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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913457/anti-inflammatory-action-of-sitagliptin-and-linagliptin-in-doxorubicin-nephropathy
#1
Chor Ho Jo, Sua Kim, Joon-Sung Park, Gheun-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors are known to have a protective effect on diabetic kidney disease, possibly via reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidney. However, whether these potential mechanisms play a role in non-diabetic proteinuric kidney diseases is not clear. METHODS: Two different animal experiments were carried out using sitagliptin and linagliptin for DPP4 inhibition. In each experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were uninephrectomized and randomly divided into vehicle-treated and doxorubicin-treated rats, with or without DPP4 inhibition...
June 15, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913455/grape-leucoanthocyanidin-protects-liver-tissue-in-albino-rabbits-with-nonalcoholic-hepatic-steatosis
#2
Reginaldo Franklin, Rodrigo Freitas Monte Bispo, Célio Fernando Sousa-Rodrigues, Lucas Alves Sarmento Pires, Albino Fonseca, Marcio Antonio Babinski
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common ailment. It is usually found in association with diabetes or obesity. There are no approved drugs to treat this condition. The study of flavonoid consumption has increased over the decades due to their antioxidative properties, although the literature is scarce when it comes to their effects in liver tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of leucoanthocyanidin in nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. Thirty male albino rabbits were divided in 3 groups...
June 18, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913447/perioperative-anaphylaxis-including-kounis-syndrome-due-to-selective-cefazolin-allergy
#3
Inês Mota, Ângela Gaspar, Mário Morais-Almeida
BACKGROUND: Perioperative use of cefazolin has been associated with severe allergic reactions, and patients are usually labelled as allergic to penicillin afterwards. The aim of our study was to describe a group of patients with immediate reactions to cefazolin, with proven selective hypersensitivity reactions. METHODS: Systematic review of all patients followed at our drug centre with cefazolin-related reactions, between January 2012 and December 2016. All patients were investigated according to the European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA) recommendations through skin testing (major and minor penicillin determinants, penicillin, amoxicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone) and oral challenges tests...
June 18, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913443/hepatic-macrophages-are-the-cell-source-of-hepatic-procalcitonin-in-acute-liver-failure
#4
Weiyang Zheng, Bingjue Ye, Xue Liang, Liyan Shui, Guohua Lou, Yanning Liu, Min Zheng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serum procalcitonin (PCT) is elevated in acute liver failure (ALF), but the expression of PCT in the liver has not been elucidated. We aimed to clarify the regulation of hepatic PCT expression and the cell sources in ALF. METHODS: Human monocytic leukemia line U937 cells were treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-l3-acetate (PMA) (100 ng/ mL) for 24 h to induce activated macrophages. In the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL), activated macrophages and human hepatocyte line L02 cells were incubated with LPS or co-cultured for 0, 2, 6, and 24 h...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913434/factors-influencing-child-protection-professionals-decision-making-and-multidisciplinary-collaboration-in-suspected-abusive-head-trauma-cases-a-qualitative-study
#5
Laura E Cowley, Sabine Maguire, Daniel M Farewell, Harriet D Quinn-Scoggins, Matthew O Flynn, Alison M Kemp
Clinicians face unique challenges when assessing suspected child abuse cases. The majority of the literature exploring diagnostic decision-making in this field is anecdotal or survey-based and there is a lack of studies exploring decision-making around suspected abusive head trauma (AHT). We aimed to determine factors influencing decision-making and multidisciplinary collaboration in suspected AHT cases, amongst 56 child protection professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians (25), child protection social workers (10), legal practitioners (9, including 4 judges), police officers (8), and pathologists (4), purposively sampled across southwest United Kingdom...
June 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913433/temporal-and-volumetric-denoising-via-quantile-sparse-image-prior
#6
Franziska Schirrmacher, Thomas Köhler, Jürgen Endres, Tobias Lindenberger, Lennart Husvogt, James G Fujimoto, Joachim Hornegger, Arnd Dörfler, Philip Hoelter, Andreas K Maier
This paper introduces an universal and structure-preserving regularization term, called quantile sparse image (QuaSI) prior. The prior is suitable for denoising images from various medical imaging modalities. We demonstrate its effectiveness on volumetric optical coherence tomography (OCT) and computed tomography (CT) data, which show different noise and image characteristics. OCT offers high-resolution scans of the human retina but is inherently impaired by speckle noise. CT on the other hand has a lower resolution and shows high-frequency noise...
June 6, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913427/formononetin-inhibits-neuroinflammation-and-increases-estrogen-receptor-beta-er%C3%AE-protein-expression-in-bv2-microglia
#7
Abdelmeniem El-Bakoush, Olumayokun A Olajide
Formononetin is a bioactive non-steroidal polyphenol found in a variety of plants. In this study we evaluated the effects of formononetin on neuroinflammation in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. Results showed that formononetin significantly reduced the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, nitrite and PGE2 , as well as protein levels of iNOS and COX-2. Reporter gene assays showed that formononetin produced inhibition of NF-κB luciferase activity in HEK293 cells stimulated with TNF-α. Immunoblotting experiments revealed an inhibition of IKKα phosphorylation, with the resultant attenuation of phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα following LPS stimulation...
June 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913409/mir-22-3p-targeting-alpha-enolase-1-regulates-the-proliferation-of-retinoblastoma-cells
#8
Yan Liu, Huanhuan Li, Yao Liu, Zhichao Zhu
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to explore the role of alpha-Enolase 1 (ENO1) in retinoblastoma (RB) which remains uncertain. METHODS: The expression of ENO1 in RB cell lines was examined by RT-qPCR and western blot. The biological function of ENO1 on cell proliferation in RB was determined in vitro. The predicted target of ENO1 was validated by dual-luciferase reporter assay and rescue experiment. The validation of clinical tissue samples was performed by RT-qPCR...
June 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913404/ultraviolet-photosensitized-transformation-mechanism-of-microcystin-lr-by-natural-organic-matter-in-raw-water
#9
Qiyuan Sun, Tianfang Zhang, Feifeng Wang, Changqing Liu, Chunshan Wu, Rong-Rong Xie, Yuyi Zheng
Microcystins (MCs), produced by cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic water, are common toxic metabolites and a potential threat to human health. However, the mechanism of MC photodegradation by photosensitizers in raw water remains unclear. In photodegradation and quenching experiments, this study investigates the photosensitized degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) by fulvic acid (FA, a kind of dissolved organic matter with natural photosensitizing properties) under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. The photodegradation mechanisms of FA are also explored...
June 15, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913402/effect-of-surfactant-application-practices-on-the-vertical-transport-potential-of-hydrophobic-pesticides-in-agrosystems
#10
Jeanne Dollinger, Veronika J Schacht, Caroline Gaus, Sharon Grant
Surfactants have the potential to modify the environmental behavior of hydrophobic pesticides leading to an enhanced or reduced mobility risk. This risk is often overlooked in registration procedures due to a lack of suitable methodologies to quantify the transport potential of pesticides with surfactants. In this study we present a novel methodology designed to study the surfactant facilitated transport of pesticides under controlled equilibrium and dynamic hydrologic conditions. Using this methodology, we investigated the risk of chlorpyrifos enhanced mobility for two common surfactant application practices in agrosystems: pesticide spraying and irrigation with waste water...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913400/soil-sterilisation-methods-for-use-in-oecd-106-how-effective-are-they
#11
Katherine Lees, Mark Fitzsimons, Jason Snape, Alan Tappin, Sean Comber
Under many circumstances chemical risk assessments for pharmaceuticals and other substances are required to differentiate between 'loss' of a chemical from the aqueous phase as a result of abiotic (sorption or precipitation reactions) or biotic (biodegradation) processes. To distinguish only abiotic processes, it is necessary to work under sterile conditions. Reported methods include poisoning the soil with sodium azide, irradiation and autoclaving. However, a key aspect of any testing is the representativeness of the matrix and so any sterilisation procedure needs to ensure that the integrity of the sample is maintained, in particular particle size distribution, pH and organic carbon partitioning potential...
June 11, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913388/perception-of-direct-vs-averted-gaze-in-portrait-paintings-an-fmri-and-eye-tracking-study
#12
Ladislav Kesner, Dominika Grygarová, Iveta Fajnerová, Jiří Lukavský, Tereza Nekovářová, Jaroslav Tintěra, Yuliya Zaytseva, Jiří Horáček
In this study, we use separate eye-tracking measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal and behavioral response to painted portraits with direct versus averted gaze. We further explored modulatory effects of several painting characteristics (premodern vs modern period, influence of style and pictorial context). In the fMRI experiment, we show that the direct versus averted gaze elicited increased activation in lingual and inferior occipital and the fusiform face area, as well as in several areas involved in attentional and social cognitive processes, especially the theory of mind: angular gyrus/temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913382/the-perception-of-text-triggers-reflexive-oculomotor-orienting
#13
Keren Taub, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
As you read this text, your brain is busy integrating numerous different processes-perceptual, cognitive and motor. While you acquire the semantic and linguistic contents of this abstract, your eyes traverse its lines with speed and coordination. The oculomotor response to text is so rapid and precise that it is hypothesized it to be partially based on reflexive orienting mechanisms. In this study we examined the hypothesis that the presentation of written text triggers reflexive orienting toward the direction of reading, similarly to the effect of peripheral stimulation or that of symbolic directional cues (arrows or gazing eyes)...
May 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913381/the-time-course-of-incentive-processing-in-anticipatory-and-consummatory-anhedonia
#14
Youmei Chen, Jing Xu, Li Zhou, Ya Zheng
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, the reduced capacity to experience pleasure, has long been regarded as a cardinal symptom in depression and schizophrenia. Recent evidence highlights that anhedonia is not a single construct but consists of an anticipatory component and a consummatory component, which is captured by the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS). The current event-related potential study examined the electrophysiological underpinnings of anticipatory and consummatory aspects of anhedonia as assessed by the TEPS in a non-clinical sample...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913377/associations-among-domains-of-self-disturbance-in-schizophrenia
#15
Mallory J Klaunig, Christi L Trask, Aaron M Neis, Jonathan R Cohn, Xuefang Chen, Alysia M Berglund, David C Cicero
Self-disturbances are increasingly recognized as important, possibly even central, features of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the associations among different manifestations of self-disturbances. The aims of the current study were threefold. We aimed to (1) replicate previous findings of increased self-disturbances in schizophrenia, (2) correlate manifestations of self-disturbances in schizophrenia across three domains, and (3) correlate self-disturbances with five symptoms domains of schizophrenia, including positive, negative, disorganized symptoms, excitement, and emotional distress...
June 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913355/statistical-experience-and-individual-cognitive-differences-modulate-neural-activity-during-sentence-production
#16
Malathi Thothathiri
I explored how individual cognitive differences combine with prior statistical experience to determine choice of sentence structure during speech. Participants were exposed to English language input with controlled statistical properties wherein some verbs appeared equally often in two possible structures and others appeared in only one. Subsequently, they produced sentences naturally while their brain activity was scanned. Choosing a less preferred over a more preferred structure recruited regions involved in conflict control, especially in individuals with better control abilities...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913351/shedding-light-on-the-association-between-repetitive-negative-thinking-and-deficits-in-cognitive-control-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Ulrike Zetsche, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Lars Schulze
Individuals who experience recurrent negative thoughts are at elevated risk for mood and anxiety disorders. It is thus essential to understand why some individuals get stuck in recurrent negative thinking (RNT), whereas others are able to disengage eventually. Theoretical models propose that individuals high in recurrent negative thinking suffer from deficits in controlling the contents of working memory. Empirical findings, however, are inconclusive. In this meta-analysis, we synthesize findings from 94 studies to examine the proposed association between RNT and deficits in cognitive control...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913343/investigating-the-impact-of-age-depended-hair-colour-darkening-during-childhood-on-dna-based-hair-colour-prediction-with-the-hirisplex-system
#18
Magdalena Kukla-Bartoszek, Ewelina Pośpiech, Magdalena Spólnicka, Joanna Karłowska-Pik, Dominik Strapagiel, Elżbieta Żądzińska, Iwona Rosset, Marta Sobalska-Kwapis, Marcin Słomka, Susan Walsh, Manfred Kayser, Aneta Sitek, Wojciech Branicki
Predictive DNA analysis of externally visible characteristics exerts an increasing influence on contemporary forensic and anthropological investigations, with pigmentation traits currently being the most advanced for predictive modelling. Since pigmentation prediction error in some cases may be due to the result of age-related hair colour darkening, and sex influence in eye colour, this study aims to investigate these less explored phenomena on a group of juvenile individuals. Pigmentation phenotypes of children between the age of 6-13 years old were evaluated, in addition to data about their hair colour during early childhood from a select number of these individuals...
June 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913330/discriminating-autism-and-language-impairment-and-specific-language-impairment-through-acuity-of-musical-imagery
#19
Pamela Heaton, Wai Fung Tsang, Kelly Jakubowski, Daniel Mullensiefen, Rory Allen
Deficits in auditory short-term memory have been widely reported in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), and recent evidence suggests that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and co-morbid language impairment (ALI) experience similar difficulties. Music, like language relies on auditory memory and the aim of the study was to extend work investigating the impact of auditory short-term memory impairments to musical perception in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Groups of children with SLI and ALI were matched on chronological age (CA), receptive vocabulary, non-verbal intelligence and digit span, and compared with CA matched typically developing (TD) controls, on tests of pitch and temporal acuity within a voluntary musical imagery paradigm...
June 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913320/assessing-the-role-of-the-acid-sensing-ion-channel-asic4b-in-sodium-uptake-by-larval-zebrafish
#20
Alex M Zimmer, Agnieszka K Dymowska, Yusuke Kumai, Greg G Goss, Steve F Perry, Raymond W M Kwong
Na+ uptake in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) is coordinated by three mechanisms: Na+ /H+ -exchanger 3b (NHE3b) expressed in H+ -ATPase-rich (HR) cells, an unidentified Na+ channel coupled to electrogenic H+ -ATPase expressed in HR cells, and Na+ -Cl- -cotransporter (NCC) expressed in NCC cells. Recently, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) were proposed to be the putative Na+ channel involved in H+ -ATPase-mediated Na+ uptake in adult zebrafish and rainbow trout. In the present study, we hypothesized that ASICs also play this role in Na+ uptake in larval zebrafish...
June 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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