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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926930/cytomegalovirus-specific-il-10-producing-cd4-t-cells-are-governed-by-type-i-ifn-induced-il-27-and-promote-virus-persistence
#1
Mathew Clement, Morgan Marsden, Maria A Stacey, Juneid Abdul-Karim, Silvia Gimeno Brias, Diana Costa Bento, Martin J Scurr, Peter Ghazal, Casey T Weaver, Gianluca Carlesso, Simon Clare, Simon A Jones, Andrew Godkin, Gareth W Jones, Ian R Humphreys
CD4+ T cells support host defence against herpesviruses and other viral pathogens. We identified that CD4+ T cells from systemic and mucosal tissues of hosts infected with the β-herpesviridae human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) express the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. IL-10+CD4+ T cells co-expressed TH1-associated transcription factors and chemokine receptors. Mice lacking T cell-derived IL-10 elicited enhanced antiviral T cell responses and restricted MCMV persistence in salivary glands and secretion in saliva...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926928/an-interactome-centered-protein-discovery-approach-reveals-novel-components-involved-in-mitosome-function-and-homeostasis-in-giardia-lamblia
#2
Samuel Rout, Jon Paulin Zumthor, Elisabeth M Schraner, Carmen Faso, Adrian B Hehl
Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are highly prevalent globally, and infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, with proliferation and pathology restricted to the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive structural and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution. An example is the streamlined mitosomal proteome with iron-sulphur protein maturation as the only biochemical pathway clearly associated with this organelle. Here, we applied techniques in microscopy and protein biochemistry to investigate the mitosomal membrane proteome in association to mitosome homeostasis...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926912/cranioplasty-after-craniectomy-in-a-pediatric-population-single-center-experience-from-a-developing-country
#3
Muhammad Waqas, Badar Ujjan, Yousaf Bashir Hadi, Faizuddin Najmuddin, Altaf Ali Laghari, Swaleha Khalid, Muhammad Ehsan Bari, Umar Farooq Bhatti
Cranioplasty is a frequently performed procedure in neurosurgery. The pediatric population for this procedure is distinct from the adult one because of the growing skulls and thinner bones of the calvarium. A paucity of data on the outcomes of this procedure in the pediatric population has been identified repeatedly. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the outcomes in a pediatric population that underwent cranioplasty after craniectomy at our institute in a developing-world country. Our cohort showed no association of complication rate or cosmetic outcomes with the timing of cranioplasty, area of skull defect, type of implant used, or method of storage...
December 8, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926881/remediation-of-arsenic-contaminated-groundwater-by-in-situ-stimulating-biogenic-precipitation-of-iron-sulfides
#4
Kunfu Pi, Yanxin Wang, Xianjun Xie, Teng Ma, Yaqing Liu, Chunli Su, Yapeng Zhu, Zhiqiang Wang
Severe health problems due to elevated arsenic (As) in groundwater have made it urgent to develop cost-effective technologies for As removal. This field experimental study tested the feasibility of in-situ As immobilization via As incorporation into newly formed biogenic Fe(II) sulfides in a typical As-affected strongly reducing aquifer at the central part of Datong Basin, China. After periodic supply of FeSO4 into the aquifer for 25 d to stimulate microbial sulfate reduction, dissolved sulfide concentrations increased during the experiment, but the supplied Fe(II) reacted quickly with sulfide to form Fe(II)-sulfides existing majorly as mackinawite as well as a small amount of pyrite-like minerals in sediments, thereby restricting sulfide build-up in groundwater...
October 22, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926856/insulin-dependent-activation-of-mch-neurons-impairs-locomotor-activity-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-obesity
#5
A Christine Hausen, Johan Ruud, Hong Jiang, Simon Hess, Hristo Varbanov, Peter Kloppenburg, Jens C Brüning
Melanin-concentrating-hormone (MCH)-expressing neurons (MCH neurons) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are critical regulators of energy and glucose homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that insulin increases the excitability of these neurons in control mice. In vivo, insulin promotes phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in MCH neurons, and cell-type-specific deletion of the insulin receptor (IR) abrogates this response. While lean mice lacking the IR in MCH neurons (IR(ΔMCH)) exhibit no detectable metabolic phenotype under normal diet feeding, they present with improved locomotor activity and insulin sensitivity under high-fat-diet-fed, obese conditions...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926854/structural-characterization-and-statistical-mechanical-model-of-epidermal-patterns
#6
Duyu Chen, Wen Yih Aw, Danelle Devenport, Salvatore Torquato
In proliferating epithelia of mammalian skin, cells of irregular polygon-like shapes pack into complex, nearly flat two-dimensional structures that are pliable to deformations. In this work, we employ various sensitive correlation functions to quantitatively characterize structural features of evolving packings of epithelial cells across length scales in mouse skin. We find that the pair statistics in direct space (correlation function) and Fourier space (structure factor) of the cell centroids in the early stages of embryonic development show structural directional dependence (statistical anisotropy), which is a reflection of the fact that cells are stretched, which promotes uniaxial growth along the epithelial plane...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926853/a-dynamical-threshold-for-cardiac-delayed-afterdepolarization-mediated-triggered-activity
#7
Michael B Liu, Christopher Y Ko, Zhen Song, Alan Garfinkel, James N Weiss, Zhilin Qu
Ventricular myocytes are excitable cells whose voltage threshold for action potential (AP) excitation is ∼-60 mV at which INa is activated to give rise to a fast upstroke. Therefore, for a short stimulus pulse to elicit an AP, a stronger stimulus is needed if the resting potential lies further away from the INa threshold, such as in hypokalemia. However, for an AP elicited by a long duration stimulus or a diastolic spontaneous calcium release, we observed that the stimulus needed was lower in hypokalemia than in normokalemia in both computer simulations and experiments of rabbit ventricular myocytes...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926851/energy-output-from-a-single-outer-hair-cell
#8
Kuni H Iwasa
Electromotility of outer hair cells (OHCs) has been extensively studied with in vitro experiments because of its physiological significance to the cochlear amplifier, which provides the exquisite sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the mammalian ear. However, these studies have been performed largely under load-free conditions or with static load, while these cells function in vivo in a dynamic environment, receiving electrical energy to enhance mechanical oscillation in the inner ear. This gap leaves uncertainties in addressing a key issue, how much mechanical energy an OHC provides...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926849/effects-of-dimethyl-sulfoxide-on-surface-water-near-phospholipid-bilayers
#9
Yuno Lee, Philip A Pincus, Changbong Hyeon
Despite much effort to probe the properties of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the effects of DMSO on water, especially near plasma membrane surfaces, still remain elusive. By performing molecular dynamics simulations at varying DMSO concentrations (XDMSO), we study how DMSO affects structural and dynamical properties of water in the vicinity of phospholipid bilayers. As proposed by a number of experiments, our simulations confirm that DMSO induces dehydration from bilayer surfaces and disrupts the H-bond structure of water...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926846/alamethicin-supramolecular-organization-in-lipid-membranes-from-19-f-solid-state-nmr
#10
Evgeniy S Salnikov, Jesus Raya, Marta De Zotti, Ekaterina Zaitseva, Cristina Peggion, Gema Ballano, Claudio Toniolo, Jan Raap, Burkhard Bechinger
Alamethicins (ALMs) are antimicrobial peptides of fungal origin. Their sequences are rich in hydrophobic amino acids and strongly interact with lipid membranes, where they cause a well-defined increase in conductivity. Therefore, the peptides are thought to form transmembrane helical bundles in which the more hydrophilic residues line a water-filled pore. Whereas the peptide has been well characterized in terms of secondary structure, membrane topology, and interactions, much fewer data are available regarding the quaternary arrangement of the helices within lipid bilayers...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926842/intact-telopeptides-enhance-interactions-between-collagens
#11
Marjan Shayegan, Tuba Altindal, Evan Kiefl, Nancy R Forde
Collagen is the fundamental structural component of a wide range of connective tissues and of the extracellular matrix. It undergoes self-assembly from individual triple-helical proteins into well-ordered fibrils, a process that is key to tissue development and homeostasis, and to processes such as wound healing. Nucleation of this assembly is known to be slowed considerably by pepsin removal of short nonhelical regions that flank collagen's triple helix, known as telopeptides. Using optical tweezers to perform microrheology measurements, we explored the changes in viscoelasticity of solutions of collagen with and without intact telopeptides...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926839/circular-dichroism-spectroscopy-of-collagen-fibrillogenesis-a-new-use-for-an-old-technique
#12
Kathryn E Drzewiecki, Daniel R Grisham, Avanish S Parmar, Vikas Nanda, David I Shreiber
Type-I collagen assembles in a stepwise, hierarchic fashion from the folding of the triple helix to the assembly of fibrils into fibers. The mature assembled fibers are crucial for tissue structure and mechanics, cell interactions, and other functions in vivo. Although triple helix folding can be followed with the use of optical methods such as circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fibrillogenesis is typically measured by alternative methods such as turbidity, rheology, and microscopy. Together, these approaches allow for investigation of the mechanical properties and architectures of collagen-based scaffolds and excised tissues...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926837/the-significance-of-the-location-of-mutations-for-the-native-state-dynamics-of-human-lysozyme
#13
Minkoo Ahn, Christine L Hagan, Ana Bernardo-Gancedo, Erwin De Genst, Francisco N Newby, John Christodoulou, Anne Dhulesia, Mireille Dumoulin, Carol V Robinson, Christopher M Dobson, Janet R Kumita
The conversion of human lysozyme into amyloid fibrils is associated with a rare but fatal hereditary form of nonneuropathic systemic amyloidosis. The accumulation of large amounts of aggregated protein is thought to be initiated by the formation of transient intermediate species of disease-related lysozyme variants, essentially due to the loss of global cooperativity under physiologically relevant conditions. Interestingly, all five naturally occurring, amyloidogenic, single-point mutations are located in the β-domain of lysozyme, the region that is predominantly unfolded during the formation of the transient intermediate species...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926828/harnessing-cancer-cell-metabolism-for-theranostic-applications-using-metabolic-glycoengineering-of-sialic-acid-in-breast-cancer-as-a-pioneering-example
#14
REVIEW
Haitham A Badr, Dina M M AlSadek, Motawa E El-Houseini, Christopher T Saeui, Mohit P Mathew, Kevin J Yarema, Hafiz Ahmed
Abnormal cell surface display of sialic acids - a family of unusual 9-carbon sugars - is widely recognized as distinguishing feature of many types of cancer. Sialoglycans, however, typically cannot be identified with sufficiently high reproducibility and sensitivity to serve as clinically accepted biomarkers and similarly, almost all efforts to exploit cancer-specific differences in sialylation signatures for therapy remain in early stage development. In this report we provide an overview of important facets of glycosylation that contribute to cancer in general with a focus on breast cancer as an example of malignant disease characterized by aberrant sialylation...
November 25, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926810/analysis-of-changes-in-cancer-health-care-system-in-poland-since-the-socio-economic-transformation-in-1989
#15
Dorota Dudek-Godeau, Anna Kieszkowska-Grudny, Katarzyna Kwiatkowska, Joanna Bogusz, Mirosław J Wysocki, Magdalena Bielska-Lasota
Background: The transformation period in Poland is associated with a set of factors seen as ‘socio-economic stress’, which unfavourably influenced cancer treatment and slowed down the progress of the Polish cancer care in the 90’s. These outcomes in many aspects of cancer care may be experienced till today. The results of the international EUROCARE and CONCORD studies based on European data prove evidence that there is a substantial potential for improvement of low 5-year survival rates in Poland...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926808/evaluation-of-communication-and-acceptance-of-the-patients-by-medical-personnel
#16
Anna Włoszczak-Szubzda, Mirosław J Jarosz, Mariusz Goniewicz, Krzysztof Goniewicz
Background: The low level of patient satisfaction recorded in many studies and, at the same time, the level of frustration and burnout, disclosed by medics in the perception of the patient as a ‘problem’, incline to look for the causes of inadequate relationship between physician and patient. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of acceptance of the patient by the medical personnel. The research problem was the acceptance level which was within the range of the communication skills of the nurses and doctors...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926807/evaluation-of-a-national-e-mentoring-program-for-ethnically-diverse-student-nurse-midwives-and-student-midwives
#17
Maria Valentin-Welch
INTRODUCTION: The US racial profile is changing rapidly, yet the nursing and midwifery professions are not evolving accordingly. The lack of racial and ethnic diversity within these health professions negatively affects efforts to eliminate persistent health disparities. To address this issue, the Midwives of Color Committee (MOCC) of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) created a national online mentoring program in 2011 to support midwifery students of color. An evaluation of the program is reported here...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926804/the-impact-of-racism-and-midwifery-s-lack-of-racial-diversity-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Jyesha Wren Serbin, Elizabeth Donnelly
INTRODUCTION: The United States is increasingly racially diverse. Racial disparities in maternal-child health persist. Despite national calls for workforce diversification, more than 90% of certified nurse-midwives are white. This systematic review examines how racism and midwifery's lack of racial diversity impact both midwives and their patients. METHODS: Databases were searched in January 2016 for studies that explored 1) racially concordant or racially discordant maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; 2) women of color's experience of race and discrimination in maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; and 3) midwives of color's experience of race and discrimination in clinical, educational, and/or professional settings...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926800/interobserver-reproducibility-of-cytologic-p16-ink4a-ki-67-dual-immunostaining-in-human-papillomavirus-positive-women
#19
Maria Benevolo, Elena Allia, Daniela Gustinucci, Francesca Rollo, Simonetta Bulletti, Elena Cesarini, Basilio Passamonti, Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli, Elisabetta Carico, Francesca M Carozzi, Alessandra Mongia, Giulia Fantacci, Massimo Confortini, Teresa Rubino, Cristina Fodero, Sonia Prandi, Natalina Marchi, Angelo Farruggio, Anna Coccia, Luigia Macrì, Bruno Ghiringhello, Guglielmo Ronco, Emma Bragantini, Enzo Polla, Vincenzo Maccallini, Giovanni Negri, Paolo Giorgi Rossi
BACKGROUND: The accumulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16(ink4a) ) protein in a cell is associated with neoplastic progression in precancerous cervical lesions. Dual staining for p16(ink4a) and Ki-67 has been proposed as a triage test in cervical cancer screening for women who test positive for human papillomavirus DNA. In this study, interobserver reproducibility of the interpretation of this test was assessed. METHODS: Forty-two immunostained, liquid-based cytology slides were divided into 2 sets and were interpreted by 17 to 21 readers from 9 different laboratories, yielding a total of 816 reports...
December 7, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926655/maternal-morbidity-after-previable-prelabor-rupture-of-membranes
#20
Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Alexis Panzer, Matthew R Grace, Marcela C Smid, J Adeolu Keku, Catherine J Vladutiu, Kim A Boggess, Tracy A Manuck
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for maternal morbidity after previable prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of singleton and twin pregnancies complicated by previable PROM (14.0-22.9 weeks of gestation) at a single tertiary care referral institution, 2000-2015. Pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies, previable PROM within 2 weeks of chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis, and those with contraindications to expectant management (eg, chorioamnionitis) were excluded...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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