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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30518004/-antimicrobial-resistance-changes-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-strains-isolated-from-children
#1
Y Guo, F P Hu, D M Zhu, C Q Wang, A M Wang, H Zhang, C Wang, F Dong, J H Zhen, S P Zhou, Y Zhou, L Zhu, J H Meng
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and resistance changes of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains isolated from children patients of Chinese Bacterial Resistance Surveillance Network (CHINET) from 2005 to 2017. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by disk diffusion method (KB method) and automated systems. Results were analyzed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2017 edition standards. Results: Among the 4 481 CRE clinical strains, the overall prevalence of CRE in children was 6...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517369/nanotechnology-and-multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells-in-reparative-medicine-therapeutic-perspectives
#2
Angela Mazzeo, Enrico Jardim Clemente Santos
The biology of stem cells is one of the most dynamic and promising fields of the biological sciences, since it is the basis for the development of organisms. Its biological complexity demands efforts from several lines of research aimed mainly at its therapeutic use. Nanotechnology has been emerging as a new field of study, which shows great potential in the treatment of various diseases. This new area of health has been called "Nanomedicine" or "Bionanotechnology", which can be applied in Medicine by transport and drug delivery systems, robotic tools to be used in diagnostic and surgical processes, nanobiomaterials, gene therapies, nanobiomedical devices, among others...
November 29, 2018: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517307/precision-medicine-changing-the-way-we-think-about-healthcare
#3
Gustavo Rosa Gameiro, Viktor Sinkunas, Gabriel Romero Liguori, José Otavio Costa Auler-Júnior
Health care has changed since the decline in mortality caused by infectious diseases as well as chronic and non-contagious diseases, with a direct impact on the cost of public health and individual health care. We must now transition from traditional reactive medicine based on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment to a system that targets the disease before it occurs and, if it cannot be avoided, treats the disease in a personalized manner. Precision Medicine is that new way of thinking about medicine. In this paper, we performed a thorough review of the literature to present an updated review on the subject, discussing the impact of the use of genetics and genomics in the care process as well as medical education, clinical research and ethical issues...
December 3, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517046/novel-pharmacotherapy-for-burn-wounds-what-are-the-advancements
#4
Michael R Hamblin
The prognosis for severe burns has improved significantly over the past 50 years. Meanwhile, burns have become an affliction mainly affecting the less well-developed regions of the world. Early excision and skin grafting has led to major improvements in therapeutic outcomes. Areas covered: The purpose of this article is to survey the use of pharmacotherapy to treat different pathophysiological complications of burn injury. The author, herein, discusses the use of drug treatments for a number of systemic metabolic disturbances including hyperglycemia, elevated catabolism, and gluconeogenesis...
December 5, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516604/critical-care-of-neuromuscular-disorders
#5
Diana Greene-Chandos, Michel Torbey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weakness is a common reason patients are seen in neurologic consultation. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders in the intensive care unit (ICU), discusses the intensive care needs and evaluation of respiratory failure in patients with neuromuscular disorders, and provides a practical guide for management. RECENT FINDINGS: Although primary neuromuscular disorders used to be the most common cause for weakness from peripheral nervous system disease in the ICU, a shift toward ICU-acquired weakness is observed in today's clinical practice...
December 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515346/-vangueria-madagascariensis-fruit-tree-nutritional-phytochemical-pharmacological-and-primary-health-care-applications-as-herbal-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmel. is a plant species regarded as an important fruit tree and medicinal plant in sub-Saharan Africa. This study critically reviewed the nutritional value, phytochemistry, medicinal uses, and pharmacological properties of V. madagascariensis . Relevant information on food and medicinal uses of the species was collected from electronic databases such as ISI Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, OATD, Scopus, OpenThesis, PubMed, and Google Scholar, and preelectronic literatures were obtained from the university library covering the period 1966 to 2018...
2018: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515251/strengths-and-weaknesses-of-the-brazilian-regulation-on-biosimilars-a-critical-view-of-the-regulatory-requirements-for-biosimilars-in-brazil
#7
REVIEW
Marcos Renato de Assis, Valdair Pinto
Biological products or biopharmaceuticals are medicinal products derived from living systems and manufactured by modern biotechnological methods that differ widely from the traditional synthetic drugs. Monoclonal antibodies are the most rapidly growing type of biologic. They are much larger and more complex molecules with inherent diversity; therefore, different manufacturers cannot produce identical biological products, even with the same type of host expression system and equivalent technologies. Thus, legal follow-on biologics manufactured and marketed after patent expiration are usually referred to as biosimilars...
December 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515235/vascular-protection-by-ethanol-extract-of-morus-alba-root-bark-endothelium-dependent-relaxation-of-rat-aorta-and-decrease-of-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-and-proliferation
#8
Nisha Panth, Keshav Raj Paudel, Dal-Seong Gong, Min-Ho Oak
Morus alba (white mulberry) is native to the northern part of Korea and popularly used as a traditional medicine due to its numerous health benefits against human's disease. However, the possibility that M. alba may also affect the cardiovascular system remains unexplored. This study sought to investigate the vascular protective effects of the root bark extract of M. alba (MAE). Vascular reactivity was performed in organ baths using isolated rat thoracic aorta, while platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and wound healing assay, respectively...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514602/brief-training-increases-nurses-comfort-using-tele-ultrasound-a-feasibility-study
#9
Taylor M Douglas, Andrea R Levine, Peter P Olivieri, Michael T McCurdy, Alfred Papali, Marc T Zubrow, Karen M Rodick, Julie M Hurley, Avelino C Verceles
BACKGROUND: Nurses' and other non-physician providers have demonstrated proficiency at obtaining images in the tele-ultrasound system. However, use of this skill requires comfort with the procedure and willingness to incorporate it into practice. OBJECTIVES: To assess 1) level of comfort of non-physician providers performing tele-ultrasound before and after brief training and 2) feasibility of implementing an educational programme that improves level of comfort...
December 1, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514554/personalising-prostate-radiotherapy-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Winter Spence
Prostate cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer among Canadian men. The introduction of routine screening and advanced treatment options have allowed for a decrease in prostate cancer-related mortality, but outcomes following treatment continue to vary widely. In addition, the overtreatment of indolent prostate cancers causes unnecessary treatment toxicities and burdens health care systems. Accurate identification of patients who should undergo aggressive treatment, and those which should be managed more conservatively, needs to be implemented...
December 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514417/recent-development-of-photo-cross-linkers-as-tools-for-biomedical-research
#11
Yulin Tian, Qing Lin
Photo-cross-linkers are invaluable tools for identifying drug targets and off-targets as well as probing the binding sites in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. In this review, we summarize recent development of the ligand-based and genetically encoded photo-cross-linkers and their use in biological system. In particular, we highlight our discovery of 2-aryl-5-carboxytetrazole (ACT) as a novel class of photo-cross-linkers and their successful applications in drug target identification as well as identifying transient protein-protein interaction complexes in mammalian cells...
November 30, 2018: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514323/advances-in-multiple-omics-of-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma
#12
REVIEW
Jie Xiong, Wei-Li Zhao
Natural-killer/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) represents the most common subtype of extranodal lymphoma with aggressive clinical behavior. Prevalent in Asians and South Americans, the pathogenesis of NKTCL remains to be fully elucidated. Using system biology techniques including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics, novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets have been revealed in NKTCL. Whole-exome sequencing studies identify recurrent somatic gene mutations, involving RNA helicases, tumor suppressors, JAK-STAT pathway molecules, and epigenetic modifiers...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514247/mef2-plays-a-significant-role-in-the-tumor-inhibitory-mechanism-of-encapsulated-renca-cells-via-egf-receptor-signaling-in-target-tumor-cells
#13
Prithy C Martis, Atira T Dudley, Melissa A Bemrose, Hunter L Gazda, Barry H Smith, Lawrence S Gazda
BACKGROUND: Agarose encapsulated murine renal adenocarcinoma cells (RENCA macrobeads) are currently being investigated in clinical trials as a treatment for therapy-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer. We have previously demonstrated the capacity of RENCA macrobeads to produce diffusible substances that markedly inhibit the proliferation of epithelial-derived tumor cells outside the macrobead environment. This study examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed inhibition in targeted tumor cells exposed to RENCA macrobeads...
December 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514181/irinotecan-toxicity-during-treatment-of-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-focus-on-pharmacogenomics-and-personalized-medicine
#14
Adam Paulík, Jana Nekvindová, Prof Stanislav Filip
Colorectal cancer, one of the most frequent types of cancer worldwide, has a high mortality rate. Irinotecan (CPT-11) has been approved for the treatment of advanced or metastatic disease either as a single agent or, more commonly, as part of combined chemotherapeutic regimens. Treatment with irinotecan is often accompanied by severe toxicity (e.g. neutropenia and diarrhea) that can result in treatment interruption or cessation, thus jeopardizing the patient's prognosis and quality of life. Irinotecan is bioactivated into its metabolite SN-38, which is subsequently detoxified by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferases (mainly UGT1A1)...
December 5, 2018: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513792/local-and-systemic-cytokine-profiling-for-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-to-study-cancer-cachexia-in-an-era-of-precision-medicine
#15
Michael H Gerber, Patrick W Underwood, Sarah M Judge, Daniel Delitto, Andrea E Delitto, Rachel L Nosacka, Bayli B DiVita, Ryan M Thomas, Jennifer B Permuth, Steven J Hughes, Shannon M Wallet, Andrew R Judge, Jose G Trevino
Cancer cachexia is a debilitating condition seen frequently in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The underlying mechanisms driving cancer cachexia are not fully understood but are related, at least in part, to the immune response to the tumor both locally and systemically. We hypothesize that there are unique differences in cytokine levels in the tumor microenvironment and systemic circulation between PDAC tumors and that these varying profiles affect the degree of cancer cachexia observed...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513731/dealing-with-skin-and-blood-brain-barriers-the-unconventional-challenges-of-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#16
REVIEW
Alessandra Nigro, Michele Pellegrino, Marianna Greco, Alessandra Comandè, Diego Sisci, Luigi Pasqua, Antonella Leggio, Catia Morelli
Advances in nanotechnology for drug delivery are fostering significant progress in medicine and diagnostics. The multidisciplinary nature of the nanotechnology field encouraged the development of innovative strategies and materials to treat a wide range of diseases in a highly specific way, which allows reducing the drug dosage and, consequently, improving the patient's compliance. Due to their good biocompatibility, easy synthesis, and high versatility, inorganic frameworks represent a valid tool to achieve this aim...
December 1, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513486/the-impact-of-pharmaceutical-tendering-on-prices-and-market-concentration-in-south-africa-over-a-14-year-period
#17
Olivier J Wouters, Dale M Sandberg, Anban Pillay, Panos G Kanavos
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the South African tendering system for medicines to (a) evaluate its impact on prices and market concentration over a 14-year period and (b) analyze the accuracy of government forecasts of drug demand. METHODS: We calculated Herfindahl-Hirschman indexes to measure market concentration levels based on all pharmaceutical tender contracts issued by the South African government between 2003 and 2016 (n = 8701). We estimated price indexes to track changes in medicine costs over this period...
November 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513475/efficient-in-vivo-direct-conversion-of-fibroblasts-into-cardiomyocytes-using-a-nanoparticle-based-gene-carrier
#18
Yujung Chang, Euiyeon Lee, Junyeop Kim, Yoo-Wook Kwon, Youngeun Kwon, Jongpil Kim
The reprogramming of induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) has shown potential in regenerative medicine. However, in vivo reprogramming of iCMs is significantly inefficient, and novel gene delivery systems are required to more efficiently and safely induce in vivo reprogramming of iCMs for therapeutic applications in heart injury. In this study, we show that cationic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) loaded with Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 function as nanocarriers for cardiac reprogramming. The AuNP/GMT/PEI nanocomplexes show high reprogramming efficiency in human and mouse somatic cells with low cytotoxicity and direct conversion into iCMs without integrating factors into the genome...
November 29, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513470/novel-controlled-drug-release-system-engineered-with-inclusion-complexes-based-on-carboxylic-graphene
#19
Yinghong Xiao, Ming Zhang, Yunting Fan, Qicheng Zhang, Yuli Wang, Wenwen Yuan, Ninglin Zhou, Jianfei Che
A novel drug carrier is constructed by compositing hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins (HP-β-CD) and carboxylated graphene nanomaterial (GO-COOH). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms that the two materials are successfully combined via chemical bonds. Further, a crosslinking agent of glutaraldehyde is applied to fabricate composite GO-COO-HP-β-CD nanospheres, as demonstrated by an atomic force microscope. Dexamethasone (DEX) is selected as the model drug, and the drug loading efficiency and water solubility of the nanospheres greatly increased...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513345/phytochemical-composition-antioxidant-and-antiproliferative-activities-and-effects-on-nuclear-dna-of-ethanolic-extract-from-an-italian-mycelial-isolate-of-ganoderma-lucidum
#20
Roberta Saltarelli, Francesco Palma, Anna Maria Gioacchini, Cinzia Calcabrini, Umberto Mancini, Roberta De Bellis, Vilberto Stocchi, Lucia Potenza
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. (also known as Linghzhi and Reishi) is the most appreciated and revered medicinal mushroom across many Asian countries, but its properties have also attracted interest in Western countries. Indeed, in the West, it is now commercially available as a dietary supplement in preparations mainly made from spores, fruiting bodies and mycelia. It is employed in both nutraceutical and pharmacological formulations either for its immuno-modulating anti-inflammatory properties or as an effective adjuvant therapy in the treatment of several chronic diseases as well as in cancer treatment...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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