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Phytosterols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120055/acute-oral-toxicity-and-anti-inflammatory-evaluation-of-methanolic-extract-of-rotula-aquatica-roots-in-wistar-rats
#1
A Vysakh, Kuriakose Jayesh, Lal Raisa Helen, Mathew Jyothis, M S Latha
BACKGROUND: The plant Rotula aquatica Lour. was traditionally well known due to its large number of pharmacological action and medicinal uses. The plant is a necessary component of many Ayurvedic drug preparations since historical times. It is widely used as a crucial ancient drug for kidney and bladder stones. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and anti inflammatory efficacy of methanolic extract of R.aquatica Lour. in in vivo models...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111098/stability-of-the-metabolite-signature-resulting-from-the-ossultr-3-mutation-in-low-phytic-acid-rice-oryza-sativa-l-seeds-upon-cross-breeding
#2
Chenguang Zhou, Yuanyuan Tan, Sophia Gossner, Youfa Li, Qingyao Shu, Karl-Heinz Engel
The low phytic acid (lpa) rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant Os-lpa-MH86-1, resulting from the mutation of the putative sulfate transporter gene OsSULTR3;3, was crossed with a commercial rice cultivar. The obtained progenies of generations F4 to F7 were subjected to a non-targeted metabolite profiling approach allowing the analyses of a broad spectrum of lipophilic and hydrophilic low molecular weight constituents. The metabolite profiles of the homozygous lpa progenies were characterized not only by a decreased concentration of phytic acid, but also by increased contents of constituents from various classes, such as sugars, sugar alcohols, amino acids, phytosterols and biogenic amines...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108648/-in-vitro-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-amylase-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-by-extracts-from-psiadia-punctulata-and-meriandra-bengalensis
#3
Yosief Kidane, Temesgen Bokrezion, Jimmy Mebrahtu, Mikias Mehari, Yacob Berhane Gebreab, Nahom Fessehaye, Oliver Okoth Achila
Background: This research assessed the in vitro antidiabetic activity and phytochemical constituents of the traditionally used medicinal plants, Psiadia punctulata and Meriandra bengalensis . Method: The leaves of both plants were subjected to cold extraction method using 70% ethanol and hot Soxhlet extraction using n-hexane, chloroform, methanol, and distilled water. The extracts were studied for their effect on glucose transport across yeast cells and inhibition of α -amylase and α -glucosidase enzyme activities...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105077/a-comprehensive-review-on-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-activities-of-clinacanthus-nutans-burm-f-lindau
#4
REVIEW
Leng Wei Khoo, Siew Audrey Kow, Ming Tatt Lee, Chin Ping Tan, Khozirah Shaari, Chau Ling Tham, Faridah Abas
Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau (Acanthaceae), commonly known as Sabah snake grass, is a vegetable and a well-known herb that is considered an alternative medicine for insect bites, skin rashes, herpes infection, inflammation, and cancer and for health benefits. Current review aims to provide a well-tabulated repository of the phytochemical screening, identification and quantification, and the pharmacological information of C. nutans according to the experimental design and the plant preparation methods which make it outstanding compared to existing reviews...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097115/stigmasterol-upregulates-immediate-early-genes-and-promotes-neuronal-cytoarchitecture-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons-as-revealed-by-transcriptome-analysis
#5
Md Nazmul Haque, Il Soo Moon
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain region that is implicated in learning and memory impairment by two pathophysiological features, that is, neurite regression and synaptic dysfunction, and stigmasterol (ST), a cholesterol-equivalent phytosterol, is known to facilitate neuromodulatory effects. PURPOSE: To investigate the neuromodulatory effects of ST on the development of central nervous system neurons and the molecular bases of these effects in primary hippocampal neurons...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094233/structural-and-biochemical-properties-of-duckweed-surface-cuticle
#6
Nikolai Borisjuk, Anton A Peterson, Jiyang Lv, Guorun Qu, Qian Luo, Lei Shi, Guimin Chen, Olena Kishchenko, Yuzhen Zhou, Jianxin Shi
The plant cuticle, which consists of cutin and waxes, forms a hydrophobic coating covering the aerial surfaces of all plants. It acts as an interface between plants and their surrounding environment whilst also protecting them against biotic and abiotic stresses. In this research, we have investigated the biodiversity and cuticle properties of aquatic plant duckweed, using samples isolated from four different locations around Hongze lake in Jiangsu province, China. The samples were genotyped using two chloroplast markers and nuclear ribosomal DNA markers, which revealed them as ecotypes of the larger duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza ...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086900/application-of-the-bespoke-solid-phase-extraction-protocol-for-extraction-of-physiologically-active-compounds-from-vegetable-oils
#7
Eman Alghamdi, Sergey Piletsky, Elena Piletska
A possibility of harvesting the physiologically-active compounds from the vegetable oils using bespoke resin and optimised solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification method is demonstrated. The paper describes the application of SPE protocol, which was originally developed, using sunflower oil as model biomass, for extraction of the valuable compounds from sesame, wheat germ, palm, olive and soybean oils. As a result, the extraction of three free fatty acids (palmitic, oleic and linoleic), α-tocopherol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol) from six vegetable oils have been demonstrated...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082386/third-dwf1-paralog-in-solanaceae-sterol-%C3%AE-24-isomerase-branches-withanolide-biosynthesis-from-the-general-phytosterol-pathway
#8
Eva Knoch, Satoko Sugawara, Tetsuya Mori, Christian Poulsen, Atsushi Fukushima, Jesper Harholt, Yoshinori Fujimoto, Naoyuki Umemoto, Kazuki Saito
A large part of chemodiversity of plant triterpenes is due to the modification of their side chains. Reduction or isomerization of double bonds in the side chains is often an important step for the diversification of triterpenes, although the enzymes involved are not fully understood. Withanolides are a large group of structurally diverse C28 steroidal lactones derived from 24-methylenecholesterol. These compounds are found in the Indian medicinal plant Withania somnifera , also known as ashwagandha, and other members of the Solanaceae...
August 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074623/effect-of-gum-arabic-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-and-sodium-caseinate-as-encapsulating-agent-on-the-oxidative-stability-and-bioactive-compounds-of-spray-dried-kenaf-seed-oil
#9
Sook Chin Chew, Chin Ping Tan, Kar Lin Nyam
Kenaf seed oil is prone to undergo oxidation due to its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, thus microencapsulation stands as an alternative to protect kenaf seed oil from the adverse environment. This study primarily aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil (MRKSO) by the use of gum arabic, β-cyclodextrin, and sodium caseinate as the wall materials by spray drying. Bulk refined kenaf seed oil (BRKSO) and MRKSO were kept at 65 °C for 24 days to evaluate its oxidative stability, changes of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents, phytosterol content, and fatty acid profile...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073539/overexpression-of-cytochrome-p450-125-in-mycobacterium-a-rational-strategy-in-the-promotion-of-phytosterol-biotransformation
#10
Liqiu Su, Yanbing Shen, Menglei Xia, Zhihua Shang, Shuangping Xu, Xingjuan An, Min Wang
Androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione (AD) and androst-1, 4-diene-3, 17-dione (ADD) are generally produced by the biotransformation of phytosterols in Mycobacterium. The AD (D) production increases when the strain has high NAD+ /NADH ratio. To enhance the AD (D) production in Mycobacterium neoaurum TCCC 11978 (MNR M3), a rational strategy was developed through overexpression of a gene involved in the phytosterol degradation pathway; NAD+ was generated as well. Proteomic analysis of MNR cultured with and without phytosterols showed that the steroid C27-monooxygenase (Cyp125-3), which performs sequential oxidations of the sterol side chain at the C27 position and has the oxidative cofactor of NAD+ generated, played an important role in the phytosterol biotransformation process of MNR M3...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065426/effects-of-heat-pretreatment-of-wet-milled-corn-germ-on-the-physicochemical-properties-of-oil
#11
Liyou Zheng, Jun Jin, Jianhua Huang, Yue Wang, Sameh A Korma, Xingguo Wang, Qingzhe Jin
Corn germ oil is removed from the milled germ using a conditioning (heating) process, followed by mechanical expelling and/or hexane extraction. In this study, the effect of pretreatment by oven roasting (OR) and microwave (MW) radiation on wet-milled corn germ was investigated. Three OR temperatures (125, 150, and 175 °C) were used with 60 min exposure, and MW pretreatments were established by combining two powers (440 and 800 W) and three pretreatment times (4, 6, and 8 min). The levels of red value, 1,3-diacylglycerol, total diacylglycerol, free fatty acid, and oleic acid increased substantially, while those of triacylglycerol (TAG), linoleic, and linolenic acid decreased significantly following OR...
August 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055776/stigmasterol-activates-cdc42-arp2-and-erk1-2-creb-pathways-to-enrich-glutamatergic-synapses-in-cultures-of-brain-neurons
#12
Md Nazmul Haque, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Il Soo Moon
The naturally occurring phytosterol stigmasterol (ST) ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment and promotes neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the hypothesis that ST promotes spinogenesis and the formation of glutamatergic synapses and thus improves memory in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Immunoblots showed that ST activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) and cAMP response element binding protein (Creb), and upregulated actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42), central components in actin organization and spine head development...
August 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044954/functional-importance-for-developmental-regulation-of-sterol-biosynthesis-in-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#13
Wenxu Zhou, Andrew G S Warrilow, Crista D Thomas, Emilio Ramos, Josie E Parker, Claire L Price, Boden H Vanderloop, Paxtyn M Fisher, Michael D Loftis, Diane E Kelly, Steven L Kelly, W David Nes
The sterol metabolome of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) yielded 25 sterols. Substrate screening of cloned AcCYP51 revealed obtusifoliol as the natural substrate which converts to ∆8,14 -sterol (<95%). The combination of [2 H3 -methyl]methionine incubation to intact cultures showing C28 -ergosterol incorporates 2-2 H atoms and C29 -7-dehydroporiferasterol incorporates 5 2 H-atoms, the natural distribution of sterols, CYP51 and previously published sterol methyltransferase (SMT) data indicate separate ∆24(28) - and ∆25(27) -olefin pathways to C28 - and C29 -sterol products from the protosterol cycloartenol...
July 22, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034502/-bougainvillea-genus-a-review-on-phytochemistry-pharmacology-and-toxicology
#14
REVIEW
Rodolfo Abarca-Vargas, Vera L Petricevich
This review discusses the current knowledge of the phytochemistry and in vitro and in vivo evaluations carried out using the extracts and, where appropriate, the main active components isolated from the genus Bougainvillea . Out of 18 species, most phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies focused on four species with different cultivars and one hybrid. Some plants are used for the treatment of various health disorders. Numerous phytochemical investigations of plants in this genus confirm the presence of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, volatile compounds, phenolic compounds, peltogynoids, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenes, carbohydrates, and betalains...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027101/organ-specific-phytochemical-profiling-and-antioxidant-analysis-of-parthenium-hysterophorus-l
#15
Javed Ahmad, Rita Bagheri, Humayra Bashir, M Affan Baig, Asma Al-Huqail, Mohamed M Ibrahim, M Irfan Qureshi
Parthenium hysterophorus is a weed of global concern with high threshold of tolerance against most of biotic and abiotic stresses. Phytochemical profile and in vitro antioxidant analysis may help in understanding its tolerance to stresses. Root, stem, leaf, phyllary, and receptacle (including disc and ray florets) were chemotyped employing GC tof-MS and assessed for antioxidant activity by DPPH, FRAP, HRSA, and TAC assays. Phytochemicals identified were terpenes, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, phytosterols, and compounds of miscellaneous chemical nature...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009697/methodological-aspects-of-phytosterol-measurements-in-biological-samples
#16
Helena Gylling, Piia Simonen, Leena Kaipiainen, Ingmar Wester
Phytosterol measurement has gained a lot of interest during the last two decades after foods and supplements with added 4-desmethyl phytosterols were recognized and used as effective and safe non-pharmacologic hypocholesterolemic agents, and also after the mechanisms of intestinal absorption and hepatic excretion of sterols were unraveled. In addition, the wide use of serum phytosterols as biomarkers of cholesterol absorption has increased the interest in their measurement. In this review the basic methods are discussed without going into details in the practical operations...
July 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007673/lecithin-and-phytosterols-based-mixtures-as-hybrid-structuring-agents-in-different-organic-phases
#17
Paula K Okuro, Antonio A Malfatti-Gasperini, António A Vicente, Rosiane L Cunha
In this study the effect of lecithin (L) addition and solvent quality in a well-established oleogel system formed by β-sitosterol and γ-oryzanol (BG) was investigated. Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and sunflower oil (SFO) were used as triglycerides and hexadecane (HEX) as a model of linear hydrocarbon. Lecithin was proposed due to its natural and versatile properties, showing different functionalities such as emulsifier and co-oleogelator. A study based on hierarchical organization of structured oil was performed applying techniques for bulk, meso and nanoscale...
September 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002719/correction-to-effect-of-a-short-term-dietary-supplementation-with-phytosterols-red-yeast-rice-or-both-on-lipid-pattern-in-moderately-hypercholesterolemic-subjects-a-three-arm-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Martina Rosticci, Angelo Parini, Marina Giovannini, Maddalena Veronesi, Sergio D'Addato, Claudio Borghi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12986-017-0214-2.].
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999249/influence-of-acid-hydrolysis-saponification-and-sample-clean-up-on-the-measurement-of-phytosterols-in-dairy-cattle-feed-using-gc-ms-and-gc-with-flame-ionization-detection
#19
Samantha Duong, Norbert Strobel, Saman Buddhadasa, Katherine Stockham, Martin J Auldist, William J Wales, Peter J Moate, John D Orbell, Marlene J Cran
The fortification of processed foods including dairy products is increasingly commonplace with phytosterols among many compounds used to improve the nutritional value of food products. It is also increasingly common practice for some dairy cattle feeds to be fortified for their potential to increase phytosterol levels in milk. In this study, a combined, streamlined protocol using acid hydrolysis, saponification and sample clean-up was developed to enable the rapid and reliable measurement of phytosterols. The method was developed with focus on streamlining the overall technique to make it suitable for commercial laboratories, to reduce labor and consumable costs, while maintaining accuracy...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984647/the-impact-of-phytosterols-on-the-healthy-and-diseased-brain
#20
Tess Dierckx, Jeroen F J Bogie, Jerome A Hendriks
The central nervous system (CNS) is the most cholesterol-rich organ in mammals. Cholesterol homeostasis is essential for proper brain functioning and dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism can lead to neurological problems. Multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are examples of neurological diseases that are characterized by a disturbed cholesterol metabolism. Phytosterols (PS) are plant-derived components that structurally and functionally resemble cholesterol. PS are known for their cholesterol-lowering properties...
July 5, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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