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System medicine

Chengliang Mao, Feili Chen, Yanwen Li, Xinmiao Jiang, Sichu Liu, Hanguo Guo, Ling Huang, Xiaojuan Wei, Zhanli Liang, Wenyu Li, Kai Tang
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare disease affecting the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid, or vitreoretinal compartment, without evidence of systemic disease. Prognosis is still poor after intensive methotrexate-based chemotherapy. METHODS: Clinical data of 91 cases treated in a tertiary referral center during a 13-year period were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The estimated median PFS and OS for all cohort was 39...
October 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Cecilia Kållberg, Christine Årdal, Hege Salvesen Blix, Eili Klein, Elena M Martinez, Morten Lindbæk, Kevin Outterson, John-Arne Røttingen, Ramanan Laxminarayan
BACKGROUND: Despite the urgent need for new, effective antibiotics, few antibiotics of value have entered the market during the past decades. Therefore, incentives have been developed to stimulate antibiotic R&D. For these incentives to be effective, geographic availability for recently approved antibiotics needs to be better understood. In this study, we analyze geographic availability and market introduction of antibiotics approved between 1999 and 2014. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We identified antibiotics, considered new chemical entities (NCEs) for systemic use approved globally between 1999 and 2014, from national medicine agencies' lists of approved drugs, and data from the WHO Collaborating Center for Drug Statistics...
2018: PloS One
Jacob Hill, Coleman Mills, Quefeng Li, Jennifer S Smith
The use of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) for cancer may influence the delivery or effectiveness of conventional cancer treatment. In this systematic review, we aimed to (1) summarise the available prevalence data on traditional medicine use by cancer patients in less developed countries (LDCs), and (2) stratify the prevalence data by world region and country income level. A literature search for cancer, TCAM, and low income (LI) and lower-middle income (LMI) countries was conducted across 5 databases...
October 16, 2018: Global Public Health
Nela Van Donge, Natasha A Schvey, Timothy A Roberts, David A Klein
Introduction: Transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) youth are at greater risk for mental health and medical conditions than their cisgender peers; however, poor health outcomes and identity-based discrimination can be minimized in the context of optimal support. Approximately 1.7 million youth may be eligible for care covered by the Military Health System, which includes mental health and gender-affirming medications. The purpose of the current study is to identify sociodemographic characteristics, the psychosocial and behavioral risk profile, and health care utilization patterns of TGD dependent youth cared for in the U...
October 16, 2018: Military Medicine
Hsueh-Fen Chen, J Mick Tilford, Fei Wan, Robert Schuldt
OBJECTIVES: To understand the association between agency-level CMS Hierarchical Condition Categories (HCC) risk scores and patient experience measures for home health. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: We extracted variables from the 2014 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data for Home Health Agencies and Home Health Compare file. We applied fixed-effects models for the analyses. Our dependent variables included both global and composite patient experience measures...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Garima Verma, Mohemmed Faraz Khan, Wasim Akhtar, Mohammad Mumtaz Alam, Mymoona Akhter, Mohammad Shaquiquzzaman
1,3,4-Oxadiazole ring is an important five-membered aromatic heterocycle widely present in a number of synthetic molecules. The unique structural feature of 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring with pyridine type of nitrogen atom is beneficial for 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives to readily bind with a variety of enzymes and receptors in biological systems through diverse weak interactions, thereby exhibiting broad bioactivities. The related research and developments of 1,3,4-oxadiazole-based medicinal chemistry have become a rapidly developing and increasingly active topic...
October 15, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Mark D Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Yanping Lu, Shunping Han, Hongyue Zheng, Rui Ma, Yuting Ping, Jiafeng Zou, Hongxia Tang, Yongping Zhang, Xiuling Xu, Fanzhu Li
Background: The Traditional Chinese Medicine, arsenic trioxide (ATO, As2 O3 ) could inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in a variety of solid tumor cells, but it is severely limited in the treatment of glioma due to its poor BBB penetration and nonspecifcity distribution in vivo. Purpose: The objective of this study was encapsulating ATO in the modified PAMAM den-drimers to solve the problem that the poor antitumor effect of ATO to glioma, which provide a novel angle for the study of glioma treatment...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Valeria Gatti, Paolo Banfi, Stefano Centanni, Salvatore D'Antonio, Saffi Giustini, Alessio Piraino, Marco Zibellini, Maria Giulia Marini
Purpose: The primary aim of this research was to raise awareness for COPD through real narratives of patients, caregivers, and pulmonologists. The second objective includes providing clinicians new means of caring for and treating patients with COPD. Methods: Using narrative medicine, testimonies from patients, their caregivers, and clinicians were collected through an online questionnaire enriched by a narrative plot. Narrations were analyzed throughout descriptive statistics and an elaboration of recurring words and expressions...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
J Lyle Bootman, Cynthia J Boyle, Patricia Chase, Joseph T DiPiro, Peggy Piascik, Lucinda L Maine
The Argus Commission examined the National Academy of Medicine's publication "Vital Directions for Health and Health Care" and engaged with six guests from outside academic pharmacy to identify the salience of the key issues and recommendations for pharmacy education and practice. To be part of the changing health care system we must prepare graduates and faculty to be patient- and community-centered, to command electronic systems of communication with members of interprofessional teams and to create and apply real-world evidence...
September 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Sanjay Kalra, Gagan Priya, Yashdeep Gupta
Diabetes is a complex syndrome, with multiple pathophysiologic connections. While the vasculometabolic aspects are certainly important, current discourse tends to ignore the endocrine facets of diabetes. We propose the term 'glucocrinology', to define the study of medicine that relates to the relationship of glycaemia with the endocrine system. Glucocrinology includes in its ambit, endocrinopathies that may cause secondary diabetes, coexist with metabolic syndrome, precipitate hypoglycaemia, lead to refractory hyperglycaemia, or simply coexist with diabetes...
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Michael T Taylor, Jennifer E Nelson, Marcos G Suero, Matthew J Gaunt
Nature has a remarkable ability to carry out site-selective post-translational modification of proteins, therefore enabling a marked increase in their functional diversity1 . Inspired by this, chemical tools have been developed for the synthetic manipulation of protein structure and function, and have become essential to the continued advancement of chemical biology, molecular biology and medicine. However, the number of chemical transformations that are suitable for effective protein functionalization is limited, because the stringent demands inherent to biological systems preclude the applicability of many potential processes2 ...
October 15, 2018: Nature
Julian Varghese, Sarah Sandmann, Martin Dugas
BACKGROUND: Medical coding is essential for standardized communication and integration of clinical data. The Unified Medical Language System by the National Library of Medicine is the largest clinical terminology system for medical coders and Natural Language Processing tools. However, the abundance of ambiguous codes leads to low rates of uniform coding among different coders. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to measure uniform coding among different medical experts in terms of interrater reliability and analyze the effect on interrater reliability using an expert- and Web-based code suggestion system...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Yun-Xia Luo, Xin-Yue Wang, Yu-Jie Huang, Shu-Huan Fang, Jun Wu, Yong-Bin Zhang, Tian-Qin Xiong, Cong Yang, Jian-Gang Shen, Chuan-Lan Sang, Qi Wang, Jian-Song Fang
Liver injury remains a significant global health problem and has a variety of causes, including oxidative stress (OS), inflammation, and apoptosis of liver cells. There is currently no curative therapy for this disorder. Sanwei Ganjiang Prescription (SWGJP), derived from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has shown its effectiveness in long-term liver damage therapy, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To explore the underlining mechanisms of action for SWGJP in liver injury from a holistic view, in the present study, a systems pharmacology approach was developed, which involved drug target identification and multilevel data integration analysis...
October 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Rachel Tillery, Meghan E McGrady
PURPOSE: Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) is frequently used by oncology teams for reducing physical and emotional side-effects related to cancer treatment. In light of the changing healthcare system, evidence is needed regarding the economic implications of these interventions. The purpose of this study was to: (1) systematically examine the literature for links between CIM interventions and healthcare utilization (2) provide recommendations for growing this area of research...
October 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
Melissa Anne Wright, Daniel Steffens, Ravi Lee Huilgol
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in Australia is currently poorly characterized. The risk factor profile for PAD is changing with the population ageing, diabetes increasing and smoking rates declining. The management of PAD is also evolving, with advances in medical management and endovascular technique. The trends in PAD prevalence and surgical management have implications for preventative medicine, the Australian health system and vascular surgery. We report and analyse trends in PAD surgical intervention performed between 2001 and 2015...
October 15, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Hui Liu, Yan Zhao, Lin Zhang, Xing Chen
Patients of the same cancer may differ in their responses to a specific medical therapy. Identification of predictive molecular features for drug sensitivity holds the key in the era of precision medicine. Human cell lines have harbored most of the same genetic changes found in patients' tumors and thus are widely used in the research of drug response. In this work, we formulated drug-response prediction as a recommender system problem and then adopted a neighbor-based collaborative filtering with global effect removal (NCFGER) method to estimate anti-cancer drug responses of cell lines by integrating cell-line similarity networks and drug similarity networks based on the fact that similar cell lines and similar drugs exhibit similar responses...
September 22, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Sarah Burm, Lisa Faden, Sandy DeLuca, Kathy Hibbert, Noureen Huda, Mark Goldszmidt
Today's hospitals are burdened with patients who have complex health needs. This is readily apparent in an inpatient internal medicine setting. While important elements of effective interprofessional collaboration have been identified and trialled across clinical settings, their promise continues to be elusive. One reason may be that caring for patients requires understanding the size and complexity of healthcare networks. For example, the non-human 'things' that healthcare providers work with and take for granted in their professional practice-patient beds, diagnostic imaging, accreditation standards, work schedules, hospital policies, team rounds-also play a role in how care is shaped...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Giacomo Grassi, Stefano Pallanti
Only 40-60% of obsessive-compulsive patients respond to first line treatments, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Several second-line treatments have been investigated in the last two decades, and most of them seem to work, at least in a subset of patients. However, since there is still a lack of treatment predictors, the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still empirical and non-evidence based. Areas covered: In this paper, we review current and up-and-coming pharmacotherapy for OCD in adults, focusing on two emerging fields of research, inflammation and glutamate systems, since they have attracted the greatest attention in recent years in OCD pharmacological research...
October 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Sophie Neugebauer, Christina Wichmann, Sibylle Bremer-Streck, Stefan Hagel, Michael Kiehntopf
BACKGROUND: Adequate antibiotic treatment is a prerequisite for the successful treatment of systemic infections. Based on accumulating scientific evidence, a fixed dosage regimen can lead to insufficient and ineffective antibiotic therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a simplified, but sensitive method for the simultaneous quantification of antimicrobials by using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the development of personalized therapy regimens using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)...
October 12, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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