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Oncometabolite

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824159/oncometabolite-d-2-hydroxyglurate-directly-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-is-associated-with-distant-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer
#1
Hugh Colvin, Naohiro Nishida, Masamitsu Konno, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Hidekazu Takahashi, Junichi Nishimura, Taishi Hata, Koichi Kawamoto, Ayumu Asai, Kenta Tsunekuni, Jun Koseki, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Taroh Satoh, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Hideshi Ishii
Deranged metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, playing a significant role in driving the disease process. One such example is the induction of carcinogenesis by the oncometabolite D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), which is produced by the mutated enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) occurring in subsets of leukaemias and brain tumours. The oncogenic property of D-2HG appears to stem from its ability to interfere with the activities of α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, including the Jumonji family histone demethylases...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807829/experimental-and-study-design-considerations-for-uncovering-oncometabolites
#2
Majda Haznadar, Ewy A Mathé
Metabolomics as a field has gained attention due to its potential for biomarker discovery, namely because it directly reflects disease phenotype and is the downstream effect of posttranslational modifications. The field provides a "top-down," integrated view of biochemistry in complex organisms, as opposed to the traditional "bottom-up" approach that aims to analyze networks of interactions between genes, proteins and metabolites. It also allows for the detection of thousands of endogenous metabolites in various clinical biospecimens in a high-throughput manner, including tissue and biofluids such as blood and urine...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806325/inhibiting-glutaminase-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-metabolic-dependency-of-selected-aml-subtypes
#3
Polina Matre, Juliana Velez, Rodrigo Jacamo, Yuan Qi, Xiaoping Su, Tianyu Cai, Steven M Chan, Alessia Lodi, Shannon R Sweeney, Helen Ma, Richard Eric Davis, Natalia Baran, Torsten Haferlach, Xiaohua Su, Elsa Renee Flores, Doriann Gonzalez, Sergej Konoplev, Ismael Samudio, Courtney DiNardo, Ravi Majeti, Aaron D Schimmer, Weiqun Li, Taotao Wang, Stefano Tiziani, Marina Konopleva
Metabolic reprogramming has been described as a hallmark of transformed cancer cells. In this study, we examined the role of the glutamine (Gln) utilization pathway in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and primary AML samples. Our results indicate that a subset of AML cell lines is sensitive to Gln deprivation. Glutaminase (GLS) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Gln to glutamate. One of the two GLS isoenzymes, GLS1 is highly expressed in cancer and encodes two different isoforms: kidney (KGA) and glutaminase C (GAC)...
October 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792050/on-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-tumor-biology
#4
Maria Shoshan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide examples of mitochondria-specific metabolic events that influence tumor cell biology, and of metabolism-related mitochondrial biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer cell mitochondria are rewired to optimally serve the cancer cell under various conditions of cellular stress. The nonexhaustive list of mitochondrial alterations that support cancer cell proliferation, survival, and/or progression includes upregulation of oxidative metabolism and use of alternative substrates, oncometabolites, increased superoxide production, mutated mitochondrial DNA, and altered mitochondrial morphology and dynamics...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781195/intracerebral-distribution-of-the-oncometabolite-d-2-hydroxyglutarate-in-mice-bearing-mutant-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-brain-tumors-implications-for-tumorigenesis
#5
Amanda J Pickard, Albert S W Sohn, Thomas F Bartenstein, Shan He, Yi Zhang, James M Gallo
The prevalence of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) brain tumors has generated significant efforts to understand the role of the mutated enzyme product d-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG), an oncometabolite, in tumorigenesis, as well as means to eliminate it. Glymphatic clearance was proposed as a pathway that could be manipulated to accelerate D2HG clearance and dictated the study design that consisted of two cohorts of mice bearing U87/mutant IDH1 intracerebral tumors that underwent two microdialysis - providing D2HG interstitial fluid concentrations - sampling periods of awake and asleep (activate glymphatic clearance) in a crossover manner...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732835/oncometabolite-accumulation-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-the-turn-of-fumarate
#6
Maxime Janin, Manel Esteller
Mutations to the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase in cancer cells leads to an accumulation of the oncometabolite fumarate. Sciacovelli et al. (2016) demonstrate an epigenetically dependent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition mediated by modulation of the miR-200 cluster and TET demethylation in response to fumarate accumulation.
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659543/non-invasive-detection-of-2-hydroxyglutarate-in-idh-mutated-gliomas-using-two-dimensional-localized-correlation-spectroscopy-2d-l-cosy-at-7-tesla
#7
Gaurav Verma, Suyash Mohan, MacLean P Nasrallah, Steven Brem, John Y K Lee, Sanjeev Chawla, Sumei Wang, Rajakumar Nagarajan, M Albert Thomas, Harish Poptani
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme are present in a majority of lower-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. This mis-sense mutation results in the neomorphic reduction of isocitrate dehydrogenase resulting in an accumulation of the "oncometabolite" 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Detection of 2HG can thus serve as a surrogate biomarker for these mutations, with significant translational implications including improved prognostication. Two dimensional localized correlated spectroscopy (2D L-COSY) at 7T is a highly-sensitive non-invasive technique for assessing brain metabolism...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646588/prostate-tumor-attenuation-in-the-nu-nu-murine-model-due-to-anti-sarcosine-antibodies-in-folate-targeted-liposomes
#8
Zbynek Heger, Hana Polanska, Miguel Angel Merlos Rodrigo, Roman Guran, Pavel Kulich, Pavel Kopel, Michal Masarik, Tomas Eckschlager, Marie Stiborova, Rene Kizek, Vojtech Adam
Herein, we describe the preparation of liposomes with folate-targeting properties for the encapsulation of anti-sarcosine antibodies (antisarAbs@LIP) and sarcosine (sar@LIP). The competitive inhibitory effects of exogenously added folic acid supported the role of folate targeting in liposome internalization. We examined the effects of repeated administration on mice PC-3 xenografts. Sar@LIP treatment significantly increased tumor volume and weight compared to controls treated with empty liposomes. Moreover, antisarAbs@LIP administration exhibited a mild antitumor effect...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624942/the-oncometabolite-2-hydroxyglutarate-activates-the-mtor-signalling-pathway
#9
Mélissa Carbonneau, Laurence M Gagné, Marie-Eve Lalonde, Marie-Anne Germain, Alena Motorina, Marie-Christine Guiot, Blandine Secco, Emma E Vincent, Anthony Tumber, Laura Hulea, Jonathan Bergeman, Udo Oppermann, Russell G Jones, Mathieu Laplante, Ivan Topisirovic, Kevin Petrecca, Marc-Étienne Huot, Frédérick A Mallette
The identification of cancer-associated mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) highlights the prevailing notion that aberrant metabolic function can contribute to carcinogenesis. IDH1/2 normally catalyse the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate (αKG). In gliomas and acute myeloid leukaemias, IDH1/2 mutations confer gain-of-function leading to production of the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from αKG. Here we show that generation of 2HG by mutated IDH1/2 leads to the activation of mTOR by inhibiting KDM4A, an αKG-dependent enzyme of the Jumonji family of lysine demethylases...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621679/idh1-and-idh2-mutations-as-novel-therapeutic-targets-current-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Johanna Mondesir, Christophe Willekens, Mehdi Touat, Stéphane de Botton
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are key metabolic enzymes that convert isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. IDH1/2 mutations define distinct subsets of cancers, including low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas, chondrosarcomas, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and hematologic malignancies. Somatic point mutations in IDH1/2 confer a gain-of-function in cancer cells, resulting in the accumulation and secretion in vast excess of an oncometabolite, the D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Overproduction of D-2HG interferes with cellular metabolism and epigenetic regulation, contributing to oncogenesis...
2016: Journal of Blood Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582470/oncometabolite-d-2-hydroxyglutarate-impairs-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-dehydrogenase-and-contractile-function-in-rodent-heart
#11
Anja Karlstaedt, Xiaotian Zhang, Heidi Vitrac, Romain Harmancey, Hernan Vasquez, Jing Han Wang, Margaret A Goodell, Heinrich Taegtmeyer
Hematologic malignancies are frequently associated with cardiac pathologies. Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) occur in a subset of acute myeloid leukemia patients, causing metabolic and epigenetic derangements. We have now discovered that altered metabolism in leukemic cells has a profound effect on cardiac metabolism. Combining mathematical modeling and in vivo as well as ex vivo studies, we found that increased amounts of the oncometabolite d-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2-HG), produced by IDH2 mutant leukemic cells, cause contractile dysfunction in the heart...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580029/fumarate-is-an-epigenetic-modifier-that-elicits-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#12
Marco Sciacovelli, Emanuel Gonçalves, Timothy Isaac Johnson, Vincent Roberto Zecchini, Ana Sofia Henriques da Costa, Edoardo Gaude, Alizee Vercauteren Drubbel, Sebastian Julian Theobald, Sandra Riekje Abbo, Maxine Gia Binh Tran, Vinothini Rajeeve, Simone Cardaci, Sarah Foster, Haiyang Yun, Pedro Cutillas, Anne Warren, Vincent Gnanapragasam, Eyal Gottlieb, Kristian Franze, Brian Huntly, Eamonn Richard Maher, Patrick Henry Maxwell, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, Christian Frezza
Mutations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase cause hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer. Fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cancers are highly aggressive and metastasize even when small, leading to a very poor clinical outcome. Fumarate, a small molecule metabolite that accumulates in fumarate hydratase-deficient cells, plays a key role in cell transformation, making it a bona fide oncometabolite. Fumarate has been shown to inhibit α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that are involved in DNA and histone demethylation...
August 31, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577048/the-oncometabolite-r-2-hydroxyglutarate-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-tumor-promoting-stromal-niche-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells
#13
Jing-Yi Chen, You-Syuan Lai, Hui-Jen Tsai, Cheng-Chin Kuo, B Linju Yen, Su-Peng Yeh, H Sunny Sun, Wen-Chun Hung
Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells produce the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) to induce epigenetic alteration and block hematopoietic differentiation. However, the effect of R-2HG released by IDH-mutated AML cells on the bone marrow microenvironment is unclear. Here, we report that R-2HG induces IκB kinase-independent activation of NF-κB in bone marrow stromal cells. R-2HG acts via a reactive oxygen species/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway to phosphorylate NF-κB on the Thr254 residue...
August 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568302/idh1-associated-with-neuronal-apoptosis-in-adult-rats-brain-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#14
Xing Chen, Hongmei Wang, Weibing Yu, Fen Chen, Guiyun Wang, Jiajia Shi, Chunying Zhou
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), one member of the IDH family can convert isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) via oxidative decarboxylation. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations have been identified in multiple tumor types and the mutations confer neomorphic activity in the mutant protein, resulting in the conversion of α-KG to the oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). The subsequent accumulation of 2-HG results in epigenetic dysregulation via inhibition of α-KG-dependent histone and DNA demethylase. And the glutamate levels are reduced in IDH mutant cells compared to wild-type...
August 27, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557538/tissue-based-metabolomics-to-analyze-the-breast-cancer-metabolome
#15
Jan Budczies, Carsten Denkert
Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics have been developed into mature technologies that can be utilized to analyze hundreds of biological samples in a high-throughput manner. Over the past few years, both technologies were utilized to analyze large cohorts of fresh frozen breast cancer tissues. Metabolite biomarkers were shown to separate breast cancer tissues from normal breast tissues with high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the metabolome differed between hormone receptor positive (HR+) and hormone receptor negative (HR-) breast cancer, but was unchanged in HER2+ tumors compared to HER2- tumors...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510037/acidic-ph-is-a-metabolic-switch-for-2-hydroxyglutarate-generation-and-signaling
#16
Sergiy M Nadtochiy, Xenia Schafer, Dragony Fu, Keith Nehrke, Joshua Munger, Paul S Brookes
2-Hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is an important epigenetic regulator, with potential roles in cancer and stem cell biology. The d-(R)-enantiomer (d-2-HG) is an oncometabolite generated from α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase, whereas l-(S)-2-HG is generated by lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in response to hypoxia. Because acidic pH is a common feature of hypoxia, as well as tumor and stem cell microenvironments, we hypothesized that pH may regulate cellular 2-HG levels. Herein we report that cytosolic acidification under normoxia moderately elevated 2-HG in cells, and boosting endogenous substrate α-KG levels further stimulated this elevation...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460417/identification-of-a-novel-inactivating-mutation-in-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-1-idh1-r314c-in-a-high-grade-astrocytoma
#17
Sanne A M van Lith, Anna C Navis, Krissie Lenting, Kiek Verrijp, Jan T G Schepens, Wiljan J A J Hendriks, Nil A Schubert, Hanka Venselaar, Ron A Wevers, Arno van Rooij, Pieter Wesseling, Remco J Molenaar, Cornelis J F van Noorden, Stefan Pusch, Bastiaan Tops, William P J Leenders
The majority of low-grade and secondary high-grade gliomas carry heterozygous hotspot mutations in cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or the mitochondrial variant IDH2. These mutations mostly involve Arg132 in IDH1, and Arg172 or Arg140 in IDH2. Whereas IDHs convert isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) with simultaneous reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH, these IDH mutants reduce α-KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) while oxidizing NADPH. D-2-HG is a proposed oncometabolite, acting via competitive inhibition of α-KG-dependent enzymes that are involved in metabolism and epigenetic regulation...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431380/mutant-idh-a-targetable-driver-of-leukemic-phenotypes-linking-metabolism-epigenetics-and-transcriptional-regulation
#18
Francine E Garrett-Bakelman, Ari M Melnick
Aberrant epigenomic programming is a hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia. This is partially due to somatic mutations that perturb cytosine methylation, histone post-translational modifications and transcription factors. Remarkably, mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes perturb the epigenome through all three of these mechanisms. Mutant IDH enzymes produce high levels of the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate that competitively inhibits dioxygenase enzymes that modify methylcytosine to hydroxymethylcytosine and histone tail methylation...
July 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430238/rapid-conversion-of-mutant-idh1-from-driver-to-passenger-in-a-model-of-human-gliomagenesis
#19
Tor-Christian Aase Johannessen, Joydeep Mukherjee, Pavithra Viswanath, Shigeo Ohba, Sabrina M Ronen, Rolf Bjerkvig, Russell O Pieper
: Missense mutations in the active site of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) biologically and diagnostically distinguish low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas from primary glioblastomas. IDH1 mutations lead to the formation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) from the reduction of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), which in turn facilitates tumorigenesis by modifying DNA and histone methylation as well blocking differentiation processes. Although mutant IDH1 expression is thought to drive the gliomagenesis process, the extent to which it remains a viable therapeutic target remains unknown...
October 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391070/integrated-omics-analysis-reveals-wnt-mediated-nad-metabolic-reprogramming-in-cancer-stem-like-cells
#20
Jueun Lee, Hyun Jung Kee, Soonki Min, Ki Cheong Park, Sunho Park, Tae Hyun Hwang, Do Hyun Ryu, Geum-Sook Hwang, Jae-Ho Cheong
Abnormal tumor cell metabolism is a consequence of alterations in signaling pathways that provide critical selective advantage to cancer cells. However, a systematic characterization of the metabolic and signaling pathways altered in cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is currently lacking. Using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, we profiled the whole-cell metabolites of a pair of parental (P-231) and stem-like cancer cells (S-231), and then integrated with whole transcriptome profiles. We identified elevated NAAD+ in S-231 along with a coordinated increased expression of genes in Wnt/calcium signaling pathway, reflecting the correlation between metabolic reprogramming and altered signaling pathways...
July 6, 2016: Oncotarget
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