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Olive oil lipid

Xingcui Hu, Tao Cheng, Jianhua Liu
Biosurfactants emulsify lipids, facilitating their exposure to microorganisms in water. Secretion of biosurfactant together with lipase can enhance oil assimilation by microorganisms. In this study, we show the analysis of the biosurfactant and lipase producing microbe originating from oil-sludge. The enrichment of the biosurfactant-producing ZS6 strain from the mixed culture of sludge-derived microbes in medium with olive oil as sole carbon source was monitored using the modified T-RFLP (or mT-RFLP) methodology...
October 11, 2018: AMB Express
Eva Gesteiro, Jesús Galera-Gordo, Marcela González-Gross
Palm oil is obtained from Elaeis guineensis, E. oleifera or the hybrid OxG palm fruits. When crude, it contains high carotenoid concentrations (responsible for the red color), tocopherols and tocotrienols, but most of them are eliminated during its refining. Palm oil main components are palmitic and oleic acids, both near 50%, but their proportion changes depending on the fraction used. Fatty acids absorption and the effect on blood lipid profile depend on the position in the triacylglycerol, especially in the sn-2 position...
October 8, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Jessica Hendy, Andre C Colonese, Ingmar Franz, Ricardo Fernandes, Roman Fischer, David Orton, Alexandre Lucquin, Luke Spindler, Jana Anvari, Elizabeth Stroud, Peter F Biehl, Camilla Speller, Nicole Boivin, Meaghan Mackie, Rosa R Jersie-Christensen, Jesper V Olsen, Matthew J Collins, Oliver E Craig, Eva Rosenstock
The analysis of lipids (fats, oils and waxes) absorbed within archaeological pottery has revolutionized the study of past diets and culinary practices. However, this technique can lack taxonomic and tissue specificity and is often unable to disentangle signatures resulting from the mixing of different food products. Here, we extract ancient proteins from ceramic vessels from the West Mound of the key early farming site of Çatalhöyük in Anatolia, revealing that this community processed mixes of cereals, pulses, dairy and meat products, and that particular vessels may have been reserved for specialized foods (e...
October 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Jan L Madsen, Morten Damgaard, Stefan Fuglsang, Carsten Dirksen, Jens J Holst, Jesper Graff
In young individuals, oral free fatty acid delays gastric emptying, promotes gut hormone release, and reduces energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride does. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the free fatty acid oleic acid (OA) and the triglyceride olive oil (OO) on gastrointestinal motility, gut hormone secretion, and energy intake in older and middle-aged healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, study 10 older (age 83.0 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD) years) and 10 middle-aged (age 43...
September 25, 2018: Appetite
Kenji Yoshida, Yoshihiro Kita, Suzumi M Tokuoka, Fumie Hamano, Maya Yamazaki, Kenji Sakimura, Masanobu Kano, Takao Shimizu
Excess energy intake causes obesity, which leads to insulin resistance and various other complications of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although recent studies have depicted altered lipid metabolism as an underlying feature, the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. Here we describe a possible role in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity for monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), an enzyme that is also known to hydrolyze the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in brain...
September 28, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Heibatollah Kalantari, Masoud Mahdavinia, Layasadat Khorsandi, Soheila Alboghobeish, Azin Samimi, Saeid Alizadeh, Leila Zeidooni
Bisphenol A (BPA), which is an applied endocrine disrupting chemical in industry for producing epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics and naringin, is an active flavanone glycoside of grapefruit and many citrus fruits. The present study evaluated the protective effect of naringin against cardiotoxicity induced by BPA. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Control group received oral olive oil; and BPA group orally were administrated 50 mg/kg of BPA for 30 d consecutively to induce toxicity. 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg of naringin were orally administered for 30 consecutive, along with BPA...
September 28, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Carla S P Santos, Sara C Cunha, Susana Casal
Two low-fat "frying" alternatives to deep-frying were tested using two domestic equipment (microwave grill and convective oven), with fresh potatoes and four different frying oils (sunflower, soybean, canola, and olive oil). Potatoes composition was compared concerning nutrients, bioactivity, and fat oxidation. Fat reduction achieved 80% on both methods, directly associated with a decrease in oil natural bioactive components (vitamin E, fatty acids) and degraded lipids (oxidized triglycerides, polymers, aldehydes, etc...
September 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Ping Yang, Chunxiao Su, Xuan Luo, Han Zeng, Lei Zhao, Li Wei, Xiaoyu Zhang, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed strong associations between dietary lipids and cancer risk. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of dietary fatty acids on the genesis and progression of cancer have been poorly explored. In this study, we found that a high olive oil diet stimulated cervical cancer (CC) carcinogenesis, and oleic acid (OA), the main lipid in olive oil, was associated with increased malignancy in HeLa cells. OA up-regulated the expression of CD36, which is the best characterized fatty acid transporter...
December 1, 2018: Cancer Letters
Kai-Jen Chuang, Zong-Jiang Chen, Chih-Lun Cheng, Gui-Bing Hong
To maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Chenopodium formosanum seeds, the process factors, such as the ethanol concentration (0⁻100%), extraction time (30⁻180 min) and temperature (30⁻70 °C), for the extraction of the bioactive contents as well as the antioxidant capacity are evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM). The experimental results fit well with quadratic models. The extract was identified by GC/MS, and it was found that some active compounds had antioxidant, repellency and insecticidal activities...
September 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hacer Yapicioglu Yildizdas, Burak Poyraz, Guluzar Atli, Yasar Sertdemir, Kurthan Mert, Ferda Ozlu, Mehmet Satar
BACKGROUND: Olive oil-soybean oil (OO/SO) based lipid emulsions (LE) lack ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid -EPA and docosahexaenoic acid- DHA, which have clinical benefits on inflammatory processes. Fish oil based LEs are good sources of DHA and EPA. Fish oil, MCT, Olive oil and Soya oil (FMOS) lipid is one of the fish oil containing LEs supplemented with high levels of α-tocopherol and lower levels of phytosterol compared to OO/SO lipid emulsions. We investigated the effects of OO/SO and FMOS lipid preparations on cholestasis, levels of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation...
August 2, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
J A Custodio-Mendoza, A M Carro, M A Lage-Yusty, A Herrero, I M Valente, J A Rodrigues, R A Lorenzo
During the industrial refining process of edible oils and the manufacture of oil-based foodstuff, contaminants such as 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) fatty acid diesters can be produced. One hundred samples of different edible oils and related fatty food purchased from local Spanish markets were analyzed to evaluate the occurrence of these contaminants. Data of seven 3-MCPD diesters together with corresponding total 3-MCPD equivalents are presented. The procedure is based on a modified QuEChERS protocol followed by LC-MS/MS analysis...
January 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Shahla Rezaei, Masoumeh Akhlaghi, Mohammad Reza Sasani, Reza Barati Boldaji
OBJECTIVES: Olive oil has health benefits for the correction of metabolic diseases. We aimed to evaluate the effect of olive oil consumption on the severity of fatty liver and cardiometabolic markers in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was conducted on 66 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Patients were divided to receive either olive or sunflower oil, each 20 g/d for 12 wk...
March 23, 2018: Nutrition
Chen Cheng, Di Wang, Hui Xia, Feng Wang, Xian Yang, Da Pan, Shaokang Wang, Ligang Yang, Huixia Lu, Guofang Shu, Yaqiong He, Yulan Xie, Guiju Sun, Yuexin Yang
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of palm olein (POL), cocoa butter (CB) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on the lipid profile and low-density lipoprotein subfractions in a young, healthy Chinese population. After screening, 72 subjects were randomly assigned to three groups, and an 18-week randomized crossover trial was conducted. The first phase was a 2-week run-in period, followed by three phases of the 4-week experimental periods with a 2-week washout period between experimental periods...
August 30, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Cynthia Barrera, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Miguel Ángel Rincón, Alejandra Espinosa, Francisca Echeverria, Nalda Romero, Daniel Gonzalez-Mañan, Luis A Videla
Enhanced iron levels in liver are associated with oxidative stress development and damage with increased fat accumulation. The aim of this work was to assess the hypothesis that antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil (AR-EVOO) counteracts iron-rich diet (IRD)-induced oxidative stress hindering hepatic steatosis. Male Wistar rats were fed and IRD (200 mg iron/kg diet) versus a control diet (CD; 50 mg iron/kg diet) with alternate AR-EVOO supplementation (100 mg/day) for 21 days. IRD induced liver steatosis and oxidative stress (higher levels of protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation with glutathione depletion), mitochondrial dysfunction (decreased citrate synthase and complex I and II activities) and loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), with a drastic enhancement in the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) ratio upregulating the expression of lipogenic enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid (FA) synthase and stearoyl desaturase 2) and downregulating those involved in FA oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase and acyl-CoA oxidase) over values in the CD group...
October 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Fangxue Xu, Yujuan Li, Mengmeng Zheng, Xiaozhi Xi, Xuelan Zhang, Chunchao Han
Oleuropein aglycone, which is the major phenolic component of extra virgin olive oil, is gaining popularity and importance in scientific and public communities. This paper summarizes the structure properties, acquisition protocols, and biological activities of oleuropein aglycone. There are three hydrolytic methods used to obtain oleuropein aglycone from oleuropein-enzymatic hydrolysis, acid hydrolysis, and acetal hydrolysis. Enzymatic hydrolysis can be achieved with exogenous enzymes and endogenous enzymes...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Layla Simón, Abi K Funes, María A Monclús, Regina Colombo, María E Cabrillana, Tania E Saez Lancellotti, Miguel W Fornés
High-fat diet is associated with hypercholesterolemia and seminal alterations in White New Zealand rabbits. We have previously reported disorders in the development of the manchette-acrosome complex during spermiogenesis and decreased testicular efficiency in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. On the other hand, olive oil incorporated into the diet improves cholesterolemia and semen parameters affected in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. In this paper, we report the recovery-with the addition of olive oil to diet-from the sub-cellular mechanisms involved in the shaping of the sperm cell and testicular efficiency altered in hypercholesterolemic rabbits...
2018: PloS One
Nikolaos Peroulis, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, George Notas, Stella Koinaki, Elsa Giakoumaki, Apostolos Spyros, Εfstathia Manolopoulou, Sophia Kargaki, Maria Tzardi, Eleni Moustou, Euripides G Stephanou, Efstathia Bakogeorgou, Niki Malliaraki, Maria Niniraki, Christos Lionis, Elias Castanas, Marilena Kampa
PURPOSE: Dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism are the main health issues of growing prevalence and significant high healthcare cost, requiring novel prevention and/or therapeutic approaches. Epidemiological and animal studies revealed that olive oil is an important dietary constituent, inducing normolipidemia. However, no studies have specifically investigated the polyphenol-rich water extract of olives (OLWPE), generated during olive oil production. METHODS: In the present work, we initially examined the effect of OLPWE on animals' metabolic parameters...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Hela Chalouati, Mohamed Moncef Ben Sâad, Laurence Payrastre
The protective effects of α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) on liver injury induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were investigated in adult male rats of Wistar strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups of eight rats each. Group 1 and 2 have received HCB, dissolved in olive oil, at a dose of 4 mg or 16 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Group 3 and 4 were treated by the same doses of HCB (4 mg and 16 mg/kg b.w.) after 1 h of pretreatment with α-tocopherol at a dose of 100 mg kg-1 b.w. The other two groups served as controls; which received either olive oil only, a solvent of HCB, or α-tocopherol...
October 3, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Pallab K Sarker, Anne R Kapuscinski, Ashley Y Bae, Emily Donaldson, Alexander J Sitek, Devin S Fitzgerald, Oliver F Edelson
Microalgae companies increasingly seek markets for defatted biomass that is left over after extracting omega-3 rich oil for human nutraceuticals and crude oil for fuels. Such a protein-rich co-product is a promising alternative to unsustainably sourced fishmeal in aquaculture diets. We report the first evaluation of co-product of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata (N. oculata co-product) for replacing fishmeal in diets of Nile tilapia, a globally important aquaculture species. We conducted a nutrient digestibility experiment with N...
2018: PloS One
Xi Yuan, Xiaojuan Liu, David Julian McClements, Yong Cao, Hang Xiao
Effects of lipid type in excipient emulsions on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) in spinach were studied using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Results showed that the lipid type only had a minor impact on the physical and structural characteristics of the spinach/emulsion mixtures as they passed through simulated mouth, stomach, and small intestine phases. However, a significant effect was observed on lipid digestion, mixed micelle formation, and carotenoid bioaccessibility...
August 15, 2018: Food & Function
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