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Thymic epithelial

David Suster, Howard D Epstein, Daryl Pearlstein, Saul Suster
Thymic epithelial neoplasms with foci of rhabdomyomatous differentiation are rare. A case is presented of a primary thymic epithelial neoplasm showing the features of an atypical spindle cell thymoma that contained foci of bland-appearing rhabdomyomatous cells. The histologic and immunohistochemical features of this tumor are discussed along with a review of the literature and the comments from the AMR members to the case.
October 8, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Tsuyoshi Mishiro, Norihisa Ishimura, Shunji Ishihara, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), which are included in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs), are allergic gastrointestinal diseases mainly caused by food allergens, which features dense infiltration of eosinophiles in the gastrointestinal mucosa. A possible mechanism of these diseases are Th2 type allergic reactions, including IL-5, IL-13, and IL-15, thymic stromal protein (TSLP), and eotaxin 3, which are considered to have important roles. The number of patients with EoE is rapidly increasing in both Western and Asian countries...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Giulia Anzalone, Giusy Daniela Albano, Angela Marina Montalbano, Loredana Riccobono, Anna Bonanno, Rosalia Gagliardo, Fabio Bucchieri, Roberto Marchese, Monica Moscato, Mirella Profita
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine expressed in the epithelium, involved in the pathogenesis of chronic disease. IL-17A regulates airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and reduction of steroid sensitivity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). TSLP and IL-17A were measured in induced sputum supernatants (ISs) from healthy controls (HC), healthy smokers (HS), and COPD patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE) and normal bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with rhIL-17A or ISs from COPD patients to evaluate TSLP protein and mRNA expression...
October 5, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Adam E Handel, Noriko Shikama-Dorn, Saule Zhanybekova, Stefano Maio, Annina N Graedel, Saulius Zuklys, Chris P Ponting, Georg A Holländer
Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) effect crucial roles in thymopoiesis including the control of negative thymocyte selection. This process depends on their capacity to express promiscuously genes encoding tissue-restricted antigens. This competence is accomplished in medullary TEC (mTEC) in part by the presence of the transcriptional facilitator AutoImmune REgulator, AIRE. AIRE-regulated gene transcription is marked by repressive chromatin modifications, including H3K27me3. When during TEC development these chromatin marks are established, however, remains unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Obdulio García-Nicolás, Roman O Braun, Panagiota Milona, Marta Lewandowska, Ronald Dijkman, Marco P Alves, Artur Summerfield
The mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes severe central nervous system diseases, and cycles between Culex mosquitoes and different vertebrates. For JEV and some other flaviviruses oronasal transmission is described, but the mode of infection is unknown. Using nasal mucosal tissue explants and primary porcine nasal epithelial cells (NEC) at the air-liquid interface (ALI) and macrophages as ex vivo and in vitro models, our results indicate that the nasal epithelium could represent the route of entry and exit for JEV in pigs...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
Nyall R London, Anuj Tharakan, Michelle Mendiola, Thomas E Sussan, Mengfei Chen, Alex Dobzanski, Andrew P Lane, Venkataramana Sidhaye, Shyam Biswal, Murugappan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress exacerbates lower airway diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, its role in upper airway (sinonasal) chronic inflammatory disorders is less clear. Nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf2) is an endogenous mechanism that upon activation invokes an antioxidant response pathway via nuclear translocation and upregulation of cytoprotective genes. We sought to determine whether deletion of Nrf2 enhances susceptibility to allergic sinonasal inflammation in vivo...
October 3, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Neil N Patel, Michael A Kohanski, Ivy W Maina, Alan D Workman, De'Broski R Herbert, Noam A Cohen
Recent evidence has demonstrated an expanding role of respiratory epithelial cells in immune surveillance and modulation. Studies have been focusing on the earliest events that link epithelial injury to downstream inflammatory responses. Cytokines produced by and released from respiratory epithelial cells are among these early trigger signals. Epithelial-derived cytokines, namely thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin (IL)-25, and IL-33, have come to the forefront of recent investigations. Each of these 3 cytokines has been implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), asthma, and atopy...
September 10, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Marinella N Ghezzo, Mónica T Fernandes, Ivette Pacheco-Leyva, Pedro M Rodrigues, Rui S Machado, Marta A S Araújo, Ravi K Kalathur, Matthias E Futschik, Nuno L Alves, Nuno R Dos Santos
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphomas (T-LBL) are aggressive malignancies of thymocytes. The role of thymic microenvironmental cells and stromal factors in thymocyte malignant transformation and T-ALL development remains little explored. Here, using the TEL-JAK2 transgenic (TJ2-Tg) mouse model of T-ALL/LBL, which is driven by constitutive JAK/STAT signaling and characterized by the acquisition of Notch1 mutations, we sought to identify stromal cell alterations associated with thymic leukemogenesis...
September 26, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Bingjie Zhao, Lu Chang, Haiying Fu, Guangyu Sun, Wei Yang
Autoimmune regulator (AIRE), whose gene mutation is considered to be a causative factor of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS1), is an important transcriptional regulator. Studies on the role of AIRE in the central immune system have demonstrated that AIRE can eliminate autoreactive T cells by regulating the expression of a series of tissue specific antigens promiscuously in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and induce regulatory T cell (Treg) production to maintain central immune tolerance...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Minwen Xu, Tao Gan, Huiting Ning, Liefeng Wang
During the entire processes of thymus organogenesis, maturation, and involution, gene regulation occurs post-transcriptionally via recently discovered microRNA (miRNA) transcripts. Numerous reports indicate that miRNAs may be involved in the construction of a normal thymic microenvironment, which constitutes a critical component to support T lymphocyte development. MiRNAs are also expressed in thymic stromal cells including thymic epithelial cells (TECs) during maturation and senescence. This review focuses on the function of miRNAs in thymic development and involution...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nandini Singarapu, Keyue Ma, Kaitlin A G Reeh, Jianjun Shen, Jessica N Lancaster, Song Yi, Huafeng Xie, Stuart H Orkin, Nancy R Manley, Lauren I R Ehrlich, Ning Jiang, Ellen R Richie
Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are essential for thymocyte differentiation and repertoire selection. Despite their indispensable role in generating functional T cells, the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate TEC development from endodermal progenitors in the third pharyngeal pouch (3rd PP) are not fully understood. We recently reported that the T-box transcription factor TBX1 negatively regulates TEC development. Although initially expressed throughout the 3rd PP, Tbx1 becomes downregulated in thymus-fated progenitors and when ectopically expressed impairs TEC progenitor proliferation and differentiation...
September 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Begüm Görgülü, Sevim Bavbek
Alarmins are endogenous, constitutively expressed, chemotactic, and immune activating proteins/peptides that are released as a result of degranulation, cell injury or death, or in response to immune induction. Alarmins are involved in a variety of processes including antimicrobial gene expression regulation, cellular homeostasis, wound healing, inflammation, allergy, autoimmunity and oncogenesis. IL-25, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) are airway epithelial-derived alarmins and the characteristics of alarmins are that they are rapidly released after nonprogrammed cell death, they activate the immune cells...
June 2018: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Oyebola O Oyesola, Simon P Früh, Lauren M Webb, Elia D Tait Wojno
Parasitic helminth infection elicits a type 2 cytokine-mediated inflammatory response. During type 2 inflammation, damaged or stimulated epithelial cells exposed to helminths and their products produce alarmins and cytokines including IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. These factors promote innate immune cell activation that supports the polarization of CD4+ T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Activated innate and Th2 cells produce the cytokines IL-4, -5, -9, and -13 that perpetuate immune activation and act back on the epithelium to cause goblet cell hyperplasia and increased epithelial cell turnover...
September 18, 2018: Cytokine
Sylvie Guerder, Chervin Hassel, Alice Carrier
The lifespan of T cells is determined by continuous interactions of their T cell receptors (TCR) with self-peptide-MHC (self-pMHC) complexes presented by different subsets of antigen-presenting cells (APC). In the thymus, developing thymocytes are positively selected through recognition of self-pMHC presented by cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTEC). They are subsequently negatively selected by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC) or thymic dendritic cells (DC) presenting self-pMHC complexes. In the periphery, the homeostasis of mature T cells is likewise controlled by the interaction of their TCR with self-pMHC complexes presented by lymph node stromal cells while they may be tolerized by DC presenting tissue-derived self-antigens...
September 17, 2018: Immunogenetics
Yuzuru Inoue, Shiro Kohi, Masato Gobara, Fumi Joden, Kei Yabuki, Takayuki Tanoue, Nagahiro Sato, Takefumi Katsuki, Takahisa Nagata, Kazunori Shibao, Masanori Hisaoka, Keiji Hirata
The case presented herein was a 70-year-old woman who had no compliant, but had a mass in the lower part of the right lobe of the thyroid detected by ultrasound (US). The US image of the tumor, measuring 13 mm in diameter, showed a low and heterogeneous internal echo level with calcification and an irregular margin. The tumor appeared to extend to the adjacent sternothyroid muscle, and cervical lymph node swelling was detected in a computer tomography (CT) image, but no metastatic lesion was found by positron emission tomography (PET)-CT...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Neda Kalhor, Cesar A Moran
Seven primary thymic epithelial neoplasms, three thymomas, and four thymic carcinomas with rhabdomyomatous component are herein described. The patients are two women and 5 men between the ages of 42 and 62years (average: 52years). Clinically, the patients presented with non-specific symptoms of cough, chest pain, and dyspnea. None of the patients had history of myasthenia gravis or of previous malignancy. Diagnostic imaging revealed the presence of an anterior mediastinal mass in all the patients. Surgical resection was accomplished in all the cases...
September 11, 2018: Human Pathology
Wei Wang, Yan Li, Zhe Lv, Yan Chen, Yun Li, Kewu Huang, Chris J Corrigan, Sun Ying
The alarmin cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) play a critical role in asthma pathogenesis by inducing mucosal Th2-type cytokine production. Although environmental exposure to aeroallergens has been proposed as an alarmin trigger in asthma, there has been no systematic parallel study of the effects of allergen exposure on the expression of these cytokines in the airways of human asthmatics. Using single and sequential double immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the numbers and phenotypes of IL-25-, IL-33-, and TSLP-immunoreactive cells in sections of bronchial biopsies from mild atopic asthmatics ( n = 16) before and 24 h after allergen inhalational challenge...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jiajia Lv, Qianying Yu, Jie Lv, Caixia Di, Xiaoliang Lin, Wen Su, Min Wu, Zhenwei Xia
Epithelial cells (ECs)-derived cytokines are induced by different stimuli through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to mount a type-2-cell-mediated immune response; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrated asthmatic features in both primary bronchial epithelial cells (pBECs) and mouse model using several allergens including ovalbumin (OVA), house dust mite (HDM), or Alternaria alternate. We found that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was highly induced in ECs but not dendritic cells (DCs) by various allergens, leading to recruitment of circulating basophils into the lung via C-C chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2)...
September 5, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
D Ditgen, E M Anandarajah, A Reinhardt, A E Younis, S Witt, J Hansmann, E Lorenz, M García-Hernández, D Paclik, H Soblik, A Jolodar, P H Seeberger, E Liebau, N W Brattig
Helminths are complex pathogens that ensure their long-term survival by influencing the immune responses of their host. Excretory/secretory products (ESP) can exert immunoregulatory effects which foster parasite survival. Galectins represent a widespread group of β-galactoside-binding proteins which are involved in a multitude of biological processes operative in parasite-host interaction. We had earlier identified seven galectins in Strongyloides ratti, four of them detected in the ESP of distinct developmental stages of the parasite...
September 1, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Tom Cupedo
The relevance of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) for anti-infectious immunity remains a matter of constant debate. At the same time, evidence for additional, non-immune related functions of ILC is steadily increasing. In the thymus, non-immune functions of ILC were shown for group 3 ILC (ILC3), which regulate differentiation and proliferation of thymic epithelial cells. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Withers and colleagues [Eur. J. Immunol. 2018. 48: 1481-1491] now show that ILC2, a subset of ILCs specialized in tissue protection and regeneration, are the major ILC subset in the adult thymus, heavily outnumbering ILC3...
September 2018: European Journal of Immunology
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