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Olive oil lipid

Elena M Yubero-Serrano, Javier Lopez-Moreno, Francisco Gomez-Delgado, Jose Lopez-Miranda
The beneficial effects of a Mediterranean diet on human health and, in particular, on lowering risk of cardiovascular disease, has been mainly attributed to its high content to extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). While its main fatty acid, oleic acid, is considered important to these effects, EVOO has other biological properties that depend on, or are potentiated by other minor components of this oil. Initially, the mechanisms considered as possible causes of this cardioprotective effect of EVOO were based on the incidence on the so-called traditional risk factors (especially lipids and blood pressure)...
November 28, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Shiva Zare, Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Ali Noorafshan, Farhad Koohpeyma, Marzieh Bakhshayeshkaram, Nima Montazeri-Najafabady
The existing investigation was directed to consider the protective role of vitamin C and E alone and in combination on sodium metabisulphite-induced damage on testicular. Experimental animals were received sodium metabisulphite (520 mg/kg) alone and in combination with vitamin E (100 mg/kg), vitamin C (100 mg/kg) and vitamin E + C, while the control groups received 0.9% saline solution and olive oil (the solvent of the vitamin E). Finally, the changes in the testis histology were examined stereologically...
November 26, 2018: Andrologia
Beatriz Gomez-Marin, Francisco Gomez-Delgado, Javier Lopez-Moreno, Juan F Alcala-Diaz, Rosa Jimenez-Lucena, Jose D Torres-Peña, Antonio Garcia-Rios, Ana M Ortiz-Morales, Elena M Yubero-Serrano, Maria Del Mar Malagon, Chao Q Lai, Javier Delgado-Lista, Jose M Ordovas, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Pablo Perez-Martinez
Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an elevated postprandial lipemia (PPL) that has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Objective: We aimed to analyze whether the long-term consumption of 2 healthy dietary patterns is associated with an improvement in PPL and remnant cholesterol (RC) concentrations in patients with T2D. Design: We selected patients from the Cordioprev study who underwent oral fat load tests (FLTs) at baseline and the 3-y follow-up (241 patients with and 316 patients without T2D)...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Youzan Ferdinand Djohan, Eric Badia, Beatrice Bonafos, Gilles Fouret, Céline Lauret, Anne-Marie Dupuy, Edith Pinot, Thibault Sutra, Sylvie Gaillet, Karen Lambert, Fabrice Raynaud, Nathalie Gayrard, Bernard Jover, Absalome Aké Monde, Jean Paul Cristol, Charles Coudray, Christine Feillet-Coudray
PURPOSE: Palm (PO) and olive oils (OO) are the two most consumed and/or used oils in the world for food elaboration. These oils should not be confused with the solid palm stearin which is widely used in pastry making. Large number of studies was reported dealing with adverse/beneficial cardiovascular effects of PO and OO, whereas few studies were conducted to compare their potential effects on hepatic steatosis and liver lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic effects of high intake of POs (both crude and refined) and virgin OO on surrogate parameters of glucose tolerance, hepatic lipid metabolism and liver integrity...
November 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Helen M King, Allan G Cosslett, Christopher P Thomas, Rebecca Price-Davies
Parenteral Nutrition (PN) provides life sustaining support where gastrointestinal nutrition is inadequate due to disease or prematurity. Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) form a staple part of PN. Whilst the physical stability of IVLE's is relatively well known and quantified, chemical stability is an area where little testing has occurred. We report a new sensitive method for the monitoring of selected triglycerides present within two IVLEs and the detection and quantification of the peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) using HPLC with in-line UV and charged aerosol detection (CAD)...
December 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Adoración Zafra, Mohammed M'rani-Alaoui, Elena Lima, Jose Carlos Jimenez-Lopez, Juan de Dios Alché
The production of olive oil is an important economic engine in the Mediterranean area. Nowadays, olive oil is obtained mainly by mechanical processes, by using the whole fruit as the primary raw material. Although the mesocarp is the main source of lipids contributing to olive oil formation, the seed also contributes to the olive oil composition and attributes. The olive seed is also becoming an interesting emerging material itself when obtained after alternative processing of the olive fruit. Such seed is used for the production of differential oil and a unique flour among other bioactive products, with increasing uses and applications in cosmetics, nutrition, and health...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ngoc Anh Hoang, Friederike Richter, Martin Schubert, Stefan Lorkowski, Lars-Oliver Klotz, Holger Steinbrenner
PURPOSE: Excessive storage of triacylglycerides (TAGs) in lipid droplets within hepatocytes is a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most widespread metabolic disorders in Western societies. For the purpose of exploring molecular pathways in NAFLD development and testing potential drug candidates, well-characterised experimental models of ectopic TAG storage in hepatocytes are needed. METHODS: Using an optimised Oil Red O assay, immunoblotting and real-time qRT-PCR, we compared the capability of dietary monosaccharides and fatty acids to promote lipid accumulation in HepG2 human hepatoma cells...
October 27, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
M Antónia Nunes, Sylwin Pawlowski, Anabela S G Costa, Rita C Alves, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Svetlozar Velizarov
Olive pomace is a semi-solid paste resulting from the two-phase olive oil production, being the most significant waste generated by this agro-industry. Olive pomace is reported as an environmental hazard due to its high content in phenolic compounds (phytotoxic). Nevertheless, these compounds, when recovered, can have impactful actions in different human physiological conditions, namely, skin protection, dysfunction treatment or diseases prevention. Therefore, their recovery from olive pomace is crucial for environmental and economical sustainability, without forgetting the functional challenge...
October 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaojing Li, Yingbin Shen, Gangcheng Wu, Xiguang Qi, Hui Zhang, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian
Owing to the poor ability of cells to decompose triglycerides, most studies of edible oil have depended on animal or clinical trials. However, such trials are expensive and time-consuming, and the results are limited to considerable individual differences. This is the first study to comprehensively investigate the effect of different oils on the lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HepG2 cells by hydrolyzing oil to fatty acids with integrated fat content. In addition, the key components of fatty acid composition, phytosterol, polyphenols, and tocopherol/tocotrienol in different oils, contributing to a decrease in content of lipid accumulation, cholesterol, ROS, and malondialdehyde (MDA), were analyzed using multivariate analysis...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xingcui Hu, Tao Cheng, Jianhua Liu
Biosurfactants emulsify lipids, facilitating their exposure to microorganisms in water. Secretion of biosurfactant together with lipase can enhance oil assimilation by microorganisms. In this study, we show the analysis of the biosurfactant and lipase producing microbe originating from oil-sludge. The enrichment of the biosurfactant-producing ZS6 strain from the mixed culture of sludge-derived microbes in medium with olive oil as sole carbon source was monitored using the modified T-RFLP (or mT-RFLP) methodology...
October 11, 2018: AMB Express
Eva Gesteiro, Jesús Galera-Gordo, Marcela González-Gross
Palm oil is obtained from Elaeis guineensis, E. oleifera or the hybrid OxG palm fruits. When crude, it contains high carotenoid concentrations (responsible for the red color), tocopherols and tocotrienols, but most of them are eliminated during its refining. Palm oil main components are palmitic and oleic acids, both near 50%, but their proportion changes depending on the fraction used. Fatty acids absorption and the effect on blood lipid profile depend on the position in the triacylglycerol, especially in the sn-2 position...
October 8, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Jessica Hendy, Andre C Colonese, Ingmar Franz, Ricardo Fernandes, Roman Fischer, David Orton, Alexandre Lucquin, Luke Spindler, Jana Anvari, Elizabeth Stroud, Peter F Biehl, Camilla Speller, Nicole Boivin, Meaghan Mackie, Rosa R Jersie-Christensen, Jesper V Olsen, Matthew J Collins, Oliver E Craig, Eva Rosenstock
The analysis of lipids (fats, oils and waxes) absorbed within archaeological pottery has revolutionized the study of past diets and culinary practices. However, this technique can lack taxonomic and tissue specificity and is often unable to disentangle signatures resulting from the mixing of different food products. Here, we extract ancient proteins from ceramic vessels from the West Mound of the key early farming site of Çatalhöyük in Anatolia, revealing that this community processed mixes of cereals, pulses, dairy and meat products, and that particular vessels may have been reserved for specialized foods (e...
October 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Jan L Madsen, Morten Damgaard, Stefan Fuglsang, Carsten Dirksen, Jens J Holst, Jesper Graff
In young individuals, oral free fatty acid delays gastric emptying, promotes gut hormone release, and reduces energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride does. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the free fatty acid oleic acid (OA) and the triglyceride olive oil (OO) on gastrointestinal motility, gut hormone secretion, and energy intake in older and middle-aged healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, study 10 older (age 83.0 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD) years) and 10 middle-aged (age 43...
September 25, 2018: Appetite
Kenji Yoshida, Yoshihiro Kita, Suzumi M Tokuoka, Fumie Hamano, Maya Yamazaki, Kenji Sakimura, Masanobu Kano, Takao Shimizu
Excess energy intake causes obesity, which leads to insulin resistance and various other complications of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although recent studies have depicted altered lipid metabolism as an underlying feature, the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. Here we describe a possible role in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity for monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), an enzyme that is also known to hydrolyze the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in brain...
September 28, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Heibatollah Kalantari, Masoud Mahdavinia, Layasadat Khorsandi, Soheila Alboghobeish, Azin Samimi, Saeid Alizadeh, Leila Zeidooni
Bisphenol A (BPA), which is an applied endocrine disrupting chemical in industry for producing epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics and naringin, is an active flavanone glycoside of grapefruit and many citrus fruits. The present study evaluated the protective effect of naringin against cardiotoxicity induced by BPA. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Control group received oral olive oil; and BPA group orally were administrated 50 mg/kg of BPA for 30 d consecutively to induce toxicity. 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg of naringin were orally administered for 30 consecutive, along with BPA...
September 28, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Carla S P Santos, Sara C Cunha, Susana Casal
Two low-fat "frying" alternatives to deep-frying were tested using two domestic equipment (microwave grill and convective oven), with fresh potatoes and four different frying oils (sunflower, soybean, canola, and olive oil). Potatoes composition was compared concerning nutrients, bioactivity, and fat oxidation. Fat reduction achieved 80% on both methods, directly associated with a decrease in oil natural bioactive components (vitamin E, fatty acids) and degraded lipids (oxidized triglycerides, polymers, aldehydes, etc...
September 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Ping Yang, Chunxiao Su, Xuan Luo, Han Zeng, Lei Zhao, Li Wei, Xiaoyu Zhang, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed strong associations between dietary lipids and cancer risk. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of dietary fatty acids on the genesis and progression of cancer have been poorly explored. In this study, we found that a high olive oil diet stimulated cervical cancer (CC) carcinogenesis, and oleic acid (OA), the main lipid in olive oil, was associated with increased malignancy in HeLa cells. OA up-regulated the expression of CD36, which is the best characterized fatty acid transporter...
December 1, 2018: Cancer Letters
Kai-Jen Chuang, Zong-Jiang Chen, Chih-Lun Cheng, Gui-Bing Hong
To maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Chenopodium formosanum seeds, the process factors, such as the ethanol concentration (0⁻100%), extraction time (30⁻180 min) and temperature (30⁻70 °C), for the extraction of the bioactive contents as well as the antioxidant capacity are evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM). The experimental results fit well with quadratic models. The extract was identified by GC/MS, and it was found that some active compounds had antioxidant, repellency and insecticidal activities...
September 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hacer Yapicioglu Yildizdas, Burak Poyraz, Guluzar Atli, Yasar Sertdemir, Kurthan Mert, Ferda Ozlu, Mehmet Satar
BACKGROUND: Olive oil-soybean oil (OO/SO) based lipid emulsions (LE) lack ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid -EPA and docosahexaenoic acid- DHA, which have clinical benefits on inflammatory processes. Fish oil based LEs are good sources of DHA and EPA. Fish oil, MCT, Olive oil and Soya oil (FMOS) lipid is one of the fish oil containing LEs supplemented with high levels of α-tocopherol and lower levels of phytosterol compared to OO/SO lipid emulsions. We investigated the effects of OO/SO and FMOS lipid preparations on cholestasis, levels of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation...
August 2, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
J A Custodio-Mendoza, A M Carro, M A Lage-Yusty, A Herrero, I M Valente, J A Rodrigues, R A Lorenzo
During the industrial refining process of edible oils and the manufacture of oil-based foodstuff, contaminants such as 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) fatty acid diesters can be produced. One hundred samples of different edible oils and related fatty food purchased from local Spanish markets were analyzed to evaluate the occurrence of these contaminants. Data of seven 3-MCPD diesters together with corresponding total 3-MCPD equivalents are presented. The procedure is based on a modified QuEChERS protocol followed by LC-MS/MS analysis...
January 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
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