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Thymic epithelial

Young-Je Kim, Mi Ji Choi, Dong-Ho Bak, Byung Chul Lee, Eun Jung Ko, Ga Ram Ahn, Seung Won Ahn, Moo Joong Kim, Jungtae Na, Beom Joon Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by a complex, heterogeneous pathogenesis including skin barrier dysfunction, immunology, and pruritus. Although epidermal growth factor (EGF) is essential for epithelial homeostasis and wound healing, the effect of EGF on AD remains to be explored. To develop a new therapy for AD, the anti-AD potential of EGF was investigated by inducing AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). EGF was administrated to NC/Nga mice to evaluate its therapeutic effect on DNCB-induced AD...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
José A Villegas, Angeline Gradolatto, Frédérique Truffault, Régine Roussin, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Rozen Le Panse, Nadine Dragin
Thymic epithelial cells are one of the main components of the thymic microenvironment required for T-cell development. In this work, we describe an efficient method free of enzymatic and Facs-sorted methods to culture human medullary thymic epithelial cells without affecting the cell phenotypic, physiologic and functional features. Human medulla thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are obtained by culturing thymic biopsies explants. After 7 days of primo-culture, mTECs keep their ability to express key molecules involved in immune tolerance processes such as autoimmune regulator, tissue-specific antigens, chemokines, and cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiu-Juan Yao, Xiao-Fang Liu, Xiang-Dong Wang
Objective: Allergic airway diseases (AADs) are a group of heterogeneous disease mediated by T-helper type 2 (Th2) immune response and characterized with airway inflammation and remodeling, including allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis with allergic background. This review aimed to discuss the abnormal epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk in the pathogenesis of AADs. Data Sources: Articles referred in this review were collected from the database of PubMed published in English up to January 2018...
August 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Li Lianqu, Wang Yan, Wang Xiaoyu, Tao Yu, Bao Kaifa, Hua Yongqing, Jiang Guorong, Hong Min
Radix Astragali, has long been used to alleviate allergic diseases (ADs). Formononetin is one of the major active components in Radix Astragali, but its mechanism on ADs is not definitively known. The fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer-induced atopic contact dermatitis mouse model and poly I:C or lipopolysaccharide-treated HaCaT cells were used to examine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)/interleukin (IL)-33 production and expression of E-cadherin. After administration of formononetin, TSLP/IL-33 levels decreased both in vitro and in vivo, while E-cadherin was increased in vivo and restored in vitro...
August 2, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Khalil Saleh, Nadine Khalifeh-Saleh, Hampig Raphael Kourie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Immunotherapy
Ching-In Lau, Diana C Yánez, Anisha Solanki, Eleftheria Papaioannou, José Ignacio Saldaña, Tessa Crompton
The Foxa1 and Foxa2 transcription factors are essential for mouse development. Here we show that they are expressed in thymic epithelial cells (TEC) where they regulate TEC development and function, with important consequences for T-cell development. TEC are essential for T-cell differentiation, lineage decisions and repertoire selection. Conditional deletion of Foxa1 and Foxa2 from murine TEC led to a smaller thymus with a greater proportion of TEC and a greater ratio of medullary to cortical TEC. Cell-surface MHCI expression was increased on cortical TEC in the conditional Foxa1Foxa2 knockout thymus, and MHCII expression was reduced on both cortical and medullary TEC populations...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Gilda Varricchi, Antonio Pecoraro, Giancarlo Marone, Gjada Criscuolo, Giuseppe Spadaro, Arturo Genovese, Gianni Marone
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a pleiotropic cytokine originally isolated from a murine thymic stromal cell line. TSLP exerts its biological effects by binding to a high-affinity heteromeric complex composed of thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor chain and IL-7Rα. TSLP is primarily expressed by activated lung and intestinal epithelial cells, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts. However, dendritic cells (DCs), mast cells, and presumably other immune cells can also produce TSLP. Different groups of investigators have demonstrated the existence of two variants for TSLP in human tissues: the main isoform expressed in steady state is the short form (sf TSLP), which plays a homeostatic role, whereas the long form (lfTSLP) is upregulated in inflammatory conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mark M Hammer, Nityanand Miskin, Rachna Madan, Andetta R Hunsaker
OBJECTIVE: We set out to evaluate a set of demographic and computed tomography imaging features for diagnosing anterior mediastinal masses. METHODS: We identified 223 patients with anterior mediastinal masses, which we divided into training and validation sets. One radiologist evaluated computed tomography imaging features on the training set. Then, predictive features were identified, and 3 radiologists evaluated these on the validation set. A naive Bayesian classifier based on the features was compared with the radiologists' first-choice diagnosis...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
María J García-León, Patricia Fuentes, José Luis de la Pompa, María L Toribio
T-cell development is a complex dynamic process that relies on ordered stromal signals delivered to thymus-seeding progenitors that migrate throughout different thymus microenvironments (TMEs). Particularly, Notch signaling provided by thymic epithelial cells (TECs) is crucial for T-cell fate specification and generation of mature T cells. Four canonical Notch ligands (Dll1, Dll4, Jag1 and Jag2) are expressed in the thymus, but their spatial distribution in functional TMEs is largely unknown, especially in humans, and their impact on Notch1 activation during thymopoiesis remains undefined...
July 24, 2018: Development
Mayumi Hirakawa, Daisuke Nagakubo, Benoît Kanzler, Sergiy Avilov, Brigitte Krauth, Christiane Happe, Jeremy B Swann, Anja Nusser, Thomas Boehm
The numbers of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and thymocytes steadily increase during embryogenesis. To examine this dynamic, we generated several TEC-specific transgenic mouse lines, which express fluorescent proteins in the nucleus, the cytosol and in the membranes under the control of the Foxn1 promoter. These tools enabled us to determine TEC numbers in tissue sections by confocal fluorescent microscopy, and in the intact organ by light-sheet microscopy. Compared to histological procedures, flow cytometric analysis of thymic cellularity is shown to underestimate the numbers of TECs by one order of magnitude; using enzymatic digestion of thymic tissue, the loss of cortical TECs (cTECs) is several fold greater than that of medullary TECs (mTECs), although different cTEC subsets appear to be still present in the final preparation...
July 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xuefei Zhang, Chunyu Ji, Zhitao Gu, Wentao Fang
BACKGROUND: So far there's no tumor maker applied in diagnosis and treatment of thymic epithelial tumors. This study is to assess the correlation between serum cytokine 19 fragment (Cyfra 21-1) and clinicopathological features and prognosis of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). METHODS: The clinical data of 159 patients with TETs in Shanghai Chest Hospital was retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into groups according to different tumor stages and histotypes...
July 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Martina Imbimbo, Milena Vitali, Alessandra Fabbri, Margaret Ottaviano, Giulia Pasello, Iacopo Petrini, Giovannella Palmieri, Rossana Berardi, Paolo Zucali, Monica Ganzinelli, Mirko Marabese, Massimo Broggini, Mirella Marino, Annalisa Trama, Eliana Rulli, Lital Hollander, Giancarlo Pruneri, Valter Torri, Marina Chiara Garassino
Thymic epithelial tumors are rare malignancies. Thymic carcinoma represents about 20% of all thymic epithelial tumors and has aggressive behavior, with a greater tendency to metastatic spread. Thymic carcinoma is often diagnosed in advanced stages for which systemic treatment is the main therapeutic option. The association of chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents in the first-line setting has never been investigated in this very rare cancer. However, preclinical and clinical evidence has suggested that inhibition of angiogenesis could be beneficial...
July 3, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Hiran M Thyagarajan, Jessica N Lancaster, Sergio A Lira, Lauren I R Ehrlich
Following positive selection, thymocytes migrate into the medulla where they encounter diverse self-antigens that induce central tolerance. Thymocytes expressing T cell receptors (TCRs) with high affinity for self-antigens displayed by medullary antigen presenting cells (APCs) undergo either negative selection or diversion to the regulatory T cell (Treg) lineage, thus ensuring maturation of non-autoreactive T cells. Because many self-antigens are expressed by only a small percentage of medullary thymic epithelial cells, thymocytes must enter the medulla and efficiently scan APCs therein to encounter the full array of self-antigens that induce central tolerance...
2018: PloS One
Corey N Miller, Irina Proekt, Jakob von Moltke, Kristen L Wells, Aparna R Rajpurkar, Haiguang Wang, Kristin Rattay, Imran S Khan, Todd C Metzger, Joshua L Pollack, Adam C Fries, Wint W Lwin, Eric J Wigton, Audrey V Parent, Bruno Kyewski, David J Erle, Kristin A Hogquist, Lars M Steinmetz, Richard M Locksley, Mark S Anderson
The thymus is responsible for generating a diverse yet self-tolerant pool of T cells1 . Although the thymic medulla consists mostly of developing and mature AIRE+ epithelial cells, recent evidence has suggested that there is far greater heterogeneity among medullary thymic epithelial cells than was previously thought2 . Here we describe in detail an epithelial subset that is remarkably similar to peripheral tuft cells that are found at mucosal barriers3 . Similar to the periphery, thymic tuft cells express the canonical taste transduction pathway and IL-25...
July 2018: Nature
Chamutal Bornstein, Shir Nevo, Amir Giladi, Noam Kadouri, Marie Pouzolles, François Gerbe, Eyal David, Alice Machado, Anna Chuprin, Beáta Tóth, Ori Goldberg, Shalev Itzkovitz, Naomi Taylor, Philippe Jay, Valérie S Zimmermann, Jakub Abramson, Ido Amit
T cell development and selection are coordinated in the thymus by a specialized niche of diverse stromal populations1-3 . Although much progress has been made over the years in identifying the functions of the different cell types of the thymic stromal compartment, there is no comprehensive characterization of their diversity and heterogeneity. Here we combined massively parallel single-cell RNA-sequencing4,5 , spatial mapping, chromatin profiling and gene targeting to characterize de novo the entire stromal compartment of the mouse thymus...
July 2018: Nature
Zhitao Gu, Chun Chen, Yun Wang, Yucheng Wei, Jianhua Fu, Peng Zhang, Yongyu Liu, Renquan Zhang, Keneng Chen, Zhentao Yu, Liewen Pang, Yangchun Liu, Yin Li, Yongtao Han, Hezhong Chen, Xinming Zhou, Youbin Cui, Lijie Tan, Jianyong Ding, Yi Shen, Yuan Liu, Wentao Fang
OBJECTIVES: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been increasingly used in the management of thymic epithelial tumours. However, its oncological efficacy remains to be proved. The purpose of this study is to compare the oncological outcomes following thoracoscopic versus open surgery in the case-matched groups of patients with early-stage thymic tumours from the Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas (ChART) retrospective database. METHODS: Between 1994 and 2012, a total of 1087 patients who underwent surgery for UICC (Union for International Cancer Control) pathological Stage I tumours from the ChART retrospective database were recruited for this study...
July 16, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Olga Sizova, Denis Kuriatnikov, Ying Liu, Dong-Ming Su
Tumor metastatic relapse is the primary cause for cancer-associated mortality. Metastatic relapse is believed to arise from quantities of tumor cells that are below detectable thresholds, which are able to resist radio/chemotherapy by obtaining a dormant state and hiding in certain organs, i.e. tumor reservoirs. The thymus, a central T cell immune organ, has been suggested to be a pre-metastatic tumor reservoir for B-lymphoma cells. However, it remains unknown whether the thymus is able to harbor non-lymphoid solid tumor cells, and whether chemotherapy can thoroughly eliminate cancer cells in the thymus...
July 13, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Mark Rochman, Nurit P Azouz, Marc E Rothenberg
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, allergen-driven inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized predominantly by eosinophilic inflammation, leading to esophageal dysfunction. Converging data have placed the esophageal epithelium at the center of disease pathogenesis. In particular, the main EoE disease susceptibility loci at 2p23 and 5p22 encode for gene products that are produced by the esophageal epithelium: the intracellular protease calpain 14 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, respectively...
July 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jonathan Spergel, Seema S Aceves
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a disorder of increasing prevalence worldwide, causing clinical symptoms of vomiting, failure to thrive, and dysphagia and complications of esophageal remodeling with strictures and food impactions. Molecular profiling demonstrates EoE to be an eosinophil-predominant disorder with a TH 2 cytokine profile reminiscent of other allergic diseases, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Environmental antigens in the form of foods and aeroallergens induce eosinophil, basophil, mast cell, and T-cell infiltration...
July 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jane L Tarry-Adkins, Catherine E Aiken, Thomas J Ashmore, Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, Jian-Hua Chen, Susan E Ozanne
Reduced fetal nutrition and rapid postnatal growth accelerates the aging phenotype in many organ systems; however, effects on the immune system are unclear. We addressed this by studying the thymus from a rat model of developmental programming. The recuperated group was generated by in utero protein restriction, followed by cross-fostering to control-fed mothers, and were then compared with controls. Fat infiltration and adipocyte size increased with age ( P < 0.001) and in recuperated thymi ( P < 0.05)...
July 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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