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Maxime Janin, Manel Esteller
Mutations to the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase in cancer cells leads to an accumulation of the oncometabolite fumarate. Sciacovelli et al. (2016) demonstrate an epigenetically dependent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition mediated by modulation of the miR-200 cluster and TET demethylation in response to fumarate accumulation.
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Gaurav Verma, Suyash Mohan, MacLean P Nasrallah, Steven Brem, John Y K Lee, Sanjeev Chawla, Sumei Wang, Rajakumar Nagarajan, M Albert Thomas, Harish Poptani
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme are present in a majority of lower-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. This mis-sense mutation results in the neomorphic reduction of isocitrate dehydrogenase resulting in an accumulation of the "oncometabolite" 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Detection of 2HG can thus serve as a surrogate biomarker for these mutations, with significant translational implications including improved prognostication. Two dimensional localized correlated spectroscopy (2D L-COSY) at 7T is a highly-sensitive non-invasive technique for assessing brain metabolism...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Zbynek Heger, Hana Polanska, Miguel Angel Merlos Rodrigo, Roman Guran, Pavel Kulich, Pavel Kopel, Michal Masarik, Tomas Eckschlager, Marie Stiborova, Rene Kizek, Vojtech Adam
Herein, we describe the preparation of liposomes with folate-targeting properties for the encapsulation of anti-sarcosine antibodies (antisarAbs@LIP) and sarcosine (sar@LIP). The competitive inhibitory effects of exogenously added folic acid supported the role of folate targeting in liposome internalization. We examined the effects of repeated administration on mice PC-3 xenografts. Sar@LIP treatment significantly increased tumor volume and weight compared to controls treated with empty liposomes. Moreover, antisarAbs@LIP administration exhibited a mild antitumor effect...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mélissa Carbonneau, Laurence M Gagné, Marie-Eve Lalonde, Marie-Anne Germain, Alena Motorina, Marie-Christine Guiot, Blandine Secco, Emma E Vincent, Anthony Tumber, Laura Hulea, Jonathan Bergeman, Udo Oppermann, Russell G Jones, Mathieu Laplante, Ivan Topisirovic, Kevin Petrecca, Marc-Étienne Huot, Frédérick A Mallette
The identification of cancer-associated mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) highlights the prevailing notion that aberrant metabolic function can contribute to carcinogenesis. IDH1/2 normally catalyse the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate (αKG). In gliomas and acute myeloid leukaemias, IDH1/2 mutations confer gain-of-function leading to production of the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from αKG. Here we show that generation of 2HG by mutated IDH1/2 leads to the activation of mTOR by inhibiting KDM4A, an αKG-dependent enzyme of the Jumonji family of lysine demethylases...
2016: Nature Communications
Johanna Mondesir, Christophe Willekens, Mehdi Touat, Stéphane de Botton
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are key metabolic enzymes that convert isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. IDH1/2 mutations define distinct subsets of cancers, including low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas, chondrosarcomas, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and hematologic malignancies. Somatic point mutations in IDH1/2 confer a gain-of-function in cancer cells, resulting in the accumulation and secretion in vast excess of an oncometabolite, the D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Overproduction of D-2HG interferes with cellular metabolism and epigenetic regulation, contributing to oncogenesis...
2016: Journal of Blood Medicine
Anja Karlstaedt, Xiaotian Zhang, Heidi Vitrac, Romain Harmancey, Hernan Vasquez, Jing Han Wang, Margaret A Goodell, Heinrich Taegtmeyer
Hematologic malignancies are frequently associated with cardiac pathologies. Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) occur in a subset of acute myeloid leukemia patients, causing metabolic and epigenetic derangements. We have now discovered that altered metabolism in leukemic cells has a profound effect on cardiac metabolism. Combining mathematical modeling and in vivo as well as ex vivo studies, we found that increased amounts of the oncometabolite d-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2-HG), produced by IDH2 mutant leukemic cells, cause contractile dysfunction in the heart...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marco Sciacovelli, Emanuel Gonçalves, Timothy Isaac Johnson, Vincent Roberto Zecchini, Ana Sofia Henriques da Costa, Edoardo Gaude, Alizee Vercauteren Drubbel, Sebastian Julian Theobald, Sandra Riekje Abbo, Maxine Gia Binh Tran, Vinothini Rajeeve, Simone Cardaci, Sarah Foster, Haiyang Yun, Pedro Cutillas, Anne Warren, Vincent Gnanapragasam, Eyal Gottlieb, Kristian Franze, Brian Huntly, Eamonn Richard Maher, Patrick Henry Maxwell, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, Christian Frezza
Mutations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase cause hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer. Fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cancers are highly aggressive and metastasize even when small, leading to a very poor clinical outcome. Fumarate, a small molecule metabolite that accumulates in fumarate hydratase-deficient cells, plays a key role in cell transformation, making it a bona fide oncometabolite. Fumarate has been shown to inhibit α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that are involved in DNA and histone demethylation...
August 31, 2016: Nature
Jing-Yi Chen, You-Syuan Lai, Hui-Jen Tsai, Cheng-Chin Kuo, B Linju Yen, Su-Peng Yeh, H Sunny Sun, Wen-Chun Hung
Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells produce the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) to induce epigenetic alteration and block hematopoietic differentiation. However, the effect of R-2HG released by IDH-mutated AML cells on the bone marrow microenvironment is unclear. Here, we report that R-2HG induces IκB kinase-independent activation of NF-κB in bone marrow stromal cells. R-2HG acts via a reactive oxygen species/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway to phosphorylate NF-κB on the Thr254 residue...
2016: Scientific Reports
Xing Chen, Hongmei Wang, Weibing Yu, Fen Chen, Guiyun Wang, Jiajia Shi, Chunying Zhou
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), one member of the IDH family can convert isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) via oxidative decarboxylation. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations have been identified in multiple tumor types and the mutations confer neomorphic activity in the mutant protein, resulting in the conversion of α-KG to the oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). The subsequent accumulation of 2-HG results in epigenetic dysregulation via inhibition of α-KG-dependent histone and DNA demethylase. And the glutamate levels are reduced in IDH mutant cells compared to wild-type...
August 27, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Jan Budczies, Carsten Denkert
Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics have been developed into mature technologies that can be utilized to analyze hundreds of biological samples in a high-throughput manner. Over the past few years, both technologies were utilized to analyze large cohorts of fresh frozen breast cancer tissues. Metabolite biomarkers were shown to separate breast cancer tissues from normal breast tissues with high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the metabolome differed between hormone receptor positive (HR+) and hormone receptor negative (HR-) breast cancer, but was unchanged in HER2+ tumors compared to HER2- tumors...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Sergiy M Nadtochiy, Xenia Schafer, Dragony Fu, Keith Nehrke, Joshua Munger, Paul S Brookes
2-Hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is an important epigenetic regulator, with potential roles in cancer and stem cell biology. The d-(R)-enantiomer (d-2-HG) is an oncometabolite generated from α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase, whereas l-(S)-2-HG is generated by lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in response to hypoxia. Because acidic pH is a common feature of hypoxia, as well as tumor and stem cell microenvironments, we hypothesized that pH may regulate cellular 2-HG levels. Herein we report that cytosolic acidification under normoxia moderately elevated 2-HG in cells, and boosting endogenous substrate α-KG levels further stimulated this elevation...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sanne A M van Lith, Anna C Navis, Krissie Lenting, Kiek Verrijp, Jan T G Schepens, Wiljan J A J Hendriks, Nil A Schubert, Hanka Venselaar, Ron A Wevers, Arno van Rooij, Pieter Wesseling, Remco J Molenaar, Cornelis J F van Noorden, Stefan Pusch, Bastiaan Tops, William P J Leenders
The majority of low-grade and secondary high-grade gliomas carry heterozygous hotspot mutations in cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or the mitochondrial variant IDH2. These mutations mostly involve Arg132 in IDH1, and Arg172 or Arg140 in IDH2. Whereas IDHs convert isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) with simultaneous reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH, these IDH mutants reduce α-KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) while oxidizing NADPH. D-2-HG is a proposed oncometabolite, acting via competitive inhibition of α-KG-dependent enzymes that are involved in metabolism and epigenetic regulation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Francine E Garrett-Bakelman, Ari M Melnick
Aberrant epigenomic programming is a hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia. This is partially due to somatic mutations that perturb cytosine methylation, histone post-translational modifications and transcription factors. Remarkably, mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes perturb the epigenome through all three of these mechanisms. Mutant IDH enzymes produce high levels of the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate that competitively inhibits dioxygenase enzymes that modify methylcytosine to hydroxymethylcytosine and histone tail methylation...
July 2016: Epigenomics
Tor-Christian Aase Johannessen, Joydeep Mukherjee, Pavithra Viswanath, Shigeo Ohba, Sabrina M Ronen, Rolf Bjerkvig, Russell O Pieper
: Missense mutations in the active site of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) biologically and diagnostically distinguish low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas from primary glioblastomas. IDH1 mutations lead to the formation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) from the reduction of alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG), which in turn facilitates tumorigenesis by modifying DNA and histone methylation as well blocking differentiation processes. While mutant IDH1 expression is thought to drive the gliomagenesis process, the extent to which it remains a viable therapeutic target remains unknown...
July 18, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Jueun Lee, Hyun Jung Kee, Soonki Min, Ki Cheong Park, Sunho Park, Tae Hyun Hwang, Do Hyun Ryu, Geum-Sook Hwang, Jae-Ho Cheong
Abnormal tumor cell metabolism is a consequence of alterations in signaling pathways that provide critical selective advantage to cancer cells. However, a systematic characterization of the metabolic and signaling pathways altered in cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is currently lacking. Using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, we profiled the whole-cell metabolites of a pair of parental (P-231) and stem-like cancer cells (S-231), and then integrated with whole transcriptome profiles. We identified elevated NAAD+ in S-231 along with a coordinated increased expression of genes in Wnt/calcium signaling pathway, reflecting the correlation between metabolic reprogramming and altered signaling pathways...
July 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Takeo Fujii, Muhammad Rizwan Khawaja, Courtney D DiNardo, Johnique T Atkins, Filip Janku
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an essential enzyme for cellular respiration in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Recurrent mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 are prevalent in several cancers including glioma, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cholangiocarcinoma and chondrosarcoma. The mutated IDH1 and IDH2 proteins have a gain-of-function, neomorphic activity, catalyzing the reduction of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) by NADPH. Cancer-associated IDH mutations block normal cellular differentiation and promote tumorigenesis via the abnormal production of the oncometabolite 2-HG...
May 2016: Discovery Medicine
Stéphane J H Ricoult, Christian C Dibble, John M Asara, Brendan D Manning
Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) is a major transcriptional regulator of the enzymes underlying de novo lipid synthesis. However, little is known about the SREBP-mediated control of processes that indirectly support lipogenesis, for instance, by supplying reducing power in the form of NAPDH or directing carbon flux into lipid precursors. Here, we characterize isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) as a transcriptional target of SREBP across a spectrum of cancer cell lines and human cancers. IDH1 promotes the synthesis of lipids specifically from glutamine-derived carbons...
September 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Suvajit Sen, Brain Kawahara, Sushil K Mahata, Rebecca Tsai, Alexander Yoon, Lin Hwang, Kayla Hu-Moore, Carissa Villanueva, Abdulqadir Vajihuddin, Pooja Parameshwar, Michelle You, Divya Lakshmi Bhaskar, Omar Gomez, Kym F Faull, Robin Farias-Eisner, Gautam Chaudhuri
In this study, we have identified cystathionine (CTH), a sulfur containing metabolite, to be selectively enriched in human breast cancer (HBC) tissues (∼50-100 pmoles/mg protein) compared with undetectable levels in normal breast tissues. The accumulation of CTH, specifically in HBC, was attributed to the overexpression of cystathionine beta synthase (CBS), its synthesizing enzyme, and the undetectable levels of its downstream metabolizing enzyme, cystathionine gamma lyase (CGL). Interestingly both CBS and CGL could not be detected in normal breast tissues...
August 15, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Hao-Yuan Wang, Kai Tang, Ting-Yu Liang, Wei-Zhong Zhang, Ji-Ye Li, Wen Wang, Hui-Min Hu, Ming-Yang Li, Hui-Qing Wang, Xiao-Zheng He, Zhi-Yuan Zhu, Yan-Wei Liu, Shi-Zhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) are frequent in low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (sGBM). Because they yield the same oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate, they are often treated as equivalent and pooled. The objective of this study was to provide insight into the differences between IDH1 and IDH2 mutant gliomas. METHODS: To investigate the different clinical and molecular characterization between IDH1 mutant and IDH2 mutant gliomas, we studied 811 patients with IDH1 mutations, IDH2 mutations and IDH1/2 wild-type...
2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
K C Birendra, Courtney D DiNardo
BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations block normal cellular differentiation via production of the oncometabolite, R-2-hydroxyglutarate. In patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving targeted mutant IDH inhibitor therapy, neutrophil recovery within the setting of clinical differentiation syndrome (DS) has been anecdotally described. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe 3 patients who developed clinically apparent DS during monotherapy with the mutant IDH1 inhibitor, AG-120, for relapsed/refractory AML...
August 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
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