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System medicine

Shuai Ji, Shuang Wang, Haishan Xu, Zhenyu Su, Daoquan Tang, Xue Qiao, Min Ye
Herbal medicines are complicated chemical systems containing hundreds of small molecules of various polarities, structural types, and contents. Thus far, the chromatographic separation of herbal extracts is still a big challenge. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2DLC) has become an attractive separation tool in the past few years. Particularly, a lot of attention has been paid to on-line 2DLC. In this review, we aim to give an overview on applications of on-line 2DLC in the chemical analysis of herbal medicines since 2010...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Dong-Sheng Zhao, Zi-Tian Wu, Zhuo-Qing Li, Ling-Li Wang, Li-Long Jiang, Wei Shi, Ping Li, Hui-Jun Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dioscorea bulbifera rhizome (DBR), one type of herbal medicine, is extensively used in both Indian and Chinese system of traditional medicine. It has been effective in treating various diseases, such as sore throat, struma, and tumors. However, more and more clinical investigations have suggested that DBR can cause liver injury. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we aimed to characterize the corresponding molecular changes of liver dysfunction and reveal overall metabolic and physiological mechanisms of the subchronic toxic effect of DBR...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jianming Liang, Caifang Gao, Ying Zhu, Chengli Ling, Qi Wang, Yongzhuo Huang, Jing Qin, Jue Wang, Weigen Lu, Jianxin Wang
The unsatisfactory therapeutic outcome for glioma is mainly due to the poor BBB permeability and inefficient accumulation in the glioma area of chemotherapeutic agents. The existing drug delivery strategies can increase drug transport to the brain but are restricted by side effects and/or poor delivery efficiency. In this study, potent brain penetration enhancers were screened from the active components of aromatic resuscitation drugs used in traditional Chinese medicine. A novel glioma-targeting system based on enhancer-modified albumin nanoparticles was developed to safely and efficiently deliver drugs to the glioma regions in the brain...
August 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Juliane Lippert, Silke Appenzeller, Raimunde Liang, Silviu Sbiera, Stefan Kircher, Barbara Altieri, Indrajit Nanda, Isabel Weigand, Andrea Gehrig, Sonja Steinhauer, Renzo J M Riemens, Andreas Rosenwald, Clemens R Müller, Matthias Kroiss, Simone Rost, Martin Fassnacht, Cristina L Ronchi
Context: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has a heterogeneous prognosis and current medical therapies have limited efficacy in its advanced stages. Genome-wide multi-omics-studies identified molecular patterns associated with clinical outcome. Objective: Here, we aimed at identifying a molecular signature useful for both personalized prognostic stratification and druggable targets, using methods applicable in clinical routine. Design: 117 tumor samples from 107 ACC patients were analyzed...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
N A Mileshina, S S Osipenkov, G A Tavartkiladze
Rehabilitation of the patients suffering from with congenital malformations of external and middle ear is a specific area of medicine requiring special knowledge and skills of the audiologists and ear surgeons. This article highlights the issues of epidemiology, classification and methods for the rehabilitation of patients presenting with this pathology that reflect our own experience and the methodology based on it for all phases of both functional and aesthetic surgical inerventions. Special attention is given to the assessment of the effectiveness of the treatment, as part of the evaluation of the quality of medical services...
2018: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
Flávia de Oliveira Motta Maia, Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da Cruz, Gilceria Tochika Shimoda, Karina Sichieri, Luciana Inaba Senier Iida
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this project was to reduce the incidence and harm from falls that occur among patients admitted in the acute Internal Medicine Unit and Intensive Care Unit in a public teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. INTRODUCTION: Falls are a challenge for health professionals and healthcare services as they may result in high-impact outcomes for patients, such as functional decline, increase in length of hospital stay, increase in the cost of healthcare services, and death...
August 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Dong Hun Lee, Byung Kook Lee, Kyung Woon Jeung, Jung Soo Park, Yong Deok Lim, Yong Hun Jung, Sung Min Lee, Yong Soo Cho
The present study aimed to analyze and compare the prognostic performances of the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (JMHW) score, the Korean Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (KSTH) score, the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) score, the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) score, and the revised JAAM (rJAAM) score, for 28-day mortality in severe trauma.This retrospective observational study included patients admitted for severe trauma between 2012 and 2015. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to examine the prognostic performance of the 5 different DIC score systems...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wei Zhan, Celeste A Shelton, Phil J Greer, Randall E Brand, David C Whitcomb
Pancreatic cancer requires many genetic mutations. Combinations of underlying germline variants and environmental factors may increase the risk of cancer and accelerate the oncogenic process. We systematically reviewed, annotated, and classified previously reported pancreatic cancer-associated germline variants in established risk genes. Variants were scored using multiple criteria and binned by evidence for pathogenicity, then annotated with published functional studies and associated biological systems/pathways...
September 2018: Pancreas
Anthony J Lewis, Janet S Lee, Matthew R Rosengart
OBJECTIVE: Our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of sepsis has attained exponential growth. Yet, the pillars of its care remain antibiotics, fluid resuscitation, and physiologic support of failing organ systems. The inability to bring biologic breakthroughs to the bedside is not for lack of effort. Over 60 clinical trials of novel therapies, each heavily supported by the momentum of biologic data suggesting clinical utility, have been conducted and have failed to identify benefit...
September 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Eike Sebastian Debus, Levente Kriston, Thea Schwaneberg, Sandra Hischke, Henrik Christian Rieß, Martin Härter, Ursula Marschall, Hannes Federrath, Christian-Alexander Behrendt
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic disease of the lower extremity arteries (PAD) remains a significant burden on global healthcare systems with increasing prevalence. Various guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with PAD are available but they often lack a sufficient evidence base for high-grade recommendations since randomized and controlled trials (RCT) remain rare or are frequently subject to conflicts of interest. This registry trial aims to evaluate the outcomes of catheter-based endovascular revascularisations vs...
August 16, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Ali Fatemi
Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous class of genetic diseases affecting the white matter in the central nervous system with a broad range of clinical manifestations and a frequently progressive course. An interest in precision medicine has emerged over the last several decades, and biomedical research in leukodystrophies has made exciting advances along this front through therapeutic target discovery and novel disease model systems. In this review, we discuss current and emerging therapeutic approaches in leukodystrophies, including gene therapy, antisense oligonucleotide therapy, CRISPR/CAS-based gene editing, and cell and stem cell based therapies...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
Megan Schechtman, Keith E Kocher, Michele M Nypaver, Jason J Ham, Melissa K Zochowski, Michelle L Macy
OBJECTIVES: To characterize emergency department (ED) leader's attitudes toward potentially avoidable admissions and experiences with the use of clinical pathways to guide admission decisions, including the challenges and successes with implementation of these pathways. METHODS: A mixed-methods study of Michigan ED leaders was conducted. First, a cross-sectional web-based survey was distributed via email to all 135 hospital-based EDs in the state. Descriptive statistics were calculated...
August 15, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Zain Chauhan, Mohammad Samarah, Kim M Unertl, Martha W Jones
OBJECTIVE:  Compared with medicine, less research has focused on adoption rates and factors contributing to the adoption of electronic dental records (EDRs) and certified electronic health records (EHRs) in the field of dentistry. We ran two multivariate models on EDR adoption and certification-capable EHR adoption to determine environmental and organizational factors associated with adoption. METHODS:  We conducted telephone survey of a 10-item questionnaire using disproportionate stratified sampling procedure of 149 dental clinics in Tennessee in 2017 measuring adoption of dental information technology (IT) (EDRs and certification-capable EHRs) and practice characteristics, including region, rurality, specialty, and practice size...
July 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Arnab Kar, Sumana Datta
Background: Evidence suggests that low levels of Vitamin D may adversely affect the cardiovascular (CV) system. Several studies have been done regarding the relation and possible causative role of Vitamin D in CV disorders and its well-known risk factors; however, there are limited studies in this part of the world. The aims were as follows: (1) To study the relation between serum Vitamin D level between nonhypertensive and hypertensive patients. (2) To study the relation of serum Vitamin D levels in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension, systolo-diastolic hypertension, and their comparison vis-à-vis nonhypertensives...
May 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Wen-Jie Li, You-Wen Lian, Quan-Sheng Guan, Ning Li, Wen-Jun Liang, Wen-Xin Liu, Yong-Bin Huang, Yi Cheng, Hui Luo
Liver-targeted drug delivery improves the efficacy of anti-liver cancer agents and reduces systemic toxicity by limiting the bioavailability of these drugs to within tumors. Liver targeting reagents with galactose residues, which selectively combine to asialoglyco protein receptors, have previously been used to improve liposome-encapsulated drug accumulation within liver cells. They lead to a reduction in liver cancer cell growth and have been used to cure certain hepatic diseases. In the present study, curcumol, which is the primary active component of Chinese traditional medicine Rhizoma zedoariae, was encapsulated in galactosylated-liposomes to enhance its anti-liver cancer efficacy...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Blessing O Oyedemi, Sunday O Oyedemi, Johnson V Chibuzor, Ifeoma I Ijeh, Roger M Coopoosamy, Ayobami O Aiyegoro
Oral and skin infections contribute significantly to the global health challenges responsible for the current trend of increased morbidity and premature death. The purpose of this study was to document medicinal plants used in the management of oral and skin infections in Ebem-Ohafia Local Government Area (LGA), Abia State, and to characterize the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profiling of ten of the selected folklore medicine was carried out using a various solvent system of different polarity index...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
C A Buckner, R M Lafrenie, J A Dénommée, J M Caswell, D A Want
Background: Cancer patients are increasingly seeking out complementary and alternative medicine (cam) and might be reluctant to disclose its use to their oncology treatment team. Often, cam agents are not well studied, and little is known about their potential interactions with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or biologic therapies, and their correlations with outcomes. In the present study, we set out to determine the rate of cam use in patients receiving treatment at a Northern Ontario cancer centre...
August 2018: Current Oncology
Xin Xu, Feng Chen, Zhengwei Huang, Lvyan Ma, Li Chen, Yaping Pan, Jian Xu, Syngcuk Kim, Denis Kinane, Hyun Koo, Xuedong Zhou
The "Biofilms, Microbiomes and Oral Diseases: Challenges and Future Perspectives" symposium jointly organized by Penn Dental Medicine and West China School of Stomatology was held on 30 September 2017 at Penn Wharton China Center (PWCC) in Beijing, China. The topics included the pathogenicity of oral biofilms, novel strategies for the control of biofilm-related diseases, oral microbiome and single-cell approaches, and the link between oral diseases and overall health. Researchers from a number of disciplines, representing institutions from China and Penn Dental Medicine, gathered to discuss advances in our understanding of biofilms, as well as future directions for the control of biofilm-related oral and systemic diseases...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Qiao Li, Yan Yang, Ting Zhou, Rui Wang, Na Li, Min Zheng, Yuan-Yuan Li, Ji-Quan Zhang, Fei Wu, Bai-Can Yang, Yue-Ming Ma, Bing-Liang Ma
Pharmacokinetic studies are crucial for elucidating the effective constituents and formula compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). However, studies have usually been limited to single dosages and detection of systemic blood concentrations. To obtain comprehensive pharmacokinetic information, here we propose a multi-dosage and multi-sampling (blood from portal vein or systemic circulation, and liver) strategy to comparatively study the pharmacokinetics of multi-form TCMs, i.e., pure constituents, TCMs, or TCM formula extracts...
August 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kuo Liu, Wei Yu, Muxue Tang, Juan Tang, Xiuxiu Liu, Qiaozhen Liu, Yan Li, Lingjuan He, Libo Zhang, Sylvia M Evans, Xueying Tian, Kathy O Lui, Bin Zhou
In vivo genomic engineering is instrumental for studying developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Development of novel systems with more site-specific recombinases (SSRs) that complement with the commonly used Cre-loxP would be valuable for more precise lineage tracing and genome editing. Here we introduce a new SSR system via Nigri-nox. By generating tissue-specific Nigri knock-in and its responding nox reporter mice, we show that Nigri-nox system works efficiently in vivo by targeting specific tissues...
August 15, 2018: Development
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