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Olive oil lipid

Nikolaos Peroulis, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, George Notas, Stella Koinaki, Elsa Giakoumaki, Apostolos Spyros, Εfstathia Manolopoulou, Sophia Kargaki, Maria Tzardi, Eleni Moustou, Euripides G Stephanou, Efstathia Bakogeorgou, Niki Malliaraki, Maria Niniraki, Christos Lionis, Elias Castanas, Marilena Kampa
PURPOSE: Dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism are the main health issues of growing prevalence and significant high healthcare cost, requiring novel prevention and/or therapeutic approaches. Epidemiological and animal studies revealed that olive oil is an important dietary constituent, inducing normolipidemia. However, no studies have specifically investigated the polyphenol-rich water extract of olives (OLWPE), generated during olive oil production. METHODS: In the present work, we initially examined the effect of OLPWE on animals' metabolic parameters...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Hela Chalouati, Mohamed Moncef Ben Sâad, Laurence Payrastre
The protective effects of α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) on liver injury induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were investigated in adult male rats of Wistar strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups of eight rats each. Group 1 and 2 have received HCB, dissolved in olive oil, at a dose of 4 mg or 16 mg/kg b.w, respectively. Group 3 and 4 were treated by the same doses of HCB (4 mg and 16 mg/kg b.w) after 1h of pretreatment with α-tocopherol at a dose of 100 mg kg-1 b.w. The other two groups served as controls; which received either olive oil only, a solvent of HCB, or α-tocopherol...
July 31, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Pallab K Sarker, Anne R Kapuscinski, Ashley Y Bae, Emily Donaldson, Alexander J Sitek, Devin S Fitzgerald, Oliver F Edelson
Microalgae companies increasingly seek markets for defatted biomass that is left over after extracting omega-3 rich oil for human nutraceuticals and crude oil for fuels. Such a protein-rich co-product is a promising alternative to unsustainably sourced fishmeal in aquaculture diets. We report the first evaluation of co-product of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata (N. oculata co-product) for replacing fishmeal in diets of Nile tilapia, a globally important aquaculture species. We conducted a nutrient digestibility experiment with N...
2018: PloS One
Xi Yuan, Xiaojuan Liu, David Julian McClements, Yong Cao, Hang Xiao
Effects of lipid type in excipient emulsions on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) in spinach were studied using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Results showed that the lipid type only had a minor impact on the physical and structural characteristics of the spinach/emulsion mixtures as they passed through simulated mouth, stomach, and small intestine phases. However, a significant effect was observed on lipid digestion, mixed micelle formation, and carotenoid bioaccessibility...
July 25, 2018: Food & Function
Lukas Schwingshackl, Berit Bogensberger, Aleksander Bencic, Sven Knueppel, Heiner Boeing, Georg Hoffmann
The aim of this network meta-analysis (NMA) is to compare the effects of different oils/solid fats on blood lipids. Literature searches were performed until March 2018. Inclusion criteria were as follows: i) Randomized trial (≥3 weeks study length) comparing at least two of the following oils/ solid fats: safflower-, sunflower-, rapeseed-, hempseed-, flaxseed-, corn-, olive-, soybean-, palm-, coconut-oil, lard, beef-fat, and butter; ii) LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triacyglycerols (TG)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Ren-Jay Shei, Emily M Adamic, Robert F Chapman, Timothy D Mickleborough
Habitual endurance training may be associated with mild airway inflammation and subsequent deterioration in lung function. PCSO-524™ (Lyprinol®/Omega-XL®), a supplement extracted from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel ( Perna canaliculus ), has been shown to moderate airway inflammation in asthmatic subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether supplementation with PCSO-524™ improves pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in non-asthmatic elite runners. Sixteen male, non-asthmatic elite runners were randomly assigned to either a treatment (PCSO-524™; 1 capsule contains 50 mg n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and 100 mg olive oil, n =8) or placebo (1 capsule contains 150 mg olive oil; n =8) group...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Eliana Alves, M Rosário M Domingues, Pedro Domingues
Polar lipids are minor components of olives and olive oil and include a myriad of molecules such as phospholipids and glycolipids. Even though sensitive and high-resolution analytical approaches have been used to unveil the polar lipidome of these matrices, new insights on their composition are needed. In this review, we will describe the findings on the identification and characterization of polar lipids from olives and olive oil and the underlying analytical challenges. The significance of polar lipids will also be discussed as potential markers of identity and traceability of olives and olive oil and in detecting adulteration of olive oil...
July 10, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Graziano Pizzolante, Miriana Durante, Daniela Rizzo, Marco Di Salvo, Salvatore Maurizio Tredici, Maria Tufariello, Angelo De Paolis, Adelfia Talà, Giovanni Mita, Pietro Alifano, Giuseppe Egidio De Benedetto
The olive oil is an unfavorable substrate for microbial survival and growth. Only few microorganisms use olive oil fatty acids as carbon and energy sources, and survive in the presence of olive oil anti-microbial components. In this study, we have evaluated the occurrence of microorganisms in 1-year-stored extra-virgin olive oil samples. We detected the presence of bacterial and yeast species with a recurrence of the bacterium Stenotrophomonas rhizophila and yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. We then assayed the ability of all isolates to grow in a mineral medium supplemented with a commercial extra-virgin olive oil as a sole carbon and energy source, and analyzed the utilization of olive oil fatty acids during their growth...
July 10, 2018: AMB Express
O Marisa Herrero, María S Villalba, Mariana P Lanfranconi, Héctor M Alvarez
The accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAG) is a common feature among actinobacteria belonging to Rhodococcus genus. Some rhodococcal species are able to produce significant amounts of those lipids from different single substrates, such as glucose, gluconate or hexadecane. In this study we analyzed the ability of different species to produce lipids from olive oil mill wastes (OMW), and the possibility to enhance lipid production by genetic engineering. OMW base medium prepared from alperujo, which exhibited high values of chemical oxygen demand (127,000 mg/l) and C/N ratio (508), supported good growth and TAG production by some rhodococci...
July 10, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
M Antónia Nunes, Anabela S G Costa, Sílvia Bessada, Joana Santos, Helder Puga, Rita C Alves, Vitor Freitas, M Beatriz P P Oliveira
Olive pomace is a major output of olive oil processing. This by-product is a valuable source of bioactive compounds with well-recognized benefits for human health and well-being. In this work, the proximate composition and the profiles of vitamin E (HPLC-DAD-FLD), fatty acids (GC-FID) and phenolics (HPLC-DAD-FL/MSn ) were determined. Additionally, a sustainable process for antioxidants extraction - Multi-frequency Multimode Modulated (MMM) ultrasonic technique - was compared to a conventional solid-liquid extraction...
July 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Birten Emre, Ömer Korkmaz, Füsun Temamoğullari, Abuzer Kafar Zonturlu, İsmail Koyuncu, Mustafa Özkaraca, Mehmet Cengiz
Introduction: The effect of intrauterine administration of Momordica charantia L. (MC) extract on oxidative changes and pregnancy rate in infertile cows was investigated. Material and Methods: Endometrial smear specimens were taken from 40 cows with fertility problems for cytological examination, and the cows were randomly divided into two groups: group I (n = 20) was subjected to intrauterine administration of 40 mL (0.25 g/mL) of MC extract, group II (n = 20) was subjected to intrauterine administration of 40 mL of pure olive oil...
December 2017: Journal of Veterinary Research
Yi Wan, Yuanqing Fu, Fenglei Wang, Andrew J Sinclair, Duo Li
This study investigated the protective effects of a lipid extract from hard-shelled mussel (HMLE) on intestinal integrity and the underlying mechanisms after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in mice by using a 3 × 2 factorial design. Mice received olive oil, fish oil, and HMLE ( n = 12 per group) by using gastric gavage for six weeks, respectively. Then half the mice in each group was injected intraperitoneally with LPS and the other half with phosphate buffered saline. Four hours after injection, mice were sacrificed and samples were collected...
July 3, 2018: Nutrients
Maria Assunta Costa, Maria Rosalia Mangione, Radha Santonocito, Rosa Passantino, Daniela Giacomazza, Fabio Librizzi, Oscar Moran, Rita Carrotta
Liposomes are shell nanoparticles able to embed hydrophobic molecules into their lipid layers to be released to cells. In pharmaceutical sciences, liposomes remain the delivery system with the highest biocompatibility, stability, loading characteristics, tunable physicochemical properties. Squalene is a natural, water insoluble, lipid, abundant in olive oil and shark liver. Studies in vitro and in animal models suggest protective and inhibitory effects of squalene against cancer. To study its effect on cells, and to overcome its insolubility in water, we have designed and produced large unilamellar liposomes containing different quantities of this terpene (0%, 2...
June 19, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Stanislaw Klek, Kinga Szczepanek, Lucyna Scislo, Elzbieta Walewska, Magdalena Pietka, Magdalena Pisarska, Michal Pedziwiatr
AIM: Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) can become a risk factor for intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Many ILEs are commercially available, however, a direct comparison of their impact on liver has, to our knowledge, never been performed. The aim of the study was to analyse that clinical problem during long term parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: A randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed at the Intestinal Failure Center in Skawina, Poland...
March 22, 2018: Nutrition
Umberto Cornelli, Giovanni Belcaro, Martino Recchia, Nicolantonio D'Orazio
Background: Short-term treatment of overweight and obesity with polyglucosamine (PG) was found to be more effective than placebo and orlistat in double-blind clinical studies. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of long-term (12-mo) treatment of weight loss with PG and placebo (PL). Methods: This was a double-blind randomized study in 100 participants of both sexes with a body mass index (in kg/m2 ) >30 to <35. One group of 50 participants was treated for 1 y with PG at 1.6 g/d and a similar group received PL...
October 2017: Current developments in nutrition
Xiaoyue Wu, Chaofeng Li, Zahula Mariyam, Pan Jiang, Ming Zhou, Falak Zeb, Ijaz Ul Haq, Aochang Chen, Qing Feng
Acrolein, a highly toxic α, β-unsaturated aldehyde, promotes the progression of atherosclerosis in association with inflammatory signaling pathway and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process. Additionally, hepatic flavin containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by regulating cholesterol metabolism. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), as a major phenolic compound in olive oil, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activities in vitro and animal models. The current study was designed to evaluate whether FMO3 participated in pro-atherogenic process by acrolein and HT showed protective effect during this process...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Wei Cai, Phillip C Calder, Maria F Cury-Boaventura, Elisabeth De Waele, Julie Jakubowski, Gary Zaloga
Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) have been an integral component of parenteral nutrition for more than 50 years. Numerous formulations are available and are based on vegetable (soybean, olive, coconut) and animal (fish) oils. Therefore, each of these formulations has a unique fatty acid composition that offers both benefits and limitations. As clinical experience and our understanding of the effects of fatty acids on various physiological processes has grown, there is evidence to suggest that some ILEs may have benefits compared with others...
June 15, 2018: Nutrients
Sylwia Osowska, Marek Kunecki, Jacek Sobocki, Joanna Tokarczyk, Krystyna Majewska, Mohamed Omidi, Marek Radkowski, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND: The effect of different lipid emulsions (LEs) within the parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen of adult home PN (HPN) patients is not clear. This study investigated the effect of changing adult HPN patients from a soybean oil based LE (Intralipid) to either a fish oil containing LE (providing n-3 fatty acids) (SMOFLipid) or an olive oil based LE (ClinOleic). METHODS: Thirty two adults receiving long-term HPN with Intralipid as the LE were transferred to receive either SMOFLipid (n = 13) or ClinOleic (n = 19) for 60 days...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Fatiha Mekircha, Samira Chebab, Rosita Gabbianelli, Essaid Leghouchi
This study aimed to verify whether Olea europaea L. (olive) oil (OEO) exerted a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by deltamethrin (DM) and alterations of pituitary, thyroid and gonadal hormones in adult female rats. DM (0,00256 g/kg body weight),OEO (0,6 g/kg body weight) and DM with OEO were administered to rats orally for 28 days. Volatile compounds present in olive oil were analysed by GC-MS. Estradiol (E2 ), Thyroxine (T4),Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronine (T3), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Progesterone (Pg) were measured in serum using Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA)...
June 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Wei-Ting Lee, Yu-Tang Tung, Chun-Ching Wu, Pang-Shuo Tu, Gow-Chin Yen
Ulcerative colitis (UC), one type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is a chronic and recurrent disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. As camellia oil (CO) is traditionally used to treat GI disorders, this study investigated the role of CO on acetic acid-induced colitis in the rat. The composition of the gut microbial community is related to many diseases; thus, this study also investigated the effects of CO on the composition of the gut microbiota. The rats were fed a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight CO, olive oil (OO), or soybean oil (SO) once a day for 20 days, and the gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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