a rise in synthetic opioid abuse. Synthetic opioids are compounds that were created to act as agonists for the opioid receptors. Like synthetic cannabinoids, most of these compounds were created by research groups or pharmaceutical companies in an attempt to find compounds that have medicinal use. Synthetic opioids have severe health implications when abused that can include hospitalization and death. Due to the high potency and the low dose required to produce the desired effects for these compounds, it was hypothesized that they may not be detectable in human performance case samples...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830111/epidemic-forecasting-is-messier-than-weather-forecasting-the-role-of-human-behavior-and-internet-data-streams-in-epidemic-forecast
#5
Kelly R Moran, Geoffrey Fairchild, Nicholas Generous, Kyle Hickmann, Dave Osthus, Reid Priedhorsky, James Hyman, Sara Y Del Valle
Mathematical models, such as those that forecast the spread of epidemics or predict the weather, must overcome the challenges of integrating incomplete and inaccurate data in computer simulations, estimating the probability of multiple possible scenarios, incorporating changes in human behavior and/or the pathogen, and environmental factors. In the past 3 decades, the weather forecasting community has made significant advances in data collection, assimilating heterogeneous data steams into models and communicating the uncertainty of their predictions to the general public...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830104/connecting-mobility-to-infectious-diseases-the-promise-and-limits-of-mobile-phone-data
#6
Amy Wesolowski, Caroline O Buckee, Kenth Engø-Monsen, C J E Metcalf
Human travel can shape infectious disease dynamics by introducing pathogens into susceptible populations or by changing the frequency of contacts between infected and susceptible individuals. Quantifying infectious disease-relevant travel patterns on fine spatial and temporal scales has historically been limited by data availability. The recent emergence of mobile phone calling data and associated locational information means that we can now trace fine scale movement across large numbers of individuals. However, these data necessarily reflect a biased sample of individuals across communities and are generally aggregated for both ethical and pragmatic reasons that may further obscure the nuance of individual and spatial heterogeneities...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830091/bacteriocins-and-bacteriophage-a-narrow-minded-approach-to-food-and-gut-microbiology
#7
Susan Mills, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill
Bacteriocins and bacteriophage (phage) are biological tools which exhibit targeted microbial killing, a phenomenon which until recently was seen as a major drawback for their use as antimicrobial agents. However, in an age when the deleterious consequences of broad-spectrum antibiotics on human health have become apparent, there is an urgent need to develop narrow-spectrum substitutes. Indeed, disruption of the microbial communities which exist on and in our bodies can generate immediate and long-term negative effects and this is particularly borne out in the gut microbiota community whose disruption has been linked to a number of disorders reaching as far as the brain...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830090/practical-considerations-for-large-scale-gut-microbiome-studies
#8
Doris Vandeputte, Raul Y Tito, Rianne Vanleeuwen, Gwen Falony, Jeroen Raes
First insights on the human gut microbiome have been gained from medium-sized, cross-sectional studies. However, given the modest portion of explained variance of currently identified covariates and the small effect size of gut microbiota modulation strategies, upscaling seems essential for further discovery and characterisation of the multiple influencing factors and their relative contribution. In order to guide future research projects and standardisation efforts, we here review currently applied collection and preservation methods for gut microbiome research...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830076/copper-ii-bis-thiosemicarbazonato-complexes-as-anti-chlamydial-agents
#9
James W Marsh, Karrera Y Djoko, Alastair G McEwan, Wilhelmina M Huston
Lipophilic copper (Cu)-containing complexes have shown promising antibacterial activity against a range of bacterial pathogens. To examine the susceptibility of the intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis to copper complexes containing bis(thiosemicarbazone) ligands [Cu(btsc)], we tested the in vitro effect of CuII-diacetyl- and CuII-glyoxal-bis[N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazonato] (Cu(atsm) and Cu(gtsm), respectively) on C. trachomatis. Cu(atsm) and to a greater extent, Cu(gtsm), prevented the formation of infectious chlamydial progeny...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830075/streptococcal-heme-binding-protein-shp-promotes-virulence-and-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-group-a-streptococcus-infection
#10
Xiaolan Zhang, Chunmei Lu, Fengmin Zhang, Yingli Song, Minghui Cai, Hui Zhu
Streptococcal heme binding protein (Shp) is involved in the process of heme acquisition in group A Streptococcus (GAS). However, no research thus far has examined the contribution of Shp to the virulence of GAS. To this end, we generated an isogenic strain lacking the shp gene (Δshp) and its complemented strain (Δshp-c) using the parent strain MGAS5005 (WT). Deletion of shp increased survival rates and neutrophil recruitment and reduced skin lesion sizes and GAS loads in the blood and the liver, lung, kidney and spleen in subcutaneous infections of mice...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830074/do-antimicrobial-mass-medications-work-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-clinical-trials-investigating-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-or-metaphylaxis-against-naturally-occurring-bovine-respiratory-disease
#11
Keith Edward Baptiste, Niels Christian Kyvsgaard
A distinct difference between veterinary and human medicine is the routine use of antimicrobial mass medications (prophylaxis, metaphylaxis) to healthy individuals. The need for antimicrobial mass medications is based on beliefs that group/s of animals will contract a bacterial disease (i.e. morbidity) and/or die (i.e. mortality). Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) represents the major indication for cattle antimicrobials worldwide. The objectives were to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) for naturally occurring BRD investigating antimicrobial prophylaxis/metaphylaxis to prevent morbidity/mortality...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830073/platelet-activating-factor-increases-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-microbicidal-activity-of-human-macrophages-infected-with-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis
#12
Arissa Felipe Borges, Camila Imai Morato, Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Miriam Leandro Dorta, Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by macrophages during inflammation and infections. We evaluated whether PAF is able to modulate the infection of human macrophages by Leishmania braziliensis, the main Leishmania sp. in Brazil. Monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with promastigote forms in absence or presence of exogenous PAF. We observed that the treatment of macrophages with low concentrations of PAF prior to infection increased the phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. More importantly, exogenous PAF reduced the parasitism when it was added before, during or after infection...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830061/simultaneous-determination-and-pharmacokinetics-of-danshensu-protocatechuic-aldehyde-4-hydroxy-3-methyloxyphenyl-lactic-acid-and-protocatechuic-acid-in-human-plasma-by-lc-ms-ms-after-oral-administration-of-compound-danshen-dripping-pills
#13
Wei Li, Hongjie Zhou, Yang Chu, Xiangyang Wang, Ruizhi Luo, Liu Yang, Navaneethakrishnan Polachi, Xiao Li, Min Chen, Luqi Huang, Xueying Yan, Zhixin Guo, He Sun
Compound Danshen Dripping Pills (CDDP), a herbal patent medicine, is widely used in China for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A simple, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous determination of danshensu (DSS), protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA), and their related metabolites, 4-hydroxy-3-methyloxyphenyl lactic acid (HMLA) and protocatechuic acid (PAA) in human plasma was developed and validated based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analytes and internal standard (IS), vanillic acid (VAA), were extracted from plasma with ethyl acetate and separated on a C18 column by using the mobile phase consisted of methanol-0...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830054/linkage-between-human-population-and-trace-elements-in-soils-of-the-pearl-river-delta-implications-for-source-identification-and-risk-assessment
#14
Yan Lin, Jin Ma, Zhengdong Zhang, Yifang Zhu, Hong Hou, Long Zhao, Zaijin Sun, Wenjuan Xue, Huading Shi
The human population is both an emitter and receptor of metals. This study aims to clarify how the relationship of metals and metalloids to human populations influences their source characterization and health risk, based on metal concentrations in 298 soil samples in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and the corresponding zip-code level population. Nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb), but not chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As), were significantly correlated with population (p<0...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830050/aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-a-controlled-ecological-life-support-system-during-a-4-person-180-day-integrated-experiment
#15
Kun Dai, Qingni Yu, Zhou Zhang, Yuan Wang, Xinming Wang
Indoor air quality is vital to the health and comfort of people who live inside a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) built for long-term space explorations. Here we measured aromatic hydrocarbons to assess their sources and health risks during a 4-person-180-day integrated experiment inside a CELSS with four cabins for growing crops, vegetables and fruits and other two cabins for working, accommodations and resources management. During the experiment, the average concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylenes and o-xylene were found to decrease exponentially from 7...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830048/uranium-dispersion-from-u-tailings-and-mechanisms-leading-to-u-accumulation-in-sediments-insights-from-biogeochemical-and-isotopic-approaches
#16
Duc Huy Dang, Wei Wang, Philip Pelletier, Alexandre J Poulain, R Douglas Evans
Uranium contamination is a worldwide problem that grows proportionally to human demands for energy and armory. Understanding U cycling in the environment is of eminent interest, mostly concerning ecosystems directly impacted by point sources. In Bow Lake (Ontario, Canada), which is located adjacent to a former U mine, exceptionally high concentrations of U are related to U dispersion from tailings and biogeochemical processes such as biotic reduction and adsorption. This has been shown by a U-Pb isotope composition model...
August 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830033/quartz-crystal-microbalance-sensing-cell-substrate-adhesion-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer Y Chen, Lynn S Penn, Jun Xi
Cell adhesion is an essential aspect of cellular behavior. Finding innovative methods to probe the adhesion of cells in their native state can greatly advance the understanding of control and regulation of cellular behavior and their impact on human health. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a label-free, biosensing system that has, in the past fifty years, evolved from a simple acoustic based mass sensor to a powerful bioanalytical tool. Its unique capability of monitoring the cell-substrate interaction non-invasively in real time has led to the emergence of its applications in areas that are relevant to fundamental cell biology and medical research...
August 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830011/inhibition-of-egf-induced-migration-and-invasion-by-sulfated-polysaccharide-of-sepiella-maindroni-ink-via-the-suppression-of-egfr-akt-p38-mapk-mmp-2-signaling-pathway-in-kb-cells
#18
Wenjie Jiang, Weilu Tian, Muhammad Ijaz, Fengshan Wang
SIP-SII, the sulfated Sepiella maindroni ink polysaccharide (SIP), has been manifested to possess anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activity in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated its inhibitory effect on the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration and invasion of human epidermoid carcinoma cell (KB cell line) as well as the related signaling pathways. The results of MTT assay indicated that SIP-SII inhibited the proliferation of KB cells in a concentration and time dependent manner. Notably, the attenuation of cell growth by SIP-SII was enlarged in the presence of EGF...
August 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830009/humanization-of-jaa-f11-a-highly-specific-anti-thomsen-friedenreich-pancarcinoma-antibody-and-invitro-efficacy-analysis
#19
Swetha Tati, John C Fisk, Julia Abdullah, Loukia Karacosta, Taylor Chrisikos, Padraic Philbin, Susan Morey, Diala Ghazal, Fatma Zazala, Joseph Jessee, Sally Quataert, Stephen Koury, David Moreno, Jing Ying Eng, Vladislav V Glinsky, Olga V Glinskii, Muctarr Sesay, Anthony W Gebhard, Karamveer Birthare, James R Olson, Kate Rittenhouse-Olson
JAA-F11 is a highly specific mouse monoclonal to the Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen (TF-Ag) which is an alpha-O-linked disaccharide antigen on the surface of ~80% of human carcinomas, including breast, lung, colon, bladder, ovarian, and prostate cancers, and is cryptic on normal cells. JAA-F11 has potential, when humanized, for cancer immunotherapy for multiple cancer types. Humanization of JAA-F11, was performed utilizing complementarity determining regions grafting on a homology framework. The objective herein is to test the specificity, affinity and biology efficacy of the humanized JAA-F11 (hJAA-F11)...
August 19, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830002/the-prosocial-functions-of-early-social-emotions-the-case-of-guilt
#20
REVIEW
Amrisha Vaish
To safeguard human cooperation, it is vital that when cooperative relationships break down, they are repaired. This requirement is met by the social emotion of guilt, at two levels: the experience of guilt motivates transgressors to repair the damage they have caused, and transgressors' displays of guilt appease victims and bystanders and elicit cooperation toward the transgressor. I review recent evidence that guilt functions in both of these ways from early in development. The experience of guilt motivates reparative behavior in children 2-3 years of age, and transgressors' displays of guilt appease and elicit cooperation in children 4-5 years of age...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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