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Yu Jeong Kim, Yongcheol Lee, Jaecheol Kim, Sun Young Park, Kiuk Lee, Keum Taek Hwang
Physicochemical characteristics and anti-oxidant capacities of seeds from two farm-cultivated and one mountain-cultivated ginsengs ( Panax ginseng Meyer) (MG) were determined. The seeds had 17.9-22.1% (dry basis) crude lipids, 11.5-15.2% crude proteins, and 1.4-1.7% ash. Oleic acid (77.9-78.5%) was the predominant fatty acid in the seed oils, followed by linoleic acid (16.6-17.4%). The highest Hunter b value, carotenoids, (β + γ)-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol, and the lowest α-tocotrienol were observed in the seed oils from MG...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Robert Q Thompson, Daniel Katz, Brendan Sheehan
The bark of Prunus africana may contain atranorin, atraric acid, beta-sitosterol and its esters, ferulic acid and its esters, and N-butylbenzene sulfonamide, compounds that have been shown to improve the conditions of benign prostatic hyperplasia, enlarged prostate. An analytical scheme, involving liquid-solid extractions, saponifications, and LC-APCI-MS (triple quadrupole) analysis, was developed, optimized, and validated to determine the compounds at μg/g levels. Limits of quantification were in the low ng/mL range except for beta-sitosterol...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Simin Feng, Zhuqing Dai, Anna B Liu, Jinbao Huang, Nihal Narsipur, Grace Guo, Bo Kong, Kenneth Reuhl, Wenyun Lu, Zisheng Luo, Chung S Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the effects of two common dietary phytosterols, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol, in altering lipid metabolism and attenuating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were administered to mice at 0.4% in a high-fat western-style diet (HFWD) for 17 weeks. RESULTS: Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol significantly ameliorated HFWD-induced fatty liver and metabolic abnormalities, including elevated levels of hepatic total lipids, triacylglycerols, cholesterol and liver histopathology...
October 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
Sook Yee Gan, Li Zhe Wong, Jia Wun Wong, Eng Lai Tan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive loss of neurons which often results in deterioration of memory and cognitive function. The development of AD is highly associated with the formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Amyloid β (Aβ) induces neurotoxicity and contributes to the development of AD. Recent evidences also highlighted the importance of neuroglobin (Ngb) in ameliorating AD. This study assessed the ability of fucosterol, a phytosterol found in brown alga, in protecting SH-SY5Y cells against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity...
October 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Paweł Górnaś, Magdalena Rudzińska, Anna Grygier, Gunārs Lācis
BACKGROUND: The seeds of Vitis vinifera grape are well studied, while the knowledge about the interspecific crosses of other Vitis species (e.g. V. vinifera, V. amurensis, V. rupestris, V. riparia, V. labruska) is very limited. RESULTS: Oil yield recovered from the grape seeds ranged between 7-160 g kg-1 dw. The main fatty acids were linoleic (72.5-83.1%), oleic (6.2-15.5%), and palmitic (5.4-13.2%), containing 92.8-97.1% of total detected fatty acids. The total concentration of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3) homologues was between 0...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Stefania Giammarioli, Concetta Boniglia, Luigia Di Stasio, Raffaella Gargiulo, Maurizio Mosca, Brunella Carratù
Phytosterols are one of the bioactive components responsible for the beneficial effects of Serenoa repens in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. The aim of this study was to verify the actual variability of the phytosterols content in supplements containing serenoa, in order to provide useful elements to check the effectiveness of these preparations. The amount of campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were determined by gas-chromatography in commercial raw materials and supplements containing serenoa in association or not with other botanicals...
October 8, 2018: Natural Product Research
Natalia P Vidal, Huong T Pham, Charles Manful, Ryley Pumphrey, Muhammad Nadeem, Mumtaz Cheema, Lakshman Galagedara, Adedayo Leke-Aladekoba, Lord Abbey, Raymond Thomas
Diets high in vegetable consumption is highly correlated with reduced risk of developing common lifestyle related diseases. We investigated the effects of three natural growth media amendments [potassium humate, dry vermicast, volcanic minerals or Promix alone (Control)] in enhancing the accumulation of functional lipids in greenhouse grown kale. Functional lipids (n9, n6, n3 fatty acids, diglycerides, galactolipids and phytosterols) were assessed using either gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS)...
October 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pei-Chun Liao, Ming-Hoang Lai, Kuang-Ping Hsu, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Jie Chen, Ming-Chih Tsai, Chun-Xiang Li, Xi-Jiang Yin, Narumon Jeyashoke, Louis Kuo-Ping Chao
β-Sitosterol is a well known phytosterol in plants, but owing to its poor solubility in typical media, determining its cellular mechanisms has been proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of β-sitosterol (BSS) isolated from Moringa oleifera in two cell lines. Over a dose range of 7.5 to 30 μM, BSS dispersed well in the medium as nanoparticles with diameters of 50 ± 5 nm and suppressed the secretion of inflammatory factors from keratinocytes and macrophages induced by PGN, TNF-α, or LPS, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and ROS, separately...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Takanari Nakano, Ikuo Inoue, Yasuhiro Takenaka, Yuichi Ikegami, Norihiro Kotani, Akira Shimada, Mitsuhiko Noda, Takayuki Murakoshi
Plant sterols are used as food additives to reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption. They also increase fecal neutral sterol (FNS) excretion irrespective of the absorption inhibition. Intestine-mediated reverse cholesterol transport, or trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE), provides the major part of the increase of FNS excretion. However, it is unknown whether plant sterols stimulate TICE or not. We have shown previously that TICE can be evaluated by brush border membrane (BBM)-to-lumen cholesterol efflux...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Carolina Médici Veronezi, Neuza Jorge
This study aimed to evaluate the oils of soybean (S), papaya (Pa) and melon (Me) seeds and compounds oils SPa (80:20 w/w); SMe (80:20 w/w); and SPaMe (60:20:20 w/w/w) subjected to thermoxidation. Compound oils showed lower percentages of free fatty acids in relation to others, after 20 h. With the heating process, there was an increase in the quantity of saturated and monounsaturated acids. The quantity of carotenoids decreased, except in papaya seed oil that presented significant amount of carotenoids in 20 h...
August 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Sook-Chin Chew, Chin-Ping Tan, Oi-Ming Lai, Kar-Lin Nyam
An optimized refining process for kenaf seed oil was conducted. The 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) contents, triacylglycerol composition, fatty acids composition, bioactive compounds, phosphorus contents, and oxidation indexes of the kenaf seed oil during each stage of the refining process were determined. The results showed that there was no detected 3-MCPD ester in kenaf seed oil throughout the refining process. Deodorization had slightly increased the 2-MCPD ester (9.0 μg/kg) and glycidyl ester (54...
June 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
M M Chayan Mahmud, Yejin Oh, Tae-Hyeong Kim, Yoo-Hyun Cho, Young-Sang Lee
To understand effects of milling, scented rice 'Cheonjihyang-1-se' was milled from 10 to 140 s and changes in volatiles, phytonutrients, and fatty acids were evaluated. Among 43 identified odor-active compounds, four volatiles, including hexan-3-one, exhibited decreases of up to 78%, while four others including ( E )-non-2-enal, increased following milling. Levels of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, the most distinctive popcorn-flavoring compound in scented rice, were not affected by the degree of milling (DM). Partial least squares discriminant analyses of volatiles were able to differentiate white rice according to the DM...
April 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Nina S Liland, Karin Pittman, Paul Whatmore, Bente E Torstensen, Nini H Sissener
Several feeding trials with Atlantic salmon fed naturally high phytosterol concentrations due to dietary rapeseed oil inclusion have shown changes in lipid metabolism and increased hepatic lipid storage in the fish. An in vitro trial with Atlantic salmon hepatocytes was, therefore, performed to study the possible direct effects of phytosterols on lipid storage and metabolism. The isolated hepatocytes were exposed to seven different sterol treatments and gene expression, as well as lipid accumulation by Oil Red O dyeing, was assessed...
July 2018: Lipids
María Cuevas-Tena, José D Bermúdez, Ramona de Los Ángeles Silvestre, Amparo Alegría, María Jesús Lagarda
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol microbial transformation has been widely studied using in vitro fermentation assays, but less information is available on the biotransformation of plant sterols (PS). The excretion percentage of animal sterols (AS) (67-73%) is considerably greater than that of PS (27-33%) in feces from healthy humans following a Western diet. However, a lower content of AS in feces from subjects following a vegetarian, vegan or low-fat animal diet has been seen when compared to omnivorous subjects...
September 7, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Vladimir Hrabovsky, Vladimir Blaha, Radomir Hyspler, Alena Ticha, Martina Skrobankova, Zdenek Svagera
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol is derived via de novo synthesis and dietary absorption. Both processes can be monitored by determination of non-cholesterol sterol concentrations (lathosterol for synthesis; sitosterol and campesterol for absorption). The hypocholesterolemia that occurs during acute illness is a result of a multifactorial inability to compensate for the increased needs for this metabolite. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma cholesterol profile and both processes of cholesterol acquisition during acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage with emphasis on liver cirrhosis...
September 20, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Piramon Pokkanta, Phumon Sookwong, Manatchanok Tanang, Saranya Setchaiyan, Pittayaporn Boontakham, Sugunya Mahatheeranont
In this study, a simultaneous analytical method of tocols, γ-oryzanols, phytosterols, squalene, cholecalciferol and phylloquinone were developed using HPLC-DAD-FLD. The developed method allowed the quantification of 18 compounds in 30 min. Method validation showed linearity of calibration curves (α = 0.05). RSD of intra-day, inter-day and inter-laboratory precision were less than 4.88%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were low (0.009-2.166 μg g-1 ) with recoveries around 96...
January 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Niranjan Das, Abhijit Bhattacharya, Sudip Kumar Mandal, Utsab Debnath, Biswanath Dinda, Subhash C Mandal, Prabir Kumar Sinhamahapatra, Amresh Kumar, M Dutta Choudhury, Sabyasachi Maiti, Partha Palit
Ichnocarpus frutescens, a climber plant, is distributed all over India. As its different parts are used as anti-inflammatory agent, so we re-investigated the roots to isolate compounds and evaluate its biological efficacy. Also, in-silico molecular docking was carried out to elucidate the structure activity relationship (SAR) of isolated compounds toward identifies the drug target enzyme with validation, which was further supported by anti-inflammatory in-vitro and in-vivo experimental models. The compounds have been undertaken mainly to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficacy along with molecular docking investigation followed by anti-proteinase, anti-denaturation and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition studies...
September 12, 2018: Steroids
Ileana Terruzzi, Fernanda Vacante, Pamela Senesi, Anna Montesano, Roberto Codella, Livio Luzi
Nuts-enriched diets were shown to bear beneficial effects for human's health. Among nuts, hazelnut plays a major role in human nutrition and health because of its unique fatty acid composition (predominantly MUFA), fat soluble bioactives (tocopherols and phytosterols), vitamins (vitamin E), essential minerals (selenium), essential amino acids, antioxidant phenolics (caffeic acid), dietary fiber (soluble form), and bioactive phtytochemicals. The current study was designed to explore the cellular effects of two particular hazelnut strains (Ordu and Tonda)...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Emilio Ros, María Izquierdo-Pulido, Aleix Sala-Vila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nuts in general and walnuts in particular are in the limelight for the association of their consumption with improved health outcomes. Walnuts have an optimal composition in bioactive nutrients and recent clinical and experimental studies have uncovered a number of beneficial effects of walnut micronutrients, working in isolation or in concert, on metabolic pathways and clinical outcomes that make this review timely and relevant. RECENT FINDINGS: Alpha-linolenic acid, a critical walnut component, is metabolized into bioactive oxylipins, has been shown to protect microglial cells from inflammation, and is associated with lower fatal myocardial infarction rates through a putative antiarrhythmic effect...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Rosamaria Fiorini, Vittoria Ventrella, Fabiana Trombetti, Micaela Fabbri, Alessandra Pagliarani, Salvatore Nesci
The mitochondrial F1 FO -ATPase, the key enzyme in cell bioenergetics, apparently works in the same way in mollusks and in mammals. We previously pointed out a raft-like arrangement in mussel gill mitochondrial membranes, which apparently distinguishes bivalve mollusks from mammals. To explore the relationship between the microenvironmental features and the enzyme activity, the physico-chemical features of mitochondrial membranes and the F1 FO -ATPase activity temperature-dependence are here explored in the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum)...
September 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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