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Thymic epithelial

Ying Zhan, Lihua Wang, Guangyang Liu, Xiaohui Zhang, Jingci Yang, Yuxia Pan, Jianmin Luo
Hematological patients who accept chemotherapy always develop secondary tumor or even die of severe infections. As an important central lymphoid organ, the thymus is frequently damaged during chemotherapy. Previous studies showed that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can promote the proliferation and repair of epithelial cells in thymus. The purpose of our study is to investigate the reparative effects of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) for chemotherapy treated damaged thymus. 80 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal group, model control group, hADMSCs untreated group and hADMSCs treated group...
December 4, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Yukihisa Sato, Masahiro Yanagawa, Akinori Hata, Yukihiro Enchi, Noriko Kikuchi, Osamu Honda, Katsuyuki Nakanishi, Noriyuki Tomiyama
Background: The purpose of our study was to investigate the correlation between tumor volume (TV) and each subtype of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and Masaoka staging. Methods: Sixty-one consecutive patients (45 thymomas and 16 thymic carcinomas) were studied. All were classified according to Masaoka staging: 31 non-invasive TETs (stage I) and 30 invasive TETs (8 stage II, 11 stage III, 3 stage IVa, and 8 stage IVb)...
October 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Julius C Fischer, Chia-Ching Lin, Simon Heidegger, Alexander Wintges, Martin Schlapschy, Matthias Beudert, Stephanie E Combs, Florian Bassermann, Arne Skerra, Tobias Haas, Hendrik Poeck
PURPOSE: Type I interferon (IFN-I) and IL-22 modulate regeneration of the thymus and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) after cytotoxic stress like irradiation. Radiation-induced damage to thymic tissues and IECs is a crucial aspect during the pathogenesis of inadequate immune reconstitution and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI), respectively. IL-22 and IFN-I reduce severity of acute GVHD after allo-HSCT with myeloablative TBI...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Hayan Jeong, Jee Youn Shin, Min-Jung Kim, Jungtae Na, Bong-Gun Ju
Epithelial-derived TSLP (thymic stromal lymphopoietin) plays an important role in pathogenesis in several types of dermatitis. Recently, the anti-inflammatory effects of AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) have been reported in inflamed skin. In this study, keratinocytes were stimulated with TNFα or flagellin in combination with AhR ligands or antagonist. TSLP gene expression and recruitment of transcriptional regulator to TSLP gene promoter were determined. The effects of AhR activation were also studied in DNFB (1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene)-induced dermatitis model...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Judit Bedekovics, Livia Beke, Attila Mokanszki, Szabolcs Szilagyi, Gabor Mehes
Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are uncommon neoplasms of the mediastinum. The gold standard treatment is complete surgical resection which can be followed by radio/chemotherapy in selected cases. Targeted tyrosine kinase inhibition can be considered in only a limited number of aggressive or metastatic tumors as EGFR, BRAF, or c-kit mutations are rare. However, previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in epithelial neoplasias, such as in programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressing nonsmall cell lung carcinoma...
November 28, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Takuma Isshiki, Kazutoshi Isobe, Naobumi Tochigi, Motoko Sunakawa, Yasuhiko Nakamura, Kazutoshi Shibuya, Susumu Sakamoto, Yujiro Takai, Sakae Homma
Thymic carcinoma is a relatively rare and aggressive thymic epithelial tumor. Herein, we report successful treatment of thymic carcinoma with pembrolizumab. A 68-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of chest pain. Chest computed tomography showed a mass in the anterior mediastinum and lymphadenopathy in the left cervical lymph node. Analysis of biopsy specimens detected squamous cell carcinoma in the left cervical lymph node, and immunohistochemical analysis showed 100% expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)...
September 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Kenta Kondo, Izumi Ohigashi, Yousuke Takahama
An immunocompetent and self-tolerant pool of naive T cells is formed in the thymus through the process of repertoire selection. T cells that are potentially capable of responding to foreign antigens are positively selected in the thymic cortex and are further selected in the thymic medulla to help prevent self-reactivity. The affinity between T-cell antigen-receptors (TCRs) expressed by newly generated T cells and self-peptide-MHC complexes displayed in the thymic microenvironments plays a key role in determining the fate of developing T cells during thymic selection...
November 23, 2018: International Immunology
Piergiorgio Muriana, Angelo Carretta, Paola Ciriaco, Alessandro Bandiera, Giampiero Negri
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the new TNM staging system for thymic epithelial malignancies produced a significant increase in the proportion of patients with stage I disease. The identification of new prognostic factors could help to select patients for adjuvant therapies based on their risk of recurrence. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has recently gained popularity as reliable prognostic biomarker in many different solid tumors. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of NLR evaluation as a prognostic marker in patients with surgically-treated thymoma...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Sumiko Maeda, Yoshimasa Nakazato, Keitaro Hayashi, Morimichi Nishihira, Takashi Inoue, Osamu Araki, Yoko Karube, Satoru Kobayashi, Masayuki Chida
L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) functions to transport large neutral amino acids, such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, methionine, and histidine. These amino acids are essential for cell growth and proliferation. Many studies have demonstrated LAT1 expression in various types of cancer, and its high expression level was associated with poor prognosis. However, the significance of LAT1 expression in thymic epithelial tumors is controversial. We conducted this retrospective study to investigate the LAT1 immunoreactivity in thymic epithelial tumors and its impact on prognosis...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Liuzhao Cao, Fen Liu, Yahui Liu, Tian Liu, Jinxiang Wu, Jiping Zhao, Junfei Wang, Shuo Li, Jiawei Xu, Liang Dong
PURPOSE: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) acts as a critical cytokine involved in asthmatic airway remodeling. Our study aimed to characterize the crosstalk between airway epithelial cells and fibroblasts regulated by TSLP through the signaling pathways of Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human biopsy specimens and lung tissues from mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemistry...
November 14, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
Yang Wang, Jun Nie, Ling Dai, Weiheng Hu, Xiaoling Chen, Jindi Han, Xiangjuan Ma, Guangming Tian, Sen Han, Jieran Long, Ziran Zhang, Jian Fang
BACKGROUND: Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are rare thymic epithelial tumors. We investigated the efficacy of first-line gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) chemotherapy versus gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy combined with the anti-angiogenic drug endostar (GP + E) in advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma. METHODS: The records of 45 patients with invasive metastatic thymomas or thymic carcinomas treated with GP as first-line therapy between August 2008 and July 2017 at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute were retrospectively reviewed...
November 9, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Soumya Banerjee, S Jonathan Chapman
The thymus is the primary organ for the generation of naive T cells, a key component of the immune system. Tolerance of T cells to self is achieved primarily in the thymic medulla, where immature T cells (thymocytes) sample self-peptides presented by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). A sufficiently strong interaction activates the thymocytes leading to negative selection. A key question of current interest is whether there is any structure in the manner in which mTECs present peptides: can any mTEC present any peptide at any time, or are there particular patterns of correlated peptide presentation? We investigate this question using a mathematical model of negative selection...
November 7, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Brunda Tumala, Kathleen R Phelps, Stephanie Zhang, Somashubhra Bhattacharya, Laurie P Shornick
During respiratory viral infection, conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) take up antigen and migrate to the draining lymph nodes to present viral antigen and activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes; however, regulation of cDC activation and migration may be age dependent. In this study, we used a mouse model of paramyxoviral infection (Sendai virus) and demonstrated that cDCs, which have migrated from lungs to the draining lymph nodes, are delayed in expressing activation markers in neonatal mice compared with adults...
November 7, 2018: Viral Immunology
Haoyu Yang, Jin Li, Lifeng Jiang, Xijia Jiang, Xindie Zhou, Nanwei Xu
The autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a transcriptional regulator expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells, plays an important role in thymocyte education and negative selection. Several citations studying the association between the rs878081 exon polymorphism of the AIRE gene and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in different populations have yielded conflicting findings. Thus, this case-control study involving 300 RA cases and 300 controls was aimed to identify whether such association existed in a Chinese Han population from East China...
November 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Junko Morimoto, Yumiko Nishikawa, Takumi Kakimoto, Kohei Furutani, Naoki Kihara, Minoru Matsumoto, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuko Kozono, Haruo Kozono, Katsuto Hozumi, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Hitoshi Nishijima, Mitsuru Matsumoto
Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), which express a wide range of tissue-restricted Ags (TRAs), contribute to the establishment of self-tolerance by eliminating autoreactive T cells and/or inducing regulatory T cells. Aire controls a diverse set of TRAs within Aire-expressing cells by employing various transcriptional pathways. As Aire has a profound effect on transcriptomes of mTECs, including TRAs not only at the single-cell but also the population level, we suspected that Aire (Aire+ mTECs) might control the cellular composition of the thymic microenvironment...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Shuhei Hakiri, Koji Kawaguchi, Takayuki Fukui, Shota Nakamura, Naoki Ozeki, Shunsuke Mori, Masaki Goto, Kumiko Hashimoto, Toshinari Ito, Kohei Yokoi
BACKGROUND: For thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline has suggested that complete excision of the tumor should be performed without a preoperative biopsy when resectable. However, little evidence has been provided to support this strategy. The purpose of this study was to review our diagnostic process and to evaluate the validity of radical resection of anterior mediastinal masses (AMMs) without pathological confirmation. METHODS: A total of 254 patients underwent surgical resection for AMMs between 2004 and 2015...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Yan Xing, Michelle J Smith, Christine A Goetz, Ron T McElmurry, Sarah L Parker, Dullei Min, Georg A Hollander, Kenneth I Weinberg, Jakub Tolar, Heather E Stefanski, Bruce R Blazar
Age-related thymic involution is characterized by a decrease in thymic epithelial cell (TEC) number and function parallel to a disruption in their spatial organization, resulting in defective thymocyte development and proliferation as well as peripheral T cell dysfunction. Deficiency of Klotho , an antiaging gene and modifier of fibroblast growth factor signaling, causes premature aging. To investigate the role of Klotho in accelerated age-dependent thymic involution, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of thymopoiesis and peripheral T cell homeostasis using Klotho -deficient ( Kl/Kl ) mice...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
F Xia, Y J Wu, Z Z Lu, K L Xu, B Pan
Objective: To explore the levels of IL-22 in thymus damaged by γ-ray total body irradiation (TBI), and to study the role of IL-22 in T cell reconstitution after thymic injury induced by TBI. Methods: To induce thymic injury, mice were treated by sub-lethal TBI. Levels of intra-thymic and circulatory IL-22 were detected by using ELISA assay. Untreated mice were used as control. After receiving sub-lethal TBI, mice were intraperitoneally injected with PBS or recombinant mouse IL-22, which were marked as TBI+PBS or TBI+IL-22, respectively...
September 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Giuseppe Giaccone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Martina Imbimbo, Margaret Ottaviano, Milena Vitali, Alessandra Fabbri, Giovanni Leuzzi, Michele Fiore, Davide Franceschini, Giulia Pasello, Matteo Perrino, Marco Schiavon, Giancarlo Pruneri, Angelo Paolo Dei Tos, Claudia Sangalli, Marina Chiara Garassino, Rossana Berardi, Alessandra Alessi, Giuseppina Calareso, Iacopo Petrini, Marta Scorsetti, Vieri Scotti, Lorenzo Rosso, Federico Rea, Ugo Pastorino, Paolo Giovanni Casali, Sara Ramella, Umberto Ricardi, Laura Abate-Daga, Valter Torri, Annalisa Trama, Giovannella Palmieri, Mirella Marino, Paolo Andrea Zucali
Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are a heterogenous group of rare tumors, with a complex histopatological classification. Furthermore, the recent introduction of the first TNM staging system, that is scheduled to replace the Masaoka-Koga system, may create further difficulties in TET management, that remains challenging. Several guidelines for treatment of TETs are available and provide recommendations based mainly on non randomized trials and retrospective or limited series. Often the lack of evidence leads to formulation of indications based on expert opinions...
December 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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