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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224256/echocardiographic-estimates-of-right-ventricular-systolic-function-in-dogs-with-myxomatous-mitral-valve-disease
#1
E H Chapel, B A Scansen, K E Schober, J D Bonagura
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction independently predicts outcomes in human myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). There is limited information regarding RV systolic function in dogs with MMVD. HYPOTHESIS: Right ventricular systolic function differs among stages of disease, decreasing in decompensated MMVD. ANIMALS: Thirty-sixclient-owned dogs with MMVD not receiving oral cardiovascular medications. METHODS: Prospective clinical study...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224175/thalamic-interactions-of-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#2
REVIEW
Andreas Hintzen, Esther Annegret Pelzer, Marc Tittgemeyer
Cerebellum and basal ganglia are reciprocally interconnected with the neocortex via oligosynaptic loops. The signal pathways of these loops predominantly converge in motor areas of the frontal cortex and are mainly segregated on subcortical level. Recent evidence, however, indicates subcortical interaction of these systems. We have reviewed literature that addresses the question whether, and to what extent, projections of main output nuclei of basal ganglia (reticular part of the substantia nigra, internal segment of the globus pallidus) and cerebellum (deep cerebellar nuclei) interact with each other in the thalamus...
December 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224166/dna-methylation-analysis-from-blood-spots-increasing-yield-and-quality-for-genome-wide-and-locus-specific-methylation-analysis
#3
Akram Ghantous, Hector Hernandez-Vargas, Zdenko Herceg
Blood represents an easily accessible human tissue for numerous research and clinical applications, including surrogate roles for biomarkers of other tissues. Dried blood spots (DBS) are space- and cost-efficient storage forms of blood while stably retaining many of its chemical constituents. Consequently, neonatal DBS are routinely collected in many countries, and their biobanks represent gold mines for research. However, the utility of DBS is restricted by the limited amount and quality of extractable biomolecules (including DNA), especially for genome-wide profiling...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224162/methylation-specific-multiplex-ligation-dependent-probe-amplification-ms-mlpa
#4
Cathy B Moelans, Lilit Atanesyan, Suvi P Savola, Paul J van Diest
This chapter describes a method for the rapid assessment of promoter hypermethylation levels or methylation of imprinted regions in human genomic DNA extracted from various sources using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a powerful and easy-to-perform PCR-based technique that can identify gains, amplifications, losses, deletions, methylation and mutations of up to 55 targets in a single reaction, while requiring only minute quantities of DNA (about 50 ng) extracted from blood, fresh frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224158/methylation-specific-pcr
#5
João Ramalho-Carvalho, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo
Cytosine methylation is a DNA modification generally associated with transcriptional silencing. Factors that regulate methylation have been linked to human disease, yet how they contribute to malignancies remains largely unknown. Methylation of DNA can change the functional state of regulatory regions, but does not change the Watson-Crick base pairing of cytosine. Moreover, sequence symmetry of CpGs enables propagation of the methyl mark through cell division. This potential for inheritance coupled with the fact that DNA methylation patterns change during development and disease partially explains the interest in DNA methylation as a memory module...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224156/multiplexed-and-sensitive-dna-methylation-testing-using-methylation-sensitive-restriction-enzymes-msre-qpcr
#6
Gabriel Beikircher, Walter Pulverer, Manuela Hofner, Christa Noehammer, Andreas Weinhaeusel
DNA methylation is a chemically stable key-player in epigenetics. In the vertebrate genome the 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) has been found almost exclusively in the CpG dinucleotide context. CpG dinucleotides are enriched in CpG islands very frequently located within or close to gene promoters. Analyses of DNA methylation changes in human diagnostics have been conducted classically using methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes (MSRE). Since the discovery of bisulfite conversion-based sequencing and PCR assays, MSRE-based PCR assays have been less frequently used, although especially in the field of cancer epigenetics MSRE-based genome-wide discovery and targeted screening applications have been and are still performed successfully...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224155/targeted-bisulfite-sequencing-using-the-seqcap-epi-enrichment-system
#7
Jennifer Wendt, Heidi Rosenbaum, Todd A Richmond, Jeffrey A Jeddeloh, Daniel L Burgess
Cytosine methylation has been shown to have a role in a host of biological processes. In mammalian biology these include stem cell differentiation, embryonic development, genomic imprinting, inflammation, and silencing of transposable elements. Given the central importance of these processes, it is not surprising to find aberrant cytosine methylation patterns associated with many disorders in humans, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disease. While whole genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) has recently become feasible, generating high sequence coverage data for the entire genome is expensive, both in terms of money and analysis time, when generally only a small subset of the genome is of interest to most researchers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224140/whole-genome-bisulfite-sequencing-using-the-ovation%C3%A2-ultralow-methyl-seq-protocol
#8
Christian Daviaud, Victor Renault, Florence Mauger, Jean-François Deleuze, Jörg Tost
The analysis of genome-wide epigenomic alterations including DNA methylation has become a subject of intensive research for many complex diseases. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) using next-generation sequencing technologies can be considered the gold standard for a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of cytosine methylation throughout the genome. Several approaches including tagmentation- and post bisulfite adaptor tagging (PBAT)-based WGBS have been devised. Here, we provide a detailed protocol based on a commercial kit for the preparation of libraries for WGBS from limited amounts of input DNA (50-100 ng) using the classical approach of WGBS by ligation of methylated adaptors to the fragmented DNA prior to bisulfite conversion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224137/considerations-for-design-and-analysis-of-dna-methylation-studies
#9
Karin B Michels, Alexandra M Binder
The number of epigenetic studies is exponentially increasing. There is anticipation that DNA methylation may close gaps in our understanding of disease etiology, and how certain risk factors affect health and disease, but also that it has potential as a biomarker for disease. Human DNA methylation studies require careful considerations for design and analysis including population and tissue selection, population stratification, cell heterogeneity, confounding, temporality, sample size, appropriate statistical analysis, and validation of results...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224113/sex-gender-and-transgender-metabolic-impact-of-cross-hormone-therapy
#10
Roberta de Souza Santos, Aaron P Frank, Michael Douglas Nelson, Maurice M Garcia, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Most preclinical and clinical, animal, and human research has been biased with respect to sex and even more so with respect to gender. In fact, little is known about the impact of sex and even less about the influence of gender on overall metabolic processes. The National Institutes of Health has recognized this gap in scientific knowledge and now mandates that studies be conducted in both sexes and to include gender as variables influencing physiological processes such as metabolism. It is therefore critical to understand and appreciate how to incorporate sex and gender in preclinical and clinical research in order to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms by which metabolic processes differ by sex and gender...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224110/sex-differences-in-androgen-regulation-of-metabolism-in-nonhuman-primates
#11
Cadence True, David H Abbott, Charles T Roberts, Oleg Varlamov
The in-depth characterization of sex differences relevant to human physiology requires the judicious use of a variety of animal models and human clinical data. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) represent an important experimental system that bridges rodent studies and clinical investigations. NHP studies have been especially useful in understanding the role of sex hormones in development and metabolism and also allow the elucidation of the effects of pertinent dietary influences on physiology pertinent to disease states such as obesity and diabetes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#12
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224107/sex-dependent-role-of-estrogen-sulfotransferase-and-steroid-sulfatase-in-metabolic-homeostasis
#13
Wojciech G Garbacz, Mengxi Jiang, Wen Xie
Sulfonation and desulfation are two opposing processes that represent an important layer of regulation of estrogenic activity via ligand supplies. Enzymatic activities of families of enzymes, known as sulfotransferases and sulfatases, lead to structural and functional changes of the steroids, thyroids, xenobiotics, and neurotransmitters. Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) and steroid sulfatase (STS) represent negative and positive regulation of the estrogen activity, respectively. This is because EST-mediated sulfation deactivates estrogens, whereas STS-mediated desulfation converts the inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224106/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-and-sex-specific-metabolic-homeostasis
#14
Geetanjali Sharma, Eric R Prossnitz
Obesity and metabolic syndrome display disparate prevalence and regulation between males and females. Human, as well as rodent, females with regular menstrual/estrous cycles exhibit protection from weight gain and associated chronic diseases. These beneficial effects are predominantly attributed to the female hormone estrogen, specifically 17β-estradiol (E2). E2 exerts its actions via multiple receptors, nuclear and extranuclear estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ, and the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously termed GPR30)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224104/the-role-of-estrogens-in-pancreatic-islet-physiopathology
#15
Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, Cedric Le May, Joseph P Tiano, Suhuan Liu, Gamze Kilic-Berkmen, Jun Ho Kim
In rodent models of insulin-deficient diabetes, 17β-estradiol (E2) protects pancreatic insulin-producing β-cells against oxidative stress, amyloid polypeptide toxicity, gluco-lipotoxicity, and apoptosis. Three estrogen receptors (ERs)-ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled ER (GPER)-have been identified in rodent and human β-cells. This chapter describes recent advances in our understanding of the role of ERs in islet β-cell function, nutrient homeostasis, survival from pro-apoptotic stimuli, and proliferation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224098/role-of-estrogens-in-the-regulation-of-liver-lipid-metabolism
#16
Brian T Palmisano, Lin Zhu, John M Stafford
Before menopause, women are protected from atherosclerotic heart disease associated with obesity relative to men. Sex hormones have been proposed as a mechanism that differentiates this risk. In this review, we discuss the literature around how the endogenous sex hormones and hormone treatment approaches after menopause regulate fatty acid, triglyceride, and cholesterol metabolism to influence cardiovascular risk.The important regulatory functions of estrogen signaling pathways with regard to lipid metabolism have been in part obscured by clinical trials with hormone treatment of women after menopause, due to different formulations, routes of delivery, and pairings with progestins...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224093/sex-effects-at-the-ramparts-nutrient-and-microbe-mediated-regulation-of-the-immune-metabolic-interface
#17
Nyrie Israelian, Jayne S Danska
The relationships between dietary compounds, derivative metabolites, and host metabolism and immunity are controlled by diverse molecular mechanisms. Essential contributions to these dynamics come from the community of microbes (the microbiome) inhabiting the human digestive tract. The composition and function of the microbiome are shaped by available nutrients, and reciprocally, these organisms produce an as yet poorly defined repertoire of molecules that communicate with the epithelial barrier and the mucosal immune system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224090/men-are-from-mars-women-are-from-venus-sex-differences-in-insulin-action-and-secretion
#18
Ananda Basu, Simmi Dube, Rita Basu
Sex difference plays a substantial role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in healthy glucose-tolerant humans. The factors which may contribute to the sex-related differences in glucose metabolism include differences in lifestyle (diet and exercise), sex hormones, and body composition. Several epidemiological and observational studies have noted that impaired glucose tolerance is more common in women than men. Some of these studies have attributed this to differences in body composition, while others have attributed impaired insulin sensitivity as a cause of impaired glucose tolerance in women...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224089/cellular-mechanisms-driving-sex-differences-in-adipose-tissue-biology-and-body-shape-in-humans-and-mouse-models
#19
Kalypso Karastergiou, Susan K Fried
Sex differences in adipose tissue distribution and the metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions of different anatomical fat depots have been described, but they are incompletely documented in the literature. It is becoming increasingly clear that adipose depots serve distinct functions in males and females and have specific physiological roles. However, the mechanisms that regulate the size and function of specific adipose tissues in men and women remain poorly understood. New insights from mouse models have advanced our understanding of depot differences in adipose growth and remodeling via the proliferation and differentiation of adipose progenitors that can expand adipocyte number in the tissue or simply replace dysfunctional older and larger adipocytes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224078/investigate-global-chromosomal-interaction-by-hi-c-in-human-naive-cd4-t-cells
#20
Xiangzhi Meng, Nicole Riley, Ryan Thompson, Siddhartha Sharma
Hi-C is a methodology developed to reveal chromosomal interactions from a genome-wide perspective. Here, we described a protocol for generating Hi-C sequencing libraries in resting and activated human naive CD4 T cells to investigate activation-induced chromatin structure re-arrangement in T cell activation followed by a section reviewing the general concepts of Hi-C data analysis.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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