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Sarah A Willett, Casimir C Akoh
The purpose of this research was to produce organogels using two different organogelator blends and two different oil substrates and compare their physicochemical properties. A medium-long-medium (MLM)-type structured lipid (SL) containing 37.44 mol% MLM-type triacylglycerols (TAG) was produced by enzymatic modification of menhaden oil with ethyl caprate. Menhaden oil and SL were used as oil substrates to form organogels. One organogel was formed using a phytosterol blend of β-sitosterol and γ-oryzanol (molar ratios of 2 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 2 at 4, 6, and 8% (w/w) in oil), and another was formed with a blend of sucrose stearate (HLB value: 2) and ascorbyl palmitate (SSAP) (molar ratios of 3 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 3 at 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) in oil)...
December 5, 2018: Food & Function
Simona Terzo, Gaetano Felice Caldara, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Roberto Puleio, Giovanni Cassata, Flavia Mulè, Antonella Amato
Pistachios contain beneficial substances such as unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, and polyphenols. In the present study, we investigated if pistachio consumption is able to prevent or to revert hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and adipose tissue morphological alterations caused by high fat diet (HFD) in the mouse. Moreover, the impact of pistachio intake on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ( PPAR-γ ), fatty acid transport proteins ( FAT-P ), fatty acid synthase ( FAS ), stearoyl-CoA desaturase ( SCD1 ), and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c ( SREBP-1c ) in liver and adipose tissue was also analyzed...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Elizabeth A Babawale, Peter Jh Jones, Kelly E Mercer, Haixia Lin, Laxmi Yeruva, Fabiana Bar Yoseph, Shane M Rutherfurd
Formula-fed infants present higher cholesterol synthesis rates and lower circulating cholesterol during the postnatal feeding period compared to breast-fed infants, though the mechanisms underlying this phenotype are not fully understood. Typical infant formulas contain vegetable-based fats, inherently including phytosterols (PS), which are structurally similar to cholesterol and may interfere with their absorption. A seven-day old piglets model was used to test the inhibitory effects of PS on cholesterol absorption during postnatal feeding...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Agnieszka Kicel, Joanna Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Aleksandra Owczarek, Magdalena Rutkowska, Anna Wajs-Bonikowska, Sebastian Granica, Pawel Nowak, Monika A Olszewska
The work presents the results of an investigation into the molecular background of the activity of Cotoneaster fruits, providing a detailed description of their phytochemical composition and some of the mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. GS-FID-MS and UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 methods were applied to identify the potentially health-beneficial constituents of lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, leading to the identification of fourteen unsaturated fatty acids (with dominant linoleic acid, 375...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Maria Oczkowicz, Tomasz Szmatoła, Małgorzata Świątkiewicz, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Artur Gurgul, Tomasz Ząbek
BACKGROUND: Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (cDDGS) are a byproduct of biofuel and alcohol production. cDDGS have been used in pig feed for many years, because they are readily available and rich in protein, fiber, unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols. However, feed mixtures too high in cDDGS result in the worsening of backfat quality. We performed RNA-sequencing analysis of backfat from crossbred pigs fed different diets. The diets were isoenergetic but contained different amounts of cDDGS and various sources of fats...
December 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
Noppadol Kietsiriroje, Krisana Kanjanahirun, Jirateep Kwankaew, Ratikorn Ponrak, Supamai Soonthornpun
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the effect of phytosterols and inulin on plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 levels among healthy men after consuming phytosterols and inulin-enriched soymilk for 8 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 26 men at least 20 years old were randomly assigned into the 2 g/day of phytosterols and 10 g/day of inulin-enriched soymilk (intervention) group or into the standard soymilk (control) group. In the intervention group, the area under the curve of Glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion increased significantly, compared to its baseline (p = 0...
November 29, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Teodora Costea, Ariana Hudiță, Oana-Alina Ciolac, Bianca Gălățeanu, Octav Ginghină, Marieta Costache, Constanța Ganea, Maria-Magdalena Mocanu
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death, and the third most diagnosed type of cancer, worldwide. It is most common amongst men and women over 50 years old. Risk factors include smoking, alcohol, diet, physical inactivity, genetics, alterations in gut microbiota, and associated pathologies (diabetes, obesity, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases). This review will discuss, in detail, the chemopreventive properties of some dietary compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, iridoids, nitrogen compounds, organosulfur compounds, phytosterols, essential oil compounds, polyunsaturated fatty acids and dietary fiber) against colorectal cancer...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chengke Zhao, Yuan Jia, Fachuang Lu
Chinese Angelica is a significant medical plant due to the various therapeutic constituents in its root; whereas the aerial part is considered worthless and often discarded as agricultural waste. In this work, phytochemicals from the stem were first systematically analyzed by means of GC⁻MS after derivatization and HPLC⁻MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Phthalides, ferulic acid, and coniferyl ferulate were detected in the stem; although their content is relatively low in comparison with the root...
November 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xue Li, Kongshuang Zhao
The aggregation behaviors of the bio-friendly nonionic phytosterol ethoxylated (BPS-n) surfactants, in water were investigated by dielectric spectroscopy over a frequency range from 40 Hz to 110 MHz. Only the BPS-5 solution system observes dielectric relaxation and we judge this is because due to the difference in the chain length of BPS-n surfactants. Then we further analyze the BPS-5 solution system. Interestingly, we found that BPS-5 lamellar aggregations exist two phases before and after 6%-8% BPS-5 concentration by using the dielectric parameters and the phase parameters obtained by fitting dielectric spectrum and the theoretical model respectively...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Hanine Almubayedh, Rizwan Ahmad
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Debregeasia salicifolia Rendle (DS) is used traditionally for the treatment of several diseases including; urinary system diseases, bone fractures, boils, diarrhea accompanied with blood, carbuncles, pimples, dermatitis, skin rash, eczema, and tumors. Additionally, it is used as an antiseptic and antifungal agent. AIM OF THE STUDY: To document up to date information regarding D. salicifolia and link the traditional uses with its reported pharmacological evidences...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Longkai Shi, Li Zheng, Chenwei Zhao, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
In the present study, profiles of fatty acid, sn-2 fatty acid, triglyceride, phytochemical (including tocopherol/tocotrienol, phytosterol, flavonoid, carotenoid and polyphenol) and antioxidant capacity of extracts from the whole berry, pulp and seed of Hippophae¨ rhamnoides ssp. yunnanensis were investigated and compared. The distributions of fatty acid, sn-2 fatty acid and triglyceride that was identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) showed obvious differences among the different parts of the ssp...
November 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
Moses Andima, Gabriella Costabile, Lorenz Isert, Albert J Ndakala, Solomon Derese, Olivia M Merkel
β-Sitosterol (β-Sit) is a dietary phytosterol with demonstrated anticancer activity against a panel of cancers, but its poor solubility in water limits its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) were used to encapsulate β-Sit into nanoparticles with the aim of enhancing its in vitro anticancer activity. β-Sitosterol-loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles (β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA) were prepared by using a simple emulsion-solvent evaporation technique...
November 15, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Muhammad Ayaz, Abdul Sadiq, Abdul Wadood, Muhammad Junaid, Farhat Ullah, Nadir Zaman Khan
Based on our previous studies on cytotoxic potentials of Polygonum hydropiper L, two steroidal compounds beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol were isolated from the most active fraction and were subjected to cell lines cytotoxicity. Isolated compounds were tested against HeLa, MCF-7 and NIH/3T3 cell lines following MTT assay. Furthermore, the compounds were also docked against tyrosine kinase enzyme to predict the binding mode of phytosterols in the active sites of the enzyme. Beta-sitosterol exhibited considerable cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3, HeLa and MCF-7 cell with 67...
November 13, 2018: Steroids
Md Nazmul Haque, Il Soo Moon
Stigmasterol (ST) is a multifunctional phytosterol and is found in diverse food. In our previous transcriptomics study, we found ST upregulated migration-related genes. In the present study, we carried out in vitro neurosphere migration assays to investigate the effects of ST on neuronal migration. For this purpose, neurospheres were produced by culturing rat (Sprague-Dawley) E14 cortical neurons. The addition of ST (75 μM) to culture medium increased not only the numbers of migratory neurons by 15% but the distance of movement up to 120 μm from the centers of neurospheres as compared to vehicle cultures...
November 15, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Xin Guo, Tao Zhang, Longkai Shi, Mengyue Gong, Jun Jin, Yu Zhang, Ruijie Liu, Ming Chang, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
The prevalence of obesity has received global attention in recent years, and lipid consumption has been considered as one of the direct reasons for obesity and related diseases. However, increasing evidence has indicated that edible vegetable oils could exert non-negligible physiological benefits in the daily diet, including suppression of appetite, lowering of blood lipids, prevention of adipocyte synthesis, and reduction of inflammatory response. Bioactive phytochemicals in lipids and oils, such as tocopherol, phenolic compounds, and phytosterol, play an important role in these effects according to in vitro and in vivo studies...
November 14, 2018: Food & Function
Sahar Y Al-Okbi, Doha A Mohamed, Eman E Abd-Elhady, Ahmed M S Hussein, Enas S K Al-Siedy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is accused as inducer of both cardiovascular and chronic liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of combined freeze dried orange juice with its dried pulp supplemented with methionine, as functional food, in comparison to orange bioactive constituents, as parallel formula, in NAFLD rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proximate composition, dietary fibers, minerals, total phenolics, fatty acids and phytosterols were determined in the orange functional food...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Serhat Keser, Fatma Keser, Omer Kaygili, Suat Tekin, Ersin Demir, Ismail Turkoglu, Semra Turkoglu, Akif Evren Parlak, Okkes Yilmaz, Mustafa Karatepe, Suleyman Sandal, Sevda Kirbag
Hypericum scabrum L. has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases just as the other Hypericum species. In the present study, the antiradical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of water and ethanol extracts of H. scabrum flowers were investigated. Their phytochemical contents and composition were also determined. The water and ethanol extracts are better scavenged ABTS (97.89 and 98.99%) and OH radicals (96.36 and 97.33%); the water extract is better scavenged DPPH radicals (91...
November 10, 2018: Natural Product Research
Jing-Jen Lin, Yeuk-Chuen Liu, Chun-Ju Chang, Min-Hsiung Pan, Mong-Fong Lee, Bonnie Sun Pan
Freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea) have long been used as a folk remedy in Chinese tradition. Their hot-water extract has been commercialized as a functional drink for liver protection. The objective of this study was to develop a product of the residual clam meat (FCR) and assess its functional compounds. The ethanol extract of FCR, designated FCRE, was identified to comprise phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and carotenoids. FCRE significantly reduced lipid accumulation and cell death in HepG2 cells via decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity and increased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), indicative of suppressed lipogenesis and increased β-oxidation of fatty acids...
November 9, 2018: Food & Function
Nóra Gampe, András Darcsi, Andrea Nagyné Nedves, Imre Boldizsár, László Kursinszki, Szabolcs Béni
Ononis arvensis L. can be found overall in Europe and is used to treat infections of the urinary tract and skin diseases in ethnopharmacology. Flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, oxycoumarin scopoletin and scopolin, phytosterols, lectins and some selected isoflavonoids were identified in O. arvensis till date; however, there is a lack of the detailed investigation of the isoflavonoid profile of the plant. With the application of high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, the fragmentation patterns of isoflavonoid derivatives found in O...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Debananda Gogoi, Anirban Pal, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay, Subrata Paul, Ramesh C Deka, Ashis K Mukherjee
Inhibitors of thrombin, a key enzyme in the blood coagulation cascade, are of great interest because of their selective specificity and effectiveness in anticoagulation therapy against cardiovascular disorders. The natural soybean phytosterol, β-sitosterol (BSS) demonstrated anticoagulant activity by dose-dependent inhibition of thrombin in an uncompetitive manner with a Ki value of 0.267 μM as well as by partial inhibition of thrombin-catalyzed platelet aggregation with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) value of 10...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
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