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Lorraine Johnson, Mira Shapiro, Jennifer Mankoff
Lyme disease is caused by the bacteria borrelia burgdorferi and is spread primarily through the bite of a tick. There is considerable uncertainty in the medical community regarding the best approach to treating patients with Lyme disease who do not respond fully to short-term antibiotic therapy. These patients have persistent Lyme disease symptoms resulting from lack of treatment, under-treatment, or lack of response to their antibiotic treatment protocol. In the past, treatment trials have used small restrictive samples and relied on average treatment effects as their measure of success and produced conflicting results...
October 12, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Rituparna Ghosh, Koushik Mana, Sumana Sarkhel
Objectives: The primary symptoms associated with snake envenomation are both systemic and local. The local symptoms are characterized by pain, swelling, haemorrhage and myonecrosis at the site of bite. The present study investigates the ameliorating effect of the aqueous bark extract of A lstonia scholaris bark on viper venom induced histopathological and biochemical changes in liver and kidney of swiss albino mice models. Methods & materials: Swiss albino mice (20 ± 2)g were treated with sublethal doses(0...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Robert Jay Rowen
The world is facing a crisis of antibiotic resistance, which impacts every treating physician on the planet. Thousands of patients die yearly in the USA from infections that have failed to respond to anti-infectives. Alarms have been ringing about bacterial infection fatality resurgence, the end of the antibiotic era, a calamity in progress. Ozone therapy has been used in medicine since World War I. However, it is not patentable and has suffered from lack of private source funding for research sufficient to have it accepted by the mainstream...
July 2018: Medical Gas Research
Marie A de Perio, Kerton R Victory, Matthew R Groenewold
BACKGROUND: We determined the incidence and circumstances of needlestick injuries and other body substance exposures among police officers in a city police department. METHODS: We analyzed data extracted from the city's centralized human resource database on all incidents from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2016, and characterized their circumstances. We calculated the annual incidence of needlestick injuries per 1,000 officers and per 10,000 reactive calls. We ran a Poisson regression model to determine the trend in the annual incidence over time...
October 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Bernard Abong'o, Xiaoyu Yu, Martin J Donnelly, Martin Geier, Gabriella Gibson, John Gimnig, Feiko Ter Kuile, Neil F Lobo, Eric Ochomo, Stephen Munga, Maurice Ombok, Aaron Samuels, Stephen J Torr, Frances M Hawkes
BACKGROUND: As currently implemented, malaria vector surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa targets endophagic and endophilic mosquitoes, leaving exophagic (outdoor blood-feeding) mosquitoes underrepresented. We evaluated the recently developed host decoy trap (HDT) and compared it to the gold standard, human landing catch (HLC), in a 3 × 3 Latin square study design outdoors in western Kenya. HLCs are considered to represent the natural range of Anopheles biting-behaviour compared to other sampling tools, and therefore, in principle, provide the most reliable profile of the biting population transmitting malaria...
October 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Channabasappa Shivaprasad, Yalamanchi Aiswarya, Atluri Sridevi, Biswas Anupam, Goel Amit, Boppana Rakesh, Pulikkal A Annie, Kolly Anish
PURPOSE: Hypopituitarism (HP) is an uncommon consequence of Russell's viper envenomation (RVE). Delayed hypopituitarism (DHP) presents months to years after recovering from snake bites (SB). The clinical presentation, manifestations, and outcomes of DHP following RVE have not been systematically studied. Here, we present a case series of HP following RVE with delayed diagnosis and conduct a literature review. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of eight DHP cases and literature to outline the presentation, manifestations, hormonal profiles, and radiological features of DHP following RVE...
October 13, 2018: Pituitary
Ignacio Antonio Sigona-Giangreco, Elena García, Miguel Ángel García-Moreno, Ana Gil-Brusola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Magandhree Naidoo, Shenuka Singh
BACKGROUND: Echoing the sentiments of the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly of May 2014, mandating the all-inclusive and synchronized efforts for the management of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the aim of this current study was to investigate the oral health status of children with ASD aged between 7 to 14 years in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: An investigative cross-sectional quantitative design employing non-probability purposeful sampling was conducted on 149 children with ASD attending special needs schools in KwaZulu-Natal...
October 12, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Oksana V Orel
Three new species of non-biting midges of the tribe Chironomini, Polypedilum (s. str.) odyrensis sp.n., Polypedilum (s. str.) servatum sp.n., Robackia lukini sp.n., are described on the morphology of imago males collected on the streams of the Bolshekhekhtsyrsky Nature.
August 21, 2018: Zootaxa
JesÚs Molinari, S Andrea Moreno
Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920 is peculiar in being transmitted to mammal hosts through the bite of triatomine bugs. For this reason, it has been placed in its own subgenus, Tejeraia Añez, 1982. This name is a junior homonym of Tejeraia Díaz-Ungría, 1963, used for the roundworm Tejeraia mediospiralis (Molin, 1860). The mandatory substitute name of Tejeraia Añez, 1982 is Aneza Özdikmen, 2009. T. (Aneza) rangeli Tejera, 1920 is often referred to as T. (Herpetosoma) rangeli Tejera, 1920. According to nomenclature rules, both name combinations are available...
May 4, 2018: Zootaxa
Delia Doreen Djuicy, Augustin Mouinga-Ondémé, Olivier Cassar, Jill-Léa Ramassamy, Antony Idam Mamimandjiami, Rodrigue Bikangui, Arnaud Fontanet, Antoine Gessain
BACKGROUND: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human oncoretrovirus that infects at least 5 to 10 million people worldwide and is associated with severe diseases. Africa appears as the largest HTLV-1 endemic area. However, the risk factors for the acquisition of HTLV-1 remain poorly understood in Central Africa. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiological survey between 2013 and 2017, in rural areas of 6 provinces of Gabon, in a rainforest environment...
October 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Neelam Sultan, Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Irfan Ali, Muhammad Asif, Zunaira Umar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Zika virus belongs to family of viruses 'Flaviviridae' and spreads mostly by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes. The resulting infection is known as Zika fever. It is usually asymptomatic or often causes mild symptoms, which are very similar to dengue fever. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is also responsible for dengue and chikungunya viruses. Zika virus can spread by crossing the placental barrier from a pregnant mother to a fetus, which can result in microcephaly, severe brain malformations including Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), and other birth defects...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Ritesh G Menezes, Syed Ather Hussain, Sushil Allen Luis, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
Snakebite envenomation is an important public health problem in tropical countries. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in a 28-y-old man with Russell's viper bite that occurred in the Sathyamangalam forest range in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. In this case, a combination of early bite recognition, hospital-based supportive care, corticosteroid therapy, and timely administration of polyvalent antivenom resulted in a favorable clinical outcome.
October 8, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Joel Changalucha, Rachel Steenson, Eleanor Grieve, Sarah Cleaveland, Tiziana Lembo, Kennedy Lushasi, Geofrey Mchau, Zacharia Mtema, Maganga Sambo, Alphoncina Nanai, Nicodem J Govella, Angel Dilip, Lwitiko Sikana, Francesco Ventura, Katie Hampson
BACKGROUND: Rabies is preventable through prompt administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to exposed persons, but PEP access is limited in many rabies-endemic countries. We investigated how access to PEP can be improved to better prevent human rabies. METHODS: Using data from different settings in Tanzania, including contact tracing (2,367 probable rabies exposures identified) and large-scale mobile phone-based surveillance (24,999 patient records), we estimated the incidence of rabies exposures and bite-injuries, and examined health seeking and health outcomes in relation to PEP access...
October 8, 2018: Vaccine
Rita Velez, Tatiana Spitzova, Ester Domenech, Laura Willen, Jordi Cairó, Petr Volf, Montserrat Gállego
BACKGROUND: Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonotic parasitic disease, endemic in the Mediterranean basin. In this region, transmission of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of CanL, is through the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. Therefore, monitoring host-vector contact represents an important epidemiological tool, and could be used to assess the effectiveness of vector-control programmes in endemic areas. Previous studies have shown that canine antibodies against the saliva of phlebotomine sand flies are specific markers of exposure to Leishmania vectors...
October 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Lloyd J Ridley, Jason Han, William E Ridley, Hao Xiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Ulrike Frank, Lenie van den Engel-Hoek, Dália Nogueira, Antonio Schindler, Sasha Adams, Morgan Curry, Maggie-Lee Huckabee
The Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS) is a validated assessment tool measuring the efficiency of solid bolus intake by four quantitative parameters: discrete bites, masticatory cycles, swallows, and time to ingest a single cracker. A normative data base for adults (20 - 80+ years) has previously been established. The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability and reliability of the TOMASS in children and adolescents (TOMASS-C) and to establish the normative data base for this younger population...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Maureen Laroche, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
Arthropods are small invertebrate animals, among which some species are hematophagous. It is during their blood meal that they can transmit pathogenic microorganisms that they may be harboring to the vertebrate host that they parasitize, which in turn will potentially develop a vector-borne disease. The transmission may occur directly through their bite, but also through contaminated feces. Zoonotic diseases, diseases that can naturally be transmitted between humans and animals, are a considerable part of emerging diseases worldwide, and a major part of them are vector-borne...
October 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
David Mendes Costa, Mónica Sá, Ana Rafaela Teixeira, Inês Loureiro, Catherine Thouvenot, Sylvain Golba, Rogerio Amino, Joana Tavares
Plasmodium sporozoites deposited in the skin following a mosquito bite must migrate and invade blood vessels to complete their development in the liver. Once in the bloodstream, sporozoites arrest in the liver sinusoids, but the molecular determinants that mediate this specific homing are not yet genetically defined. Here we investigate the involvement of the thrombospondin-related sporozoite protein (TRSP) in this process using knockout Plasmodium berghei parasites and in vivo bioluminescence imaging in mice...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Norimitsu Kadowaki
Bispecific antibodies comprise two antigen-binding sites that recognize different antigens or epitopes. Blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) that lacks the Fc portion, recognizes CD19 on B tumor cells and CD3 on T cells and induces the T cell-mediated killing of the B tumor cells. The Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of blinatumomab for the treatment of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with minimal residual disease and relapsed/refractory ALL. Various bispecific antibodies have been developed, including BiTEs that target surface molecules on myeloma cells or intracellular antigens presented on the major histocompatibility complex and Fc portion-containing bispecific antibodies that have a potent T cell-activating capacity and a long half-life...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
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