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Stephanie Kearney, Lisa O'Donoghue, Laura K Pourshahidi, Patrick Richardson, Eamon Laird, Martin Healy, Kathryn J Saunders
BACKGROUND: Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) has been used as a biomarker of time spent outdoors. Smaller CUVAF area is associated with myopia in southern hemisphere cohorts. Further research is required to determine if this association is replicated in northern latitudes and whether average CUVAF intensity is a valuable metric. This prospective study explored the association between myopia, CUVAF (area and intensity) and additional indicators of sun exposure (vitamin D3 and self-reported sun exposure preferences) across seasons at a location of 55° north...
August 16, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Hatem A El Shora, Ahmed A El Beleehy, Amr A Abdelwahab, Gaser A Ali, Tarek E Omran, Essam A Hassan, Amr A Arafat
BACKGROUND:  Adequate pain control after cardiac surgery is essential. Paravertebral block is a simple technique and avoids the potential complications of epidural catheters. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of ultrasound-guided bilateral thoracic paravertebral block with thoracic epidural block on pain control after cardiac surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Between March 2016 and 2017, 145 patients who had cardiac surgery through median sternotomy were randomized by stratified blocked randomization into two groups...
August 16, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Hitoshi Tajiri, Satoshi Motoya, Fukunori Kinjo, Atsuo Maemoto, Takayuki Matsumoto, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Yamada, Mieko Nagano, Yutaka Susuta, Kunihiko Ozaki, Kazuoki Kondo, Toshifumi Hibi
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) is increasing in Japan and other countries, and many patients are unresponsive to or do not tolerate current treatment options. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profile of infliximab (IFX) in pediatric patients with moderate-to-severe CD and inadequate response to existing treatment. STUDY DESIGN: This was an open-label, uncontrolled, multicenter Phase 3 study conducted at nine sites in Japan between April 2012 and March 2015...
2018: PloS One
Pengqing Deng, Jianlong Yu, Naitong Zhou, Ming Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate medicine accessibility and antibiotic use in households in western China using World Health Organization (WHO) methodology as well as to identify the influencing factor of care-seeking outside the home and primary determinant factors that influence the use of antibiotics in Chinese residents. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from March to July 2015, and 1200 households from six cities in Sichuan China were selected for a questionnaire survey using stratified multistage random cluster sampling...
2018: PloS One
Umberto Cortinovis, Laura Sala, Stefano Bonomi, Gianfrancesco Gallino, Filiberto Belli, Antonino Ditto, Fabio Martinelli, Giorgio Bogani, Umberto Leone Roberti Maggiore, Francesco Raspagliesi
BACKGROUND: Several techniques for vaginal reconstruction after pelvic exenteration such as myocutaneous and myoperitoneal flaps are available. However, the use of a myofascial flap has not been previously described. Thus, the objective of this article is to present our experience of vaginal reconstruction with rectus abdominis myofascial (RAMF) flap. METHODS: Between May 2008 and March 2017, 16 patients underwent anterior, posterior, or total pelvic exenteration with RAMF flap vaginal reconstruction...
August 16, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Chia-Wei Kuo, Hsing-Mei Wu
BACKGROUND: Microscopic stapedotomy is very successful and has long history, but it still has some constraints. Thus, otoendoscopy is increasingly popular nowadays. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: The retrospective review study was to investigate the role of endoscopic laser stapedotomy in treating patients with otosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients who received endoscopic laser stapedotomy from April 2014 to July 2017 were enrolled and compared to 13 patients who had microscopic stapedotomy from February 2009 to March 2012...
August 16, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Thomas Arn Hansen, Martin Schou Pedersen, Lone Gilmor Nielsen, Chih Man German Ma, Lillian Marie Søes, Peder Worning, Christian Østergaard, Henrik Westh, Mette Pinholt, Kristian Schønning
Background: Primary screening for VRE with PCR directed against vanA allowed identification of vanA+ samples from which VRE could not be isolated when selective culture methods were used. From such a sample a vancomycin-susceptible, vanA+ Enterococcus faecium, Efm-V1511, was isolated, when vancomycin selection was not used during culture. Similar isolates with variable susceptibility to vancomycin were obtained in the following months. Objectives: To characterize Efm-V1511 and investigate the causes of variable susceptibility to vancomycin...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Fanar Mourad, Sharaf-Eldin Shehada, Juri Lubarski, Maria Serrano, Ender Demircioglu, Daniel Wendt, Heinz Jakob, Jaroslav Benedik
OBJECTIVES: Aortic valve construction using pericardial tissue has been known since the late 1960s. The procedure was re-introduced by Ozaki in 2010 and is currently used to treat specific aortic valve diseases. The exact sizing of the neo-cusps and the insertion of the commissures remain the keys to success when performing this procedure. We evaluated our experience using modified custom-made templates. METHODS: In this prospective single-centre study, we evaluated 52 consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve construction between September 2015 and March 2017 using either autologous (16 patients, 30...
August 2, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Jacques M Azzi, Andreas Kyvernitakis, Dimpy P Shah, Lynn El Haddad, Sminil N Mahajan, Shashank S Ghantoji, Ella Heredia-Ariza, Roy F Chemaly
Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. However, studies describing this infection in patients with haematological malignancies are scarce. We sought to evaluate the clinical impact of RSV infection on this patient population. Methods: We reviewed the records of patients with haematological malignancies and RSV infections cared for at our institution between January 2000 and March 2013. Results: Of the 181 patients, 71 (39%) had AML, ALL or myelodysplastic syndrome, 12 (7%) had CML or CLL, 4 (2%) had Hodgkin lymphoma, 35 (19%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 59 (33%) had multiple myeloma...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Chunhui Jin, Zhongguo Chen, Jie Zhang
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ningmitai (NMT) capsule for treating chronic prostatitis (CP) in China. METHODS: Retrieving the China Journal Full-Text Database (CNKI), Wanfang database, China's outstanding master's/doctoral dissertation database, VIP Science and Technology Periodical Database, Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, and Chinese academic conference papers. Collecting and selecting literatures of randomized controlled trials before March 2017 on NMT capsule for CP, evaluated by Jadad scale, and then analyzed with Stata software...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Scott Nathan Loewenstein, Stephen P Duquette, Joshua M Adkinson
BACKGROUND: Hand surgery dogma suggests that simultaneous surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and Dupuytren's contracture (DC) results in an increased incidence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). As a result, many surgeons do not perform surgery for the two conditions concurrently. Our goal was to determine the extent of this association. METHODS: We identified all patients undergoing surgical treatment for CTS, DC, or both between April 1982 and March 2017 using the Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC), a large, multi-institutional, statewide information exchange...
August 11, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Elyse Ross, Rebecca Barnett, Rebecca Tudhope, Kamini Vasudev
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe mental illness are at risk of medical complications, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Given this vulnerability, combined with metabolic risks of antipsychotics, physical health monitoring is critical. Inpatient admission is an opportunity to screen for medical comorbidities. Our objective was to improve the rates of physical health monitoring on an inpatient psychiatry unit through implementation of an electronic standardized order set...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
C Miller, D Grynspan, L Gaudet, E Ferretti, S Lawrence, F Moretti, A Lafreniere, A McGee, S Lattuca, A Black
The epidemic of prescription and non-prescription opioid misuse is of particular importance in pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada currently recommends opioid replacement therapy with methadone or buprenorphine for opioid-dependent women during pregnancy. This vulnerable segment of the population has been shown to be at increased risk of blood-borne infectious diseases, nutritional insecurity and stress. The objective of this study was to describe an urban cohort of pregnant women on opioid replacement therapy and to evaluate potential effects on the fetus...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Shanthi Viswanathan, Lee Mei Wah
OBJECTIVES: This study looked at observed crude prevalence/incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in Malaysia and identified any inter-ethnic differences for MS/NMOSD. METHODS: This was a nationwide tertiary hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study using the capture-recapture method. It looked at the estimated crude prevalence of confirmed MS and NMOSD and annual incidence on 29 December 2017. Recapture of data was done between February and March 2018 on 1 March 2018...
August 16, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Ina von der Beck, Ulrike Cress, Aileen Oeberst
After learning about an event, people often mistakenly believe to have predicted what happened all along (hindsight bias). However, what if what has happened is not known, but subject to conjecture? Could conjectures, in the absence of knowledge about the event, elicit the same bias and make people believe they "conjectured it all along", too? We examined this question in 2 studies. Immediately after the disappearance of flight MH370 in March, 2014, we asked N = 432 individuals about the likelihood of a number of possible events...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Jae Hung Jung, Michael C Risk, Robert Goldfarb, Balaji Reddy, Bernadette Coles, Philipp Dahm
Cryotherapy is a minimally invasive treatment option of prostate cancer that involves freezing of the whole prostate (whole gland therapy) or only the cancer (focal therapy), but it is unclear how effective this is in comparison to standard treatments such as radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy [1,2]. We updated a previously published Cochrane Review to assess the effects of cryotherapy (whole gland or focal) compared with other interventions for primary treatment of clinically localized (cT1-T2) or locally-advanced (cT3) non-metastatic prostate cancer by performing a comprehensive search of multiple databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE), clinical trial registries and a grey literature repository up to 6 March 2018 [3]...
August 16, 2018: BJU International
Toshio Kuwai, Toshiki Yamaguchi, Hiroki Imagawa, Shuntaro Yoshida, Hiroyuki Isayama, Takeaki Matsuzawa, Tomonori Yamada, Shuji Saito, Mamoru Shimada, Nobuto Hirata, Takashi Sasaki, Koichi Koizumi, Iruru Maetani, Yoshihisa Saida
OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer patients often present with large bowel obstruction. Elective placement of a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) can relieve obstruction, but can be challenging. Previous studies have only compared cases by outcomes, but the present study investigated only successful cases to identify factors related to prolonged and difficult SEMS placement in patients with malignant colonic obstruction. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of a multicenter clinical trial conducted between March 2012 and October 2013 at 46 facilities across Japan (UMIN000007953) was performed; 511 patients who required SEMS placement for acute colorectal obstruction or symptomatic stricture secondary to malignant neoplasm were enrolled...
August 16, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
A Ilczyszyn, W Lynn, S Rasheed, J Davids, R Aguilo, S Agrawal
Introduction Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is technically demanding and has an associated learning curve. We published previously that bariatric fellowship reduces the learning curve of primary LRYGB and improves patient outcomes after one year of independent practice. However, the long-term effect of fellowship is unknown. We therefore aimed to compare the 30-day outcomes of LRYGB between the first year of a surgeon's independent practice with the subsequent six years. Materials and methods A prospective database of patients undergoing primary LRYGB under a single surgeon from March 2010 until February 2017 was analysed...
August 16, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Benedito Jamilson Araújo Pereira, Antônio Nogueira de Almeida, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Paulo Henrique Pires de Aguiar, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie
Review the data published on the subject to create a more comprehensive natural history of intraventricular meningiomas (IVMs). A Medline search up to March 2018 using "intraventricular meningioma" returned 98 papers. As a first selection step, we adopted the following inclusion criteria: series and case reports about IVMs, as well as papers written in other languages, but abstracts written in English were evaluated. Six hundred eighty-one tumors were evaluated from 98 papers. The majority of the tumors were located in the lateral ventricles (602-88...
August 15, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Ros Wade, Alessandro Grosso, Emily South, Claire Rothery, Pedro Saramago, Laetitia Schmitt, Kath Wright, Stephen Palmer
As part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence single technology appraisal process, brodalumab was assessed to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of its use in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the Centre for Health Economics Technology Assessment Group at the University of York were commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group. This article provides a summary of the Evidence Review Group's review of the company's submission, the Evidence Review Group report and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Appraisal Committee's subsequent guidance issued in March 2018...
August 16, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
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