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Molly Martony, Deborah Pouder, Roy Yanong, Yasunari Kiryu, Jan H Landsberg, Ramiro Isaza, Thomas Waltzek, Nicole I Stacy, Robson Giglio, Shirley Baker, Ruth Francis-Floyd
Coelomic fluid aspiration has been utilized in echinoderms in research and clinical settings. Detailed procedural descriptions for coelomic fluid sampling in sea urchins (class Echinoidea) are lacking, and samples are prone to contamination. The objectives of this study were to (1) standardize a technique for coelomic fluid collection in long-spined sea urchin Diadema antillarum that optimizes the diagnostic quality of the sample utilizing diagnostic imaging, (2) identify coelomic fluid bacterial isolates (using Biolog GEN III MicroLog and 16s rDNA sequencing), and (3) compare positive cultures to animal weight, holding time prior to sampling, water temperature, and gross fluid appearance...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Peter M Elias, Joan S Wakefield, Mao-Qiang Man
We compare here the principal characteristics of over-the-counter moisturizers with physiologic lipid-based barrier repair therapy. Moisturizers are standard ancillary therapy for anti-inflammatory skin disorders, like atopic dermatitis (AD), and can attenuate the emergence of AD, the initial step in the "atopic march." But not all moisturizers are beneficial; some can make skin function worse, and can even induce inflammation, possibly accounting for the frequent occurrence of "sensitive skin" in women...
October 18, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Weiwei Zhang, Pu Wang, Yingming Li, Dou Wang, Julius Matsiko, Ruiqiang Yang, Huizhong Sun, Yanfen Hao, Qinghua Zhang, Guibin Jiang
High volume air samples were collected from April 2016 to March 2017 at five locations across the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, to investigate the atmospheric occurrence of organophosphate esters (OPEs). The mean atmospheric concentrations of ∑8 OPEs (gas and particle phases) varied from 531 ± 393 pg/m3 to 2180 ± 1490 pg/m3 with the highest level observed at the urban sampling site in Tianjin City. ∑8 OPEs were predominated by the chlorinated OPEs (TCEP, TCPP, and TDCIPP), which accounted for 60% ± 16% of the OPE concentrations across the BTH region...
October 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Leonello Tacconi, Roberto Spinelli, Francesco Signorelli
BACKGROUND: Traditional wound closure techniques include skin sutures and metal clips. Cyanoacrylate (2-Octyl-Cyanoacrylate "Dermabond C", by Ethicon, Germany) has good neovascularization, epithelialization and antimicrobial activity properties and a fast application procedure. This study presents our long-term experience. METHODS: We retrospectively selected 362 patients who underwent brain surgery from January 2007 to March 2017. Exclusion criteria was applied for repeat surgeries, emergency/post-traumatic procedures, wound infections, wounds longer than 16 centimeters, skull base cases, post-operative patients who stayed in the ICU more than 1 day...
October 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Mohamed Elshazzly, Ani Mnatsakanian, Ryan Machiele, Roxana Aghili, Yen-Ping Kuo, Amy Hinkelman
Context: Uninsured patients living in rural areas of North Carolina have been inordinately affected by the increasing prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the midst of severe budget cuts to treatment programs and a shortage of rural primary care physicians. The Campbell University Community Care Clinic, a self-funded, student-run clinic, provides free health care to uninsured residents of rural Harnett County. As a relatively new clinic serving a unique population, epidemiologic research is paramount to the clinic's continued efficacy...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Brooke Nickel, Alexandra Barratt, Kevin McGeechan, Juan P Brito, Ray Moynihan, Kirsten Howard, Kirsten McCaffery
Importance: Given evidence of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of small papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs), strategies are needed to promote the consideration of less invasive treatment options for patients with low-risk PTC. Objective: To determine the association of treatment preferences and anxiety levels for PTC with the terminology used to describe the condition. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized crossover study involved a community sample of 550 Australian men and women 18 years or older without a history of thyroid cancer...
October 1, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Melissa J Pearson, Neil A Smart
BACKGROUND: Well-constructed systematic reviews and meta-analyses are key tools in evidenced-based healthcare. However, a common problem with performing a meta-analysis is missing data, such as standard deviations (SD). An increasing number of methods are utilised to calculate or impute missing SDs, allowing these studies to be included in analyses. The aim of this review was to investigate the methods reported and utilised for handling missing change SDs in meta-analyses, using the topic of exercise therapy in heart failure patients as a model...
2018: PloS One
Yu-Hsuan Hung, Shih-An Liu, Chen-Chi Wang, Ching-Ping Wang, Rong-San Jiang, Shang-Heng Wu
BACKGROUND: Treatment modality of unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of unknown primary SCCHN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with unknown primary SCCHN from April 1995 to March 2013 were recruited retrospectively. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled. The median time of follow-up was 55...
2018: PloS One
Eyasu Ejeta, Getenet Beyene, Getu Balay, Zegeye Bonsa, Gemeda Abebe
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of public health challenges among immigrant refugees and their surrounding communities in developing countries. Evaluating the treatment outcome of TB patients is one of the key indicators to understand the performance of TB control program. Hence, this study aims to assess profile, treatment outcome and factors associated with unsuccessful outcome of TB patients treated under the TB control program among refugees and their surrounding communities (SCs) in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
Kassahun Atalele Jemere, Mulat Yimer Melaku, Tadesse Hailu Jemeber, Megbaru Alemu Abate
BACKGROUND: Microscopic diagnosis of Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films by skilled microscopists has remained the gold standard laboratory method for the diagnosis of malaria. However, there is a scarcity of qualified laboratory professionals for correctly diagnosing malaria using microscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of laboratory professionals on malaria microscopy at health facilities in Bahir Dar city administration, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2017 in Bahir Dar City...
2018: PloS One
Grace E Marx, Alexis Burakoff, Meghan Barnes, Donna Hite, Amanda Metz, Karen Miller, Emily Spence Davizon, Jennifer Chase, Carol McDonald, Maggie McClean, Lisa Miller, Bernadette A Albanese
In January 2017, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) identified four epidemiologically linked cases of mumps among persons from a Marshallese community who were members of the same church in the Denver metropolitan area. During 2016-2017, sizable outbreaks of mumps reported in Arkansas, Hawaii, and Washington also affected the Marshallese population (1). CDPHE, the Tri-County Health Department (TCHD), and Denver Public Health collaborated to conduct an outbreak investigation during January-March 2017 using active and passive surveillance that identified 17 confirmed and 30 probable cases...
October 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Laís Moraes Paiz, Gabriela Motoie, Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira, Helio Langoni, Benedito Donizete Menozzi, José Eduardo Tolezano, Maria Rita Donalisio
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne parasitic protozoan infection that affects mammals and involves a complex epidemiology. Although dogs are considered the main reservoir in zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the possible presence of other mammalian species acting as reservoirs has been associated as a possible cause of lack of success in the control of human VL in many endemic areas. The knowledge about natural infections of some species is still scarce, such as nonhuman primates (NHP), especially from the genus Callithrix (marmosets)...
October 18, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Monica Tafalla, Dace Gardovska, Kusuma Gopala, Liga Kozlovska
Background Rotavirus (RV) is worldwide an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and young children. There is no specific treatment for AGE caused by RV (RVGE) but since 2006 two safe and effective vaccines have been available. RV vaccination was included in the national immunization program (NIP) of Latvia in 2015 with full reimbursement, and within the first year a coverage of 87% was achieved. This surveillance study was carried out to investigate the proportion of RVGE among AGE episodes in Latvia up to the inclusion of RV vaccination in the NIP to provide a basis for future assessments of the impact of RV vaccination...
October 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba, Luis Felipe Calvo-Torres, Andrés Gaviria-Mendoza, Juan Daniel Castrillón-Spitia
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease, whose prevalence in Colombia is 4.7 per 1,000 inhabitants, is a public health problem and a therapeutic challenge for health professionals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prescribing patterns of antiparkinson drugs and the variables associated with its use in a population from Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study. We selected patients who had been given antiparkinson drugs uninterruptedly between January 1st and March 31st, 2015 from a systematized database of approximately 3...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Yi Liu, Jianrong Yao, Xinghui Liu, Biru Luo, Xiufang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Breast milk is the most important nutrition for premature babies, but mothers of premature infants have difficulty in initiating and sustaining lactation. Breastfeeding infants who are separated with mothers have decreased morbidity. Nevertheless, such decrease is limited due to insufficient milk supply resulting from mother-baby separation during lac. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intervention methods based on the health belief model on promoting the secretion of milk among mothers who were separated with their babies...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Atsushi Takahashi, Tetsuya Ohira, Kanako Okazaki, Seiji Yasumura, Akira Sakai, Masaharu Maeda, Hirooki Yabe, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Akira Ohtsuru, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Hitoshi Suzuki, Michio Shimabukuro, Yoshihiro Sugiura, Hiroaki Shishido, Yoshimitsu Hayashi, Hironori Nakano, Gen Kobashi, Kenji Kamiya, Hiromasa Ohira
Dramatic lifestyle changes due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident increased the prevalence of hepatobiliary enzyme abnormalities (HEA). We aimed to evaluate associations of HEA with specific lifestyle- and disaster-related factors in residents who lived near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.This cross-sectional study included 22,246 residents who underwent a Comprehensive Health Check and the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey from June 2011 to March 2012. Residents were divided into 2 groups based on residential area and housing status after the accident...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ya-Kang Wang, Yu-Min Zhang, Si-Qing Qin, Xu Wang, Tao Ma, Jian-Bin Guo, Chao Zhu, Zhuo-Jing Luo
BACKGROUND: Alendronate has been used to prevent or treat glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO), data regarding its efficacy are inconsistent. We conducted the current systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate both efficacy and safety of alendronate in the treatment of GIO. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, and the China Academic Journal Network Publishing Databases were searched up through March 1, 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients which received alendronate treatment were included...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tak Kyu Oh, Jung-Hee Ryu, Hye-Min Sohn, Young-Tae Jeon
BACKGROUND: Although hypothermia is known to have protective effects against ischemic injuries, the effects of hypothermia on kidney injury have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the association between intraoperative hypothermia and postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients who underwent spine surgery under general anesthesia. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed the medical records of adult patients who underwent elective spine surgery between January 2010 and March 2018...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Nirav K Desai, Michael M Mendelson, Annette Baker, Heather Harker Ryan, Suzanne Griggs, Meera Boghani, Elizabeth Yellen, Lucy Buckley, Mathew W Gillman, Justin P Zachariah, Dionne Graham, Maureen M Jonas, Sarah D de Ferranti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hepatotoxicity of statins, as determined by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), in children and adolescents with dyslipidemia in real world clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical and laboratory data were prospectively collected between September 2010 and March 2014. We compared ALT levels between patients prescribed versus not prescribed 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), and then compared ALT before and after initiation of statins...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Fred Leland McClure, Justin K Niles, Harvey W Kaufman, Jeffrey Gudin
OBJECTIVES: Two epidemics in the United States are related: opioid drug injection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study quantifies the relationship between illicit/prescription drug misuse and HCV infection in 3 population generations: baby boomers (born 1945-1965, inclusive), pre-baby boomers, and post-baby boomers. METHODS: This retrospective study included prescription drug consistency (March-December 2015) and HCV (2011-2015) patient test results performed at a large national clinical reference laboratory...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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