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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25080569/changes-in-gap-junction-expression-and-function-following-ischemic-injury-of-spinal-cord-white-matter
#1
Karina Goncharenko, Eftekhar Eftekharpour, Alexander A Velumian, Peter L Carlen, Michael G Fehlings
Gap junctions are widely present in spinal cord white matter; however, their role in modulating the dynamics of axonal dysfunction remains largely unexplored. We hypothesized that inhibition of gap junctions reduces the loss of axonal function during oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). The functional role of gap junctions was assessed by electrophysiological recordings of compound action potentials (CAPs) in Wistar rat spinal cord slices with the sucrose gap technique. The in vitro slices were subjected to 30-min OGD...
November 1, 2014: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22649229/panglial-gap-junctional-communication-is-essential-for-maintenance-of-myelin-in-the-cns
#2
Oliver Tress, Marta Maglione, Dennis May, Tatjyana Pivneva, Nadine Richter, Julia Seyfarth, Sonja Binder, Armin Zlomuzica, Gerald Seifert, Martin Theis, Ekrem Dere, Helmut Kettenmann, Klaus Willecke
In this study, we have investigated the contribution of oligodendrocytic connexin47 (Cx47) and astrocytic Cx30 to panglial gap junctional networks as well as myelin maintenance and function by deletion of both connexin coding DNAs in mice. Biocytin injections revealed complete disruption of oligodendrocyte-to-astrocyte coupling in the white matter of 10- to 15-d-old Cx30/Cx47 double-deficient mice, while oligodendrocyte-to-oligodendrocyte coupling was maintained. There were no quantitative differences regarding cellular networks in acute brain slices obtained from Cx30/Cx47 double-null mice and control littermates, probably caused by the upregulation of oligodendrocytic Cx32 in Cx30/Cx47 double-deficient mice...
May 30, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22484441/gap-junction-pathology-in-multiple-sclerosis-lesions-and-normal-appearing-white-matter
#3
Kyriaki Markoullis, Irene Sargiannidou, Natasa Schiza, Andreas Hadjisavvas, Federico Roncaroli, Richard Reynolds, Kleopas A Kleopa
Oligodendrocyte gap junctions (GJs) are vital for central nervous system myelination, but their involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine alterations of oligodendrocyte and related astrocyte GJs in MS lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). Post-mortem brain samples from 9 MS and 11 age-matched non-MS control patients were studied. Tissue sections that included both chronic active and inactive lesions were characterized neuropathologically with Luxol Fast Blue staining and immunostaining for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and the microglial marker Iba1...
June 2012: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22461072/disruption-of-oligodendrocyte-gap-junctions-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Kyriaki Markoullis, Irene Sargiannidou, Christopher Gardner, Andreas Hadjisavvas, Richard Reynolds, Kleopas A Kleopa
Gap junctions (GJs) are vital for oligodendrocyte survival and myelination. In order to examine how different stages of inflammatory demyelination affect oligodendrocyte GJs, we studied the expression of oligodendrocytic connexin32 (Cx32) and Cx47 and astrocytic Cx43 in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS) induced by recombinant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. EAE was characterized by remissions and relapses with demyelination and axonal loss. Formation of GJ plaques was quantified in relation to the lesions and in normal appearing white matter (NAWM)...
July 2012: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22342190/loss-of-astrocyte-connexins-43-and-30-does-not-significantly-alter-susceptibility-or-severity-of-acute-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-mice
#5
Sarah E Lutz, Cedric S Raine, Celia F Brosnan
We showed previously that mice deficient in astrocyte gap junctions Cx43 and Cx30 exhibit white matter vacuolation and hypomyelination. In this study we tested the hypothesis that loss of astrocytic gap junction proteins leads to exacerbation of the primary demyelinating diseases, using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model system. To test for this, Cx43 floxed mice were crossed with GFAP:Cre, Cx30 null mice to generate mice lacking astrocytic expression of both Cx43 and Cx30 (dKO). EAE was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(35-55)) peptide, and mice were monitored for acute expression of disease...
April 2012: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22334035/downregulation-of-cnpase-in-a-mecp2-deficient-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#6
Wei Wu, Weizhong Gu, Xuefeng Xu, Shiqiang Shang, Zhengyan Zhao
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible target genes of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) that contribute to Rett syndrome (RTT). METHODS: Brain tissues were taken from Mecp2(308/Y) mice or control mice and then subjected to real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical staining, and Western blot analysis for connexin (Cx)43, Cx45, Cx40, Cx32, 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphohydrolase (CNPase), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
March 2012: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21538560/deletion-of-oligodendrocyte-cx32-and-astrocyte-cx43-causes-white-matter-vacuolation-astrocyte-loss-and-early-mortality
#7
Laura M Magnotti, Daniel A Goodenough, David L Paul
CNS glia exhibit a variety of gap junctional interactions: between neighboring astrocytes, between neighboring oligodendrocytes, between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and as 'reflexive' structures between layers of myelin in oligodendrocytes. Together, these junctions are thought to form a network facilitating absorption and removal of extracellular K(+) released during neuronal activity. In mice, loss of the two major oligodendrocyte connexins causes severe demyelination and early mortality, while loss of the two major astrocyte connexins causes mild dysmyelination and sensorimotor impairment, suggesting that reflexive and/or oligo-oligo coupling may be more important for the maintenance of myelin than other forms...
July 2011: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20468052/oligodendrocytes-in-mouse-corpus-callosum-are-coupled-via-gap-junction-channels-formed-by-connexin47-and-connexin32
#8
Marta Maglione, Oliver Tress, Brigitte Haas, Khalad Karram, Jacqueline Trotter, Klaus Willecke, Helmut Kettenmann
According to previously published ultrastructural studies, oligodendrocytes in white matter exhibit gap junctions with astrocytes, but not among each other, while in vitro oligodendrocytes form functional gap junctions. We have studied functional coupling among oligodendrocytes in acute slices of postnatal mouse corpus callosum. By whole-cell patch clamp we dialyzed oligodendrocytes with biocytin, a gap junction-permeable tracer. On average 61 cells were positive for biocytin detected by labeling with streptavidin-Cy3...
July 2010: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19808103/oculo-dento-digital-dysplasia-lack-of-genotype-phenotype-correlation-for-gja1-mutations-and-usefulness-of-neuro-imaging
#9
M J Alao, D Bonneau, M Holder-Espinasse, C Goizet, S Manouvrier-Hanu, A Mezel, F Petit, D Subtil, C Magdelaine, D Lacombe
Oculo-dento-digital dysplasia (ODDD) is an autosomal dominant disorder with complete penetrance and high intra- and interfamilial phenotypic variability. The key features in this syndrome are microphthalmia, enamel hypoplasia and syndactyly of the 4th-5th fingers. ODDD is caused by mutations in the connexin 43 gene (GJA1). We report here four patients from three families with GJA1 mutations, one of them diagnosed prenatally. The three mutations (c.52T > C/p.Ser18Pro, c.689_690delTA/p.Tyr230CysfsX6, c.442C > G/p...
January 2010: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19535586/deletion-of-astrocyte-connexins-43-and-30-leads-to-a-dysmyelinating-phenotype-and-hippocampal-ca1-vacuolation
#10
Sarah E Lutz, Yongmei Zhao, Maria Gulinello, Sunhee C Lee, Cedric S Raine, Celia F Brosnan
Astrocytes are coupled via gap junctions (GJs) comprising connexin 43 (Cx43) (Gja1) and Cx30 (Gjb6), which facilitate intercellular exchange of ions. Astrocyte connexins also form heterotypic GJs with oligodendrocytic somata and lamellae. Loss of oligodendrocyte gap junctions results in oligodendrocyte and myelin pathology. However, whether loss of astrocyte GJs affects oligodendrocytes and myelin is not known. To address this question, mice with astrocyte-targeted deletion of Cx43 and global loss of Cx30 [double knock-out (dKO)] were studied using Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and functional assays...
June 17, 2009: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17279545/connexin-43-gap-junction-proteins-are-up-regulated-in-remyelinating-spinal-cord
#11
W A Roscoe, E Messersmith, A Meyer-Franke, B Wipke, S J Karlik
Alterations in the expression of gap junction proteins have previously been observed in several diseases affecting the central nervous system; however, the status of connexin 43 (Cx43) has not yet been reported in spinal cord remyelination. We studied Cx43 expression in demyelination and remyelination by using a chronic guinea pig model of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Hartley guinea pigs were immunized with homogenized whole CNS and complete Freund's adjuvant. Animals became chronically ill by day 40 postimmunization, and animals with paralysis were entered into the study...
April 2007: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16418219/oculodentodigital-dysplasia-connexin43-mutations-result-in-non-functional-connexin-hemichannels-and-gap-junctions-in-c6-glioma-cells
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Albert Lai, Dung-Nghi Le, William A Paznekas, Wes D Gifford, Ethylin Wang Jabs, Andrew C Charles
Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial and limb abnormalities. Over 35 separate mutations in human connexin43 (Cx43) causing ODDD have been identified. Several mutations are also associated with central nervous system involvement, including white-matter changes detected by magnetic resonance imaging. As Cx43 is abundantly expressed in astrocytes, we hypothesized that the mutant Cx43 proteins that produce neurological dysfunction have abnormal functional characteristics in astrocytes...
February 1, 2006: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16297988/postnatal-development-of-gfap-connexin43-and-connexin30-in-cat-visual-cortex
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
N Rochefort, N Quenech'du, P Ezan, C Giaume, C Milleret
In cat visual cortex, neurons acquire progressively mature functional properties during the first postnatal months. The aim of this study was to analyze the development of astrocytes during this period. The patterns of expression of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as well as of two gap junction proteins expressed in astrocytes, connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin30 (Cx30), were investigated by immunohistochemistry and optical density measurements, in visual cortical areas 17 and 18 at four different ages: 2 weeks (postnatal days 12 to 15, P12-15), 1 month (P27-31), 2 months (P60-62) and beyond 1 year...
December 7, 2005: Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15898103/connexin43-the-major-gap-junction-protein-of-astrocytes-is-down-regulated-in-inflamed-white-matter-in-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Elimor Brand-Schieber, Peter Werner, Dumitru A Iacobas, Sanda Iacobas, Michelle Beelitz, Stuart L Lowery, David C Spray, Eliana Scemes
Both multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), its animal model, involve inflammatory attack on central nervous system (CNS) white matter, leading to demyelination and axonal damage. Changes in astrocytic morphology and function are also prominent features of MS and EAE. Resting astrocytes form a network that is interconnected through gap junctions, composed mainly of connexin43 (Cx43) protein. Although astrocytic gap junctional connectivity is known to be altered in many CNS pathologies, little is known about Cx43 expression in inflammatory demyelinating disease...
June 15, 2005: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12445895/microglia-and-astrocytes-may-participate-in-the-shaping-of-visual-callosal-projections-during-postnatal-development
#15
REVIEW
N Rochefort, N Quenech'du, L Watroba, M Mallat, C Giaume, C Milleret
In the adult cat, axons running through the corpus callosum interconnect the border between the visual cortical areas 17 and 18 (A17 and A18) of both hemispheres. This specific pattern emerges during postnatal development, under normal viewing conditions (NR), from the elimination of initially exuberant callosal projections. In contrast, if the postnatal visual experience is monocular from birth (MD), juvenile callosal projections are stabilised throughout A17 and A18. The present study aimed at using such a model in vivo to find indications of a contribution of glial cells in the shaping of projections in the developing CNS through interactions with neurones, both in normal and pathological conditions...
April 2002: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10571421/gap-junction-intercellular-communication-in-gliomas-is-inversely-related-to-cell-motility
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
W S McDonough, A Johansson, H Joffee, A Giese, M E Berens
Gliomas are lethal because of local invasion into brain parenchyma. Glioma cells were isolated from different regions (white matter, gray matter and tumor core) of a glioma-bearing dog brain. Individual clonal cell lines were established from each area, and characterized for growth, migration and gap junctions. The regional clonal cell lines differed in rates and preferred substrate for migration. Cell lines generated from invaded white matter showed stimulated migration on collagen and variable migration on merosin, whereas migration of cell lines derived from invaded gray matter showed the reciprocal responses: stimulation on merosin and inhibition on collagen...
August 1999: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/9183689/connexin43-and-astrocytic-gap-junctions-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-after-acute-compression-injury
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
E Theriault, U N Frankenstein, E L Hertzberg, J I Nagy
To examine the possible role of interastrocytic gap junctions in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis after spinal cord damage, we initiated studies of the astrocytic gap junctional protein connexin43 (Cx43) in relation to temporal and spatial parameters of neuronal loss, reactive gliosis, and white matter survival in a rat model of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Cx43 immunolocalization in normal and compression-injured spinal cord was compared by using two different sequence-specific anti-Cx43 antibodies that have previously exhibited different immunorecognition properties at lesion sites in brain...
June 2, 1997: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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