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Valery Elie, Virginia Neyro, Phuong Ha, Beate Aurich, Stephanie Leroux, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain
BACKGROUND:  Multicenter neonatal clinical trials aim to provide evidence-based drug evaluation, but recruiting neonates requires collaboration, standard procedures, and trained neonatologists. METHODS:  A questionnaire based on a previous Delphi study was sent to European neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) to collect their research experience and identify areas for improvement. RESULTS: Of 247 NICUs,79 (32%) responded: 69 were level III units and 10 were level II units...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Peng Li, Xiao Yang, Wenbo Yuan, Chengdi Yang, Xiaolei Zhang, Jie Han, Jingzi Wang, Xiaheng Deng, Haiwei Yang, Pengchao Li, Jun Tao, Qiang Lu, Min Gu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: CircRNAs regulate gene expression in different malignancies. However, the role of Cdr1as in the tumourigenesis of bladder cancer and its potential mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to detect Cdr1as and target miRNA expression in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. Biological functional experiments were performed to detect the effects of Cdr1as on the biological behaviour of bladder cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Bioinformatic analysis was utilised to predict potential miRNA target sites on Cdr1as...
April 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ting Guo, Hongyuan Song, Zichang Zhao, Zhongtian Qi, Shihong Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Annexin A2 receptor (AX2R) can mediate annexin A2 signalling and induce apoptosis in a variety of cells, but its role in neovascularization (NV) remains unclear. Krüppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) is known to be expressed in a range of cell types and to participate in a number of processes during development and disease, such as endothelial homeostasis, vasoregulation and vascular growth/remodelling. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of AX2R in NV and the plausible molecular mechanism...
April 24, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Pamela Sun, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez, Katrina Simpson, Katherine Lawrence, Natalie Peach, Sarah Bendall
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma has been linked to the presence of delusions and hallucinations in psychosis, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship require elucidation. Dissociation, characterized by disruptions to the integrative functioning of several core mental domains, has emerged as a potential mechanism. There is a paucity of research using a clinician-rated measure of dissociation to test the indirect effect of dissociation on the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms...
April 11, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Vaisakh Mohan, Pratik Sen
In this study, steady state, solvation dynamics and rotational dynamics experiments have been carried out on a system of DACIA-tagged papain in bulk water and inside the water pool of cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and anionic (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate, AOT) reverse micelles with varying water contents (W0  = 20 to 50). While the absorption and emission maxima and the excited state lifetime did not show any noticeable change with the variation of the size of the reverse micelle, the change in solvation time, Stokes shift, rotational correlation time and residual anisotropy with the change in reverse micellar size were quite revealing...
April 17, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Shawn Dodd, Cailin M Rothwell, Ken Lukowiak
Crowding of snails is a stress that obstructs long-term memory (LTM) formation following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behaviour in Lymnaea stagnalis. In previous experiments, snails of the same strain/population were used for both the crowding and the operant conditioning training. However, there are different strains/populations of Lymnaea stagnalis exhibiting different cognitive abilities. We asked whether Lymnaea of one strain/population are able to determine that they are of a different strain/population...
April 22, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Hayarelis Moreno, Geoffrey Hall, Milagros Gallo, Isabel de Brugada
In two experiments adult rats (aged at least 6 months at the start of the procedure) received a diet enriched with added choline for a period of 10 weeks; control subjects were maintained on a standard diet during this time. All rats then underwent the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) procedure in which they were exposed to a pair of objects and then tested, after a retention interval, to a display with one object changed. Exploration of the changed object indicates retention and use of information acquired during the exposure phase...
April 22, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Xubo Lin, Alemayehu A Gorfe, Ilya Levental
Cellular membranes are laterally organized into domains of distinct structures and compositions by the differential interaction affinities between various membrane lipids and proteins. A prominent example of such structures are lipid rafts, which are ordered, tightly packed domains that have been widely implicated in cellular processes. The functionality of raft domains is driven by their selective recruitment of specific membrane proteins to regulate their interactions and functions; however, there have been few general insights into the factors that determine the partitioning of membrane proteins between coexisting liquid domains...
April 24, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Daniela Bonetti, Francesca Troilo, Maurizio Brunori, Sonia Longhi, Stefano Gianni
The mechanism of interaction of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) with its physiological partner is characterized by a disorder-to-order transition in which a recognition and a binding step take place. Even if the mechanism is quite complex, IDPs tend to bind their partner in a cooperative manner such that it is generally possible to detect experimentally only the disordered unbound state and the structured complex. The interaction between the disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (NTAIL ) and the X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein allows us to detect and quantify the two distinct steps of the overall reaction...
April 24, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Jackson D Blonde, Megan Roussy, Rogelio Luna, Borna Mahmoudian, Roberto A Gulli, Kevin C Barker, Jonathan C Lau, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
BACKGROUND: Several primate neurophysiology laboratories have adopted acrylic-free, custom-fit cranial implants. These implants are often comprised of titanium or plastic polymers, such as polyether ether ketone (PEEK). Titanium is favored for its mechanical strength and osseointegrative properties whereas PEEK is notable for its lightweight, machinability, and MRI compatibility. Recent titanium/PEEK implants have proven to be effective in minimizing infection and implant failure, thereby prolonging experiments and optimizing the scientific contribution of a single primate...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Linlin Wang, Yuanmin Li, Wen Deng, Zhihui Dong, Xue Li, Dan Liu, Lijie Zhao, Weiguo Fu, Kenka Cho, Huaying Niu, Dean Guo, Jinle Cheng, Baohong Jiang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Myocardial infarction (MI) is considered as the major inducer to the morbidity and mortality related to coronary occlusion. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is widely applied in the clinic for the prevention and treatment of heart diseases. The preparation of traditional herb decoction (THD) is not only time consuming but also difficult to keep uniform for every time. New usage form of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge with characteristics of convenience, uniform and efficiency is needed...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Anne Wietheger, Dorota E Starzak, Kevin S Gould, Simon K Davy
Oxidative stress inside cells occurs when the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is no longer efficiently counterbalanced by the generation of antioxidants. In this study, we measured the intracellular production of ROS, including hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), superoxide (O2 - ), and singlet oxygen (1 O2 ), in cultured dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium under thermal and oxidative stress. ROS tagged with fluorescent probes were measured by flow cytometry. Dissimilar Symbiodinium internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) clades or phylotypes (A1, B2, E, F1) produced ROS in different quantities in response to stress...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
I-Shou Huang, Ming-Kang Tsai
An adaptive force matching (AFM) scheme using the nonlinear optimization to re-parameterize the three-site, flexible and polarizable single-point-charge (SPC) water model is reported. We compare the radial distribution functions of the intermolecular oxygen-oxygen, oxygen-hydrogen and hydrogen-hydrogen distances with the recent scattering experiments [Soper 2013 and Skinner 2013-14], the previous AFM-fitting water model - MP2f [Akin-Ojo 2008] and the atomic multipole expanded AMOEBA model. Our non-polarizable SPC-3f(0) model captures the feature of the first solvation shell of bulk water...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Gustavo A Ferrari, Alan B de Oliveira, Ive Silvestre, Matheus J S Matos, Ronaldo J C Batista, Thales F D Fernandes, Leonel M Meireles, Gomes S N Eliel, Helio Chacham, Bernardo R A Neves, Rodrigo G Lacerda
Graphene is regarded as the toughest 2D material (highest in-plane elastic properties) and, as a consequence, it has been employed/proposed as an ultrathin membrane in a myriad of microfluidic devices. Yet, an experimental investigation of eventual variations on the apparent elastic properties of a suspended graphene membrane in contact with air or water is still missing. In this work, the mechanical response of suspended monolayer graphene membranes on a microfluidic platform is investigated via scanning probe microscopy experiments...
April 25, 2018: ACS Nano
Anna Kann, Heinrich Hartmann, Astrid Besmehn, Peter Hausoul, Regina Palkovits
Formic acid is a promising hydrogen storage medium and can be produced by catalytic hydrogenation of CO2. We report molecular ruthenium complexes immobilized on phosphine polymers, presenting excellent productivity and selectivity in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 under mild conditions. The polymeric form of dppe exhibited the highest activity and turnover numbers up to 13,170 were obtained in a single run. This catalyst was already active at 40 °C and a catalyst loading of only 0.0006 mol%. Recycling experiments revealed a loss of activity after the first run, followed by a gradual decease in the subsequent runs...
April 25, 2018: ChemSusChem
Katherine J McNamara, Thomas F C Saunders, Adnan Darr, Sonia Kumar, Simon Shaw, Natarajan Saravanappa
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy is now widely recognised as being the chosen method of resecting pituitary gland tumours. There have been a number of advances both in technology and management of this group of patients over the years from the introduction of a multi disciplinary team (MDT) to the use of computed tomography (CT) navigation system for operative guidance. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: This study reviews one UK centre's experience of pituitary tumour resection over a period of 26 years and identifies how management of these cases has changed over this time...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
João H P M Santos, Emanuel V Capela, Isabel Boal-Palheiros, João A P Coutinho, Mara G Freire, Sónia P M Ventura
Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of polypropylene glycol and carbohydrates, two benign substances are proposed to separate two food colorants (E122 and E133). ABS are promising extractive platforms, particularly for biomolecules, due to their aqueous and mild nature (pH and temperature), reduced environmental impact and processing costs. Another major aspect considered, particularly useful in downstream processing, is the "tuning" ability for the extraction and purification of these systems by a proper choice of the ABS components...
April 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Mihir Desai, Mo Bidair, Naeem Bhojani, Andrew Trainer, Andrew Arther, Eugene Kramolowsky, Leo Doumanian, Dean Elterman, Ronald P Kaufman, James Lingeman, Amy Krambeck, Gregg Eure, Gopal Badlani, Mark Plante, Edward Uchio, Greg Gin, Larry Goldenberg, Ryan Paterson, Alan So, Mitch Humphreys, Claus Roehrborn, Steven Kaplan, Jay Motola, Kevin C Zorn
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To present early safety and feasibility data from a multicenter prospective study of Aquablation in treatment of symptomatic men with large volume BPH. METHODS: Between September and December 2017, 101 men with moderate-to-severe BPH symptoms and prostate volume of 80-150cc underwent Aquablation in a prospective multicenter international clinical trial. Baseline demographics and standardized postoperative management parameters were carefully recorded in a central independently monitored database...
April 25, 2018: BJU International
Zhonghua Pan, Yunwen Tao, Quanfeng He, Qiaoyu Wu, Liping Cheng, Zhanhua Wei, Jihuai Wu, Jinqing Lin, Di Sun, Qichun Zhang, Dan Tian, Geng-Geng Luo
Inspired by the metal active sites of [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases, a dppf-supported nickel(II) selenolate complex (dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) shows high catalytic activity for electrochemical proton reduction with a remarkable enzyme-like H2 evolution turnover frequency (TOF) of 7838 s-1 under an Ar atmosphere, which markedly surpasses the activity of a dppf-supported nickel(II) thiolate analogue with a low TOF of 600 s-1. A combined electrochemical experiments and DFT studies shed light on the catalytic process, suggesting that selenium atom as a bio-inspired proton relay plays a key role in proton exchange and enhancing catalytic activity of H2 production...
April 25, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Márcio Carlos Machado, Maria Candida Barisson Vilares Fragoso, Ayrton Custódio Moreira, César Luiz Boguszewski, Leonardo Vieira Neto, Luciana A Naves, Lucio Vilar, Luiz Antônio de Araújo, Nina Rosa Castro Musolino, Paulo Augusto C Miranda, Mauro A Czepielewski, Monica R Gadelha, Marcello Delano Bronstein, Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira
The treatment objectives for a patient with Cushing's disease (CD) are remission of hypercortisolism, adequate management of co-morbidities, restoration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, preservation of fertility and pituitary function, and improvement of visual defects in cases of macroadenomas with suprasellar extension. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is the main treatment option for the majority of cases, even in macroadenomas with low probability of remission. In cases of surgical failure, another subsequent pituitary surgery might be indicated in cases with persistent tumor imaging at post surgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or pathology analysis of adrenocorticotropic hormone-positive (ACTH+) positive pituitary adenoma in the first procedure...
February 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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